WFP-FAO co-led Post 2015 Global Thematic Consultation on Hunger, Food Security and Nutrition

19-11-2012 - 10-01-2013

The discussion is now closed.

See below the contributions received or download the proceedings.
Summary of key themes emerged from the discussion is available here

This is YOUR OPPORTUNITY to contribute to this global debate.

As the target date for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaches, a number of processes have been put in place to seek inputs from country, regional and global levels, into the “Post-2015 Development Agenda and Framework”.  For more background information click here.

This is your opportunity to help identify the actions, goals, targets and indicators needed to achieve food and nutrition security, and the eradication of hunger, in a post-2015 world.  Many food security and nutrition policies, strategies and action plans have been written over the past number of  years.  Challenges and opportunities towards achieving food and nutrition security in a sustainable way have been identified, and many countries are making good progress.  Nevertheless, close to 870 million people around the world remain undernourished and do not have access to a healthy diet.  It is time for everyone to take urgent action – in a concerted manner – and to elaborate a new development agenda around lasting concerns of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.

The outcome of this e-consultation, together with the proposed CFS consultation, will feed into the high level experts consultation to be hosted by the Government of Spain in March 2013.

Ultimately, your contributions will feed into the UN General Assembly discussions beginning September 2013 for the elaboration of an agreed post 2015 global development agenda.

E-Consultation: next four weeks

Over the next four weeks, FAO and WFP will facilitate this e-consultation in drawing on the widest possible group of stakeholders and interested parties on how best to address hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition at all levels, and to seek your inputs on the elaboration of a new agenda for action beyond the current MDG framework.

We also invite you to submit papers, findings, or on-going work on the topic of hunger, food and nutrition security.

We seek your inputs on the following three themes:

Theme 1

(i) What do you see as the key lessons learned during the current Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Framework (1990-2015), in particular in relation to the MDGs of relevance to hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition? 

(ii) What do you consider the main challenges and opportunities towards achieving food and nutrition security in the coming years?

Theme 2

What works best?  Drawing on existing knowledge, please tell us how we should go about addressing the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges head on.  Provide us with your own experiences and insights.  For example, how important are questions of improved governance, rights-based approaches, accountability and political commitment in achieving food and nutrition security? 

Furthermore, how could we best draw upon current initiatives, including the Zero Hunger Challenge, launched by the UN Secretary General at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (, and the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition elaborated by the CFS?

Theme 3

For the Post-2015 Global Development Framework to be complete, global (and regional or national) objectives, targets and indicators will be identified towards tackling hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.  A set of objectives has been put forward by the UN Secretary-General under Zero Hunger Challenge (ZHC):

  1. 100% access to adequate food all year round
  2. Zero stunted children less than 2 years old
  3. All food systems are sustainable
  4. 100% increase in smallholder productivity and income
  5. Zero loss or waste of food.

Please provide us with your feedback on the above list of objectives – or provide your own proposals.  Should some objectives be country-specific, or regional, rather than global? Should the objectives be time-bound?


Contribution received:

Mohan Munasinghe MIND, Sri Lanka

See attached article: “MILLENNIUM CONSUMPTION GOALS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY: Applying the Sustainomics Framework”

Amador Gómez Acción Contra el Hambre, Spain

La nutrición como inversión. Mejorar la nutrición debe considerarse como un estímulo y prioridad en el proceso de desarrollo y una estrategia que conduce a la reducción de la pobreza.

La voluntad política empieza a aparecer y se extiende el convencimiento de que proteger el derecho a una nutrición adecuada como una responsabilidad central de los gobiernos y los demás actores.

Por otro lado, la evidencia técnica sobre como prevenir y tratar la desnutrición existe. Es el momento de establecer prioridades en la lucha contra el hambre. La lucha contra la desnutrición infantil debe ser la máxima prioridad de gobiernos y donantes internacionales, como la mejor inversión.


Demostrar los logros. Más demanda de análisis y capacidad diagnóstica

Demostrar los logros se convertirá cada vez más en el centro de todas las organizaciones y actores implicados en la lucha contra el hambre y la seguridad nutricional. Donantes y gobiernos esperan ver una clara demostración de lo que se está logrando en cuanto a progreso e impacto. Se hace necesario mostrar resultados que sigan facilitando la toma de decisiones y la priorización de estrategias.

Es necesario sumar evidencia económica y política a la evidencia técnica contra la desnutrición. Debemos incorporar otro tipo de estudios y diagnósticos, desde enfoques económicos y políticos.


El agua en clave nutricional. Los enfoques y estrategias de agua, saneamiento e higiene son claves en la lucha contra la desnutrición infantil y el fomento de la seguridad alimentaria

-agua que riega: el agua como impulsor de la seguridad alimentaria,

-agua que sana: el agua contra las enfermedades diarreicas,

-agua que nutre: el agua como nutriente.

La integración sistemática de un paquete mínimo "WASH" (water, sanitation andhygiene) en los programas de nutrición y seguridad alimentaria son necesarios pararomper el círculo vicioso diarrea-desnutrición y para desarrollar una agricultura quevaya más allá de la subsistencia. El ordenamiento de los recursos hídricos y eldesarrollo de tecnologías de bajo coste que facilite la irrigación a baja escala son claves para diversificar y aumentar las fuentes de producción de alimentos.


Prestar atención a la desnutrición recurrente

La desnutrición estacional es previsible y evitable, es necesario incorporar enfoqus de proteccion de los mecanismos de adaptación y de la ecnomia de las familias y comunidades expuestas a riesgos recurrentes. Incorporando paquete de intervenciones estacionales que tengan en cuenta la dimensión recurrente de la inseguridad alimentaria y la desnutrición mitigando el riesgo y el deficit de resiliencia








Codrin Paveliuc Olariu Young Professionals in Local Development, Romania

For Emily Levitt Ruppert


Although a descentralization approach has been pushed on countries and local communities in the past several years and globalization has forced us to think this way, we forgot to focused specifically on the needs and development of the local community. This can be done either through centralized policies adapted to local specificities or the local development strategies that ensure a perfect grasp of the environment. In both cases, we must assess the need and develop detailed strategies.

See attached a framework for a possible needs and development analysis applicable to local communities.




Codrin Paveliuc Olariu

See the attachment: Conceptual_model.pdf
Codrin Paveliuc Olariu Young Professionals in Local Development, Romania

For Ugo Gentilini,


To answer your question: The social protection system can be used in principle to ensure access to food, but it is not recommended. As the food aid and food stamps (just to name a few) systems showed us so far, giving food is just a start and a way to alleviate immediate danger to human health, but not a solution to solve M1 and to get to "Zero Hunger". 


If we want to prevent future food crisis, we must ensure sustainability of the access to food (increase competitiveness of smallholder farming, access to markets, decreased unemployment in rural areas, better water management etc.). To start with, access to information and innovation would be good.


After that we should exploit what we have.


See the attached article on how we should plan better.

See the attachment: Rural_Urban_interactions.pdf
Ugo Gentilini WFP, Italy

Dear Participants,

What a great debate and contributions! My name is Ugo Gentilini and I’m social protection specialist at WFP. As a member of the FAO-WFP facilitation team, let me propose a question under theme 3, particularly around the “objectives, targets and indicators will be identified towards tackling hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.” In this regard, one of the objectives put forward by the UN Secretary-General under the Zero Hunger Challenge is to ensure “100% access to adequate food all year round”.

But how to achieve such a key objective? One way could be to strengthen national social protection systems, as advocated by some of you. For example, Todd Post and Scott Bleggi from Bread for the World Institute argued that “the keys to achieving the 2015 targets depend on investments in smallholder agriculture and social protection”.

So let me ask you, what do you think would be the role of social protection to ensure that all people have always access to adequate food? What are some key constraints that governments and their partners may face in providing social protection? And what might be the opportunities?

Looking forward to your views!

Ugo Gentilini,
FAO-WFP facilitation team

Hélène Delisle WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition changes and Development, Canada

Comments on Hunger, Food and Nutrition Security Post 2015 Development Agenda Framework

Thank you for giving us the opportunity to express our views on these topics. However, we cannot organize our comments around the three themes on which inputs were sought.
1.    Global challenges call for global approaches. There is a need for merging or at least converging or consolidating initiatives for post-2015 plan of action. At the present moment, we observe an inflationary trend. Only for insiders is the complexity of plans and consultations understandable. Several consultation processes are going on in a somewhat parallel fashion, on health, on food, on sustainable development. Responding to these separate consultations is not highly productive, and it is not known how the comments are processed. Avoiding the ‘silo’ consultations would be imperative.
The Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN), led by FAO, launched this e-consultation led by FAO, WFP and ‘The World We Want’, on a development agenda framework. Recently, the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) launched another e-consultation on CFS Global Strategic Framework (until October 2012) also through the Global Forum on FSN. Now what is the difference between the ‘Development Agenda Framework’ and the ‘Global Strategic Framework’, if any? The report on comments on the Global Strategic Framework is 98 page-long. How is this consultation to impinge on the present consultation on Hunger, food and nutrition security in the next development agenda framework? The following are just a few more documents that would need to be taken into account if we are to integrate food systems, food (and nutrition) security, and nutrition through the lifecycle, sustainable development, and health in plans, frameworks, objectives, indicators, and targets.
•    On food security and nutrition:
-    The Zero Hunger Challenge – Comprehensive framework for action, by the High Level Task Force on Global Food Security, 2011 (as alluded to in the invited comments);
-    UNSCN Statement on Nutrition Security of Urban Populations (2012);
-    WHO, Draft Comprehensive Implementation Plan, Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (2012);
•    On sustainable development:
-    The Future we Want (2012)
-    Climate change – Food and Nutrition Security Implications (SCN News 2010)  
•    On non-communicable diseases:
-    Global Action Plan for NCDs Zero Draft (2012)
-    Draft Comprehensive Global Monitoring Framework Including Indicators and a set of Voluntary Global Targets (2012)
•    On health and social determinants of health:
-    Health in the Post-2015 Development Agenda (Consultations 2012-3)
-    UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda – Health (UNAIDS, UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO, 2012)
-    Outcome of the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio 2011
There has to be some way of integrating these, and nutrition may be a key, as it provides a link between food systems and health. All segments of food systems would have to be considered, as well as the interesting notion of ‘nutrition value chains’ for food systems. Regarding nutrition and health, the lifecycle approach should be revitalized, in order to avoid the current tendency to link undernutrition with maternal and child health, and nutrition-related chronic diseases with ‘adult’ health.

2.    Concepts have to be clear and a shared vision is needed. Food security and nutrition (security) are still not clearly defined and one wonders if consensus is achieved, in spite of a recent report on the terminology, advocating ‘food and nutrition security’. ‘Food security and nutrition’ (not nutrition security) was used in the consultation on CFS Global Strategic Framework. This makes a difference. Nutrition security implies adequate access to health services and a healthy environment. The underlying issue is the negative impact of infection on nutritional status, particularly of children. It is not so relevant for adult nutritional problems, including nutrition-related chronic diseases. ‘Food and nutrition insecurity’ still refers primarily if not exclusively to undernutrition, undernourishment, hunger. The term ‘malnutrition’ continues to mean undernutrition (and specific nutrient deficiencies, ‘hidden hunger’) and not to ‘overnutrition’ (a misnomer), at least for the general public. Furthermore, the concept of food security would have to be broadened to integrate environmental sustainability and social equity, like in the WHO-Europe’s criteria of food security. It is now established that food and nutrition insecurity are also linked with non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition in mothers and in infants, in particular, are a risk factor for these non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adult life. NCDs are no longer associated with affluence, even in low-income countries, and NCDs themselves contribute to poverty. Why not consider the term ‘dysnutrition’ to encompass global undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overnutrition, and dietary imbalance?
3.    A great deal is being said and written about action frameworks, but to our knowledge, no conceptual framework has been proposed to integrate food systems, nutrition and health since the UNICEF produced its causal model of 1990. Can’t this conceptual model be broadened and updated to take into account the new challenges and emerging forms of ‘malnutrition’ (nutrition-related chronic diseases), as well as the environmental issues?

4.    As we already brought up on several occasions, the key importance of high quality professional training of the workforce in nutrition, right in low and middle-income countries has to be more emphasized. If international organizations, NGOs and NGIs are not satisfied with existing university programs, they should strengthen these programs in a coordinated way, instead of having their own informal training activities, which may not be sustainable in the long run. Initial training, continuous education and international accreditation structures (to establish norms and standards) for nutrition training programs would be required. It would be difficult, for instance, to strengthen national nutrition policies and action plans and implement the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health unless more human resources are well trained in nutrition at all levels. Advocacy for health and nutrition promotion also calls for high-level human resources.

5.    The MDGs galvanized the efforts and helped mobilize resources. A new set of development goals is needed for post-2015. The goals that were not achieved should remain. Some others would need to be more explicit, for instance: food and nutrition security; NCDs; education and professional training. Women should continue to be the focus of at least one goal, to improve not only their health and their equality, but also their resources, their well-being and their participation in public life as citizens. We would see the relevance of goals focusing on the following:

-    Agriculture for health, equity and environmental sustainability
-    Governance
-    Protracted crises.

Hélène Delisle, Ph.D., Professor
Head of TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition changes and Development
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal


Any country it may be country with high human fertility or low human fertility country, ensuring self employment through agriculural & livestock productions  at least  to  one member of a vulnerable family with mobile assistance in all aspects to attain our objective of ensuring food all void of malnutrtion. Land availability of vulnerable group shall not be a constrain in ensuring the self employment of agriculural nature in a selected smallest area representing a particular community with appropriate crop and livestock selected for that community.

John Moor Population matters, United Kingdom

The amount of food required for a country depends on the population of that country. For example in Niger, currently suffering hunger, the population is growing very rapidly with a fertility rate ( average number of babies a woman bears) of 7.


The UN should give help in family planning in all countries  which have a high fertility rate. 

Saul Vicente Foro Permanente de Naciones Unidas para las Cuestiones Indígenasas, Mexico

Buenas noches desde Juchitán, Oaxaca, México.

Es un placer saludarles y decirles que es de mi mayor interés compartirles mis comentarios.

1.- Desde la perspectiva de los Pueblos Indígenas, quisiera comentarles que fue muy importante que la FAO haya adoptado en el año 2010 una Poítica sobre Pueblos Indígenas y Tribales. Particularmente, porque en ella recoge los elementos sustanciales de derechos reconcidos en la Declaración de Naciones Unidas sobre los Derehcos de los Pueblos Indígenas.

Lo lamentable del caso es que durante el proceso de negociación sobre las Directrices Voluntarias sobre la Gobernanza responsable de la tenencia de la tierra, la pesca y los bosques en el contexto de la seguridad alimentaria nacional, aprobadas por el Comité de Seguridad Aliemtnaria Mundial, hayan eliminado del documento el marco de instrumentos jurídicos internacionales sobre la cual se fundamentan tales Directrices,  entre ellas la "Política de la FAO sobre Pueblos Indígenas y Tribales".

Aún así, la aprobación de las Directrices fue un avance importante debido a los procesos de Consulta previa realizada, de la inclusión de representantes de la Sociedad Civil durante los debates y la negociación incluyendo a representantes de Pueblos Indígenas. Sin embargo, al final, quedaron algunas Directrices que tienen menos alcance que lo dispuesto en la Declaración de Naciones Unidas sobre los Derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas y en la Política de la FAO sobre Pueblos Indígenas y Tribales.

Por citar un ejemplo:  en el caso del apartado 14 de la Directrices sobre restitución de Tierras, en la parte que corresponde a Pueblos Indígenas (14.3), señala que la restitución de tierras debeerá darse en el contexto nacional y con arreglo al derecho nacional. Lo cual tiene un alcance menor que lo establecido en el Artículo 28 de la Declaración de Naciones Unidas sobre los Derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas.

Por lo tanto es necesario que la FAO retome su "Política sobre Pueblos Indígenas y Tribales" y que el Comité Mundial de Seguridad Alimentaria revise tales Directrices y que se armonice con los estándares internacionales sobre derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas.

Así mismo es necesario que se explicite en dichas Directrices cuál es el marco internacional de instrumentos jurídicos de derechos humanos, sobre el cual se funadmentan las mismas.

2.- Así mismo fue un avance el que la 36 Asamblea Regional de la FAO de América Latina y el Caribe aprobara iniciar las discusiones en cada país de esa región, sobre el derecho de Soberania Alimentaria de los Pueblos. En consecunencia, es necesario que dichas discusiones incien cuanto antes;  de la misma manera, sería conveniente que las demás Regionales de la FAO tomaran la misma resolución y, en General la FAO central debiera aprobar una resolución en este sentido. Este es uno de los temas que nos llevarían a encontrar soluciones a los problemas del hambre en el mundo y a producir alimentos sanos, nutritivos, culturalmente pertinentes, en calidad y cantidad suficientes y producidos de manera sustentable y sostenible, lo cual también nos llevaría a elaborar mejores estrategias para enfrentar los efectos del Cambio Climático, que afecta particularmente a los productores de alimentos de pequeña escala, en la que se encuentran los pueblos indígenas, los pescadores artesanales, los pastores nómadas, pequeños agricultores, entre otros.



Joyce Wendam Department of Agriculture, Philippines

Addressing the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges head on:

The Department of Agriculture (DA) in the Philippines under the competent leadership of its Secretary,  Hon. Proceso Alcala, has formulated a framework known as the "Agri-Pinoy" Framework.   This framework is the over-all strategic framework in pursuit of its mandate to promote sustainable agricultural growth and development. It is aimed at incresing the productivity and incomes of farmers and fisherfolk, and providing consumers wsith adequate, affordable, and nutritious basic food commodities. 

It serves as a guide of the personnel of the DA in carrying out their duties and responsibilities in order to meet the Philippine need.  With this framework, programs, projects and activities are focused, concentrated and directed towards the attainment of the DA's goal of achieving 100 per cent food security and self-sufficiency by the year 2013.

Guiding Principles  

The guiding principles of Agri-Pinoy are centered on:  food security and self-sufficiency;  sustainable agriculture and fishery; natural resource management; and, local development. 

The first principle - food security and self-sufficiency - underscores our objective to minimize depence on imports to meet national food requirements.  Hence, we have to vigorously develop our capability to produce all staples, particularly rice and corn and other basic food commodities. 

To achieve, the DA's goal of 100 per cent self-sufficiency by 2013,  two major strategies were developed:  increase rice production; and, decrease rice consumption through the promotion of alternative staple food such as rootcrops like sweet potato, cassava;  banana; white and yellow corn; vegetables, and others.

The second guiding principle is that our commitment to food security and self-sufficiency should be anchored on sustainability.   The true test of this is the capability to withstand two major challenges:  climate change; and, global market.  The principle of sustainability also applies to the required number and quality of our farmers and fishers.  We have an aging farming population, thus we are promoting appreciation of agriculture among schoolchildren through the "Gulayan sa Paaralan."  For young people to be attracted to agriculture and fisheries, there is a need for them to  see and interact with productive and prosperous farmers who may serve as role models. 

"Gulayan sa Paaralan" also complements the feeding program for the schoolchildren   wherein safe and nutritious foods are being produced by the schoolchildren themselves.   This may also serve as source of income of the school by selling the excess production and utilize the proceeds for the improvement of the facilities.  This "Gulayan sa Paaralan" should involve not only the teachers and students but also the parents and the community for project sustainability.

Also, we are helping small farmers and producers to become farmer-technicians and farmer-scientists, helping them to acquire business skills and facilitate their linkages to markets.

To address climate change concerns, organic agriculture is also being promoted.  To increase the resilience of agricultural communities, development of climate change sensitive technologies is a necessity.  Likewise, support services shoudl be provided to the most vulnerable communities. 

Da assistance programs cover the "from seeds to markets" spectrum.  Food self-sufficiency and sustainability are not only about ensuring supply.  It also includes demand-side management, especially in highly urbanized areas.  Consumer education is imperative to promote a better appreciation of the agriculture and fisheries sectors, and for the promotion of responsible consumption.

The principle of  sustainability is closely linked to the third and fourth guiding principles:  natural resource management; and, local development.

Bridging the gap, touching the heart

Due to devolution, as a result of the implementation of the Local Government Code of 1991, the DA has field personnel up to the regional level only.  This has resulted to a gap which must be appropriately addressed.  We need to bridge the gap between the DA and the local communities through forging of partnerships with the Local Governement Units (LGUs) and the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs).  The Agri-Pinoy has a theme "Bridging the gap, touching the heart."  Meaning, the personnel of DA and also the stakeholders should show sincerity and commitment to deliver efficient and effective basic services to the farmers and fisherfolks for the improvement of the their productivity and profitability.   

As DA's over-all strategic framework, Agri-Pinoy exemplifies both continuity and change. 


Department of Agriculture "Agri-Pinoy"   Framework