WFP-FAO co-led Post 2015 Global Thematic Consultation on Hunger, Food Security and Nutrition

19-11-2012 - 10-01-2013

The discussion is now closed.

See below the contributions received or download the proceedings.
Summary of key themes emerged from the discussion is available here

This is YOUR OPPORTUNITY to contribute to this global debate.

As the target date for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaches, a number of processes have been put in place to seek inputs from country, regional and global levels, into the “Post-2015 Development Agenda and Framework”.  For more background information click here.

This is your opportunity to help identify the actions, goals, targets and indicators needed to achieve food and nutrition security, and the eradication of hunger, in a post-2015 world.  Many food security and nutrition policies, strategies and action plans have been written over the past number of  years.  Challenges and opportunities towards achieving food and nutrition security in a sustainable way have been identified, and many countries are making good progress.  Nevertheless, close to 870 million people around the world remain undernourished and do not have access to a healthy diet.  It is time for everyone to take urgent action – in a concerted manner – and to elaborate a new development agenda around lasting concerns of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.

The outcome of this e-consultation, together with the proposed CFS consultation, will feed into the high level experts consultation to be hosted by the Government of Spain in March 2013.

Ultimately, your contributions will feed into the UN General Assembly discussions beginning September 2013 for the elaboration of an agreed post 2015 global development agenda.

E-Consultation: next four weeks

Over the next four weeks, FAO and WFP will facilitate this e-consultation in drawing on the widest possible group of stakeholders and interested parties on how best to address hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition at all levels, and to seek your inputs on the elaboration of a new agenda for action beyond the current MDG framework.

We also invite you to submit papers, findings, or on-going work on the topic of hunger, food and nutrition security.

We seek your inputs on the following three themes:

Theme 1

(i) What do you see as the key lessons learned during the current Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Framework (1990-2015), in particular in relation to the MDGs of relevance to hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition? 

(ii) What do you consider the main challenges and opportunities towards achieving food and nutrition security in the coming years?

Theme 2

What works best?  Drawing on existing knowledge, please tell us how we should go about addressing the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges head on.  Provide us with your own experiences and insights.  For example, how important are questions of improved governance, rights-based approaches, accountability and political commitment in achieving food and nutrition security? 

Furthermore, how could we best draw upon current initiatives, including the Zero Hunger Challenge, launched by the UN Secretary General at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (www.zerohungerchallenge.org), and the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition elaborated by the CFS?

Theme 3

For the Post-2015 Global Development Framework to be complete, global (and regional or national) objectives, targets and indicators will be identified towards tackling hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.  A set of objectives has been put forward by the UN Secretary-General under Zero Hunger Challenge (ZHC):

  1. 100% access to adequate food all year round
  2. Zero stunted children less than 2 years old
  3. All food systems are sustainable
  4. 100% increase in smallholder productivity and income
  5. Zero loss or waste of food.

Please provide us with your feedback on the above list of objectives – or provide your own proposals.  Should some objectives be country-specific, or regional, rather than global? Should the objectives be time-bound?

 

Contribution received:

Peter Greaves United Kingdom
10-01-2013

As a nutritionist who was much involved in UNICEF in the 80's  with the protection, promotion and support  of  breastfeeding, I strongly believe that breastfeeding, exclusively for 6 months and for up to 2 years afterwards together with appropriate complementary foods, should figure prominently in the new MDGs, and fully support the position taken by IBFAN in this consultation.

Alison Linnecar IBFAN, Switzerland
10-01-2013

Infants and young children are particularly vulnerable to infections because at birth their immune system has not yet matured. Breastfeeding is a living fluid, providing anti-microbial substances such as lactoferrin and secretory IgA antibodies, while at the same time boosting the maturation of the infant's own immune system. Formula fed infants do not benefit from this protection because formula is a processed product and contains no live cells.

 

Furthermore, powdered infant formula (PIF) is not a sterile product and indeed "During production, PIF can become contaminated with harmful bacteria such as Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica. This is because, using current manufacturing technology, it is not feasible to produce sterile PIF." (1)  Enterobacter sakazakii, now renamed Cronobacter sakazakii, and Salmonella species are heat-resistant bacteria that can cause severe invasive infections such as meningitis and bacteraemia in newborns and older infants. Such infections are rare but can be fatal or result in long-term disability.

 

Chemical contamination of infant feeding equipment and utensils is of further concern. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals such as Bisphenol A and phthalates are found in certain plastics and can leach into prepared feeds and foods. Since infants are at a stage of rapid development, research evidence shows possible long-term negative health effects from fetal and postnatal exposure to these chemicals. Breastfeeding has been shown to provide beneficial effects to mitigate results of exposure.

 

Breastfeeding is environmentally friendly; producing zero waste and using no scarce natural resources such as water, land and raw materials. It is a valuable and renewable natural resource which comes straight from producer to consumer and requires no processing or transportation. Optimal breastfeeding practices contribute to spacing births and can help a mother plan her family when contraception is unavailable, unaffordable or unacceptable for religious or cultural reasons.

 

Formula feeding leaves a heavy ecological footprint which is demonstrated using indicators of use of scarce resources: water use for dairy farming and manufacturing; land use for raising cattle and growing soy; raw materials for packaging and energy for dairy farming, manufacturing and processing and transportation.  In addition, formula feeding produces greenhouse gas emissions and non-biodegradable waste, contributing to global warming and polluting the environment.

 

For all these reasons, breastfeeding contributes to a healthier population, a healthier environment and to sustainable development. Optimal breastfeeding practices should be protected, promoted and supported as a key objective of the post-2015 Global Development Framework.

 

 

(1) Executive Summary, in 2007 WHO Guidelines on safe preparation, storage and handling of powdered infant formula:  http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/micro/pif_guidelines.pdf

and the 3 meeting reports of the WHO/FAO expert consultations on Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella:

 http://www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/a-z-index/enterobacter/en/

--

Alison Linnecar

Kaija Korpi-Salmela FAO, Italy
10-01-2013

Dear FSN,

 

Below are some comments on the introduced Themes:

 

Theme 1:

 

I agree fully with the targets under MDG 1. However, the chosen indicators for 'reduction by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger' could have been better. Underweight can be attributed to both acute and chronic malnutrition, and therefore it offers a rather weak basis for programming. Stunting, on the other hand, is a good indicator of chronic malnutrition and therefore more suitable as an indicator for a long-term target. Therefore I'm glad to see that stunting, instead of underweight, has been selected for the Zero Hunger Challenge.

 

The second indicator, 'the proportion of population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption' is difficult to measure. The minimum level of dietary energy required varies by the sex, age, health status, and level of physical activity. The international standard of 2,100 Kcal/day is only applicable to a part of the population. Therefore any new indicators selected for the post-2015 period should be more practical in terms of a) getting the data and b) planning interventions. 

 

Main challenges and opportunities: A big opportunity is the heightened global awareness of food security and nutrition as a result of the price crises in recent years. Challenges are posed by increasing population, especially in Africa, water scarcity (especially when not properly managed), and lack of suitable land for expanding cultivation.

 

Theme 2:

 

All the raised issues are pertinent to achieving food and nutrition security. These concepts should, however, be broken into more concrete and tangible recommendations and objectives. For example, what do 'political commitment' and 'accountability' really mean in the context of food and nutrition security? After that it would be far easier to evaluate their role and meaningfulness in this context. It also would be worth considering setting different targets for different regions, and even countries, taking their starting point and capacity into consideration. This may, however, be difficult politically.

 

On achieving nutrition security: basic things account for a lot. Access to education for girls and women, improved care practices, access to safe water and basic health care, and adequate sanitation would go a long way in addressing the problem of malnutrition. Access to adequate food is not enough to combat malnutrition if children (and adults) face infections on a continuous basis due to problems with hygiene and sanitation.

 

On achieving food security: the key is to focus on smallholders in developing countries. Their access to markets, credit, inputs, and know-how has to be facilitated to enable higher food production, which in turn will improve income levels and food security situation in the households. In order to feed the growing population from only marginally increasing cultivated area, the yield has to increase substantially. In this improved practices such as agroforestry and vertical cultivation (growing food on the same land under the soil, on the ground, and above ground) should bring many advantages.

 

Theme 3:

 

All objectives, and at the very least their targets should be time-bound. Without a 'deadline' there is no impetus to achieve results, and preparation of implementation strategies becomes very difficult.

 

Objective a) This objective is very challenging and almost impossible to monitor. For it to make sense, the targets and indicators need to be a lot more concrete.

 

Objective b) This is a good objective. In addition, setting of targets and indicators is relatively easy and data for monitoring exists.

 

Objective c) This is a difficult objective. There is a lot of controversy on what 'sustainability' actually means, and how you would define it. These questions need to be tackled first (from the framework of food and nutrition security) before any targets or indicators can be set.

 

Objective d) Another objective which is difficult to achieve and hard to monitor. Also, it has to be noted that the poor in rural areas usually have different income sources. They often cultivate land, but food and income from that is rarely enough to cover their food and non-food needs. Most have additional food and income sources, such as casual labour, or gathering and sale of natural resource products. Focus on agricultural production alone would not suffice if the objective remains this wide.

 

Objective e) An ambitious objective, which focuses on an issue which has not been properly addressed so far. The objective would need to have targets which focus on different parts of the food system (producers, food processing, transport, marketing, and consumers) in order to achieve results.

 

Thank you for the opportunity to provide comments, this has been very interesting and thought-provoking!

This brief document is part of the Spanish position paper regarding post2015 development agenda process. It includes core messages and concerns for the Government of Spain on food and nutrition security.

 

THEME 1

a) Key lessons learned during the current MDGs Framework, in particular in relation to the MDGs relevance to Hunger, Food insecurity and Malnutrition.

 

  • The main lesson of MDGs is MDGs themselves as the first global common agenda for development setting time-bound targets resulting from years of debates and discussions within global community.
    MDGs relevance and usefulness are rooted in the availability of a common global framework that allow programmes, resource management, coordination, harmonization, alignment and, as a consequence, effectiveness.
  • Nevertheless, one of the main weaknesses of current MDGs is that they are quantitative outcome-focused objectives and nor qualitative outputs nor process are formally considered. When talking about sustainable development results, process is as relevant as the results themselves. Future development agenda should, thus, consider setting process indicators.
  • Development goals cannot be approached individually but as a whole, since the achievement of each and all of them will conduct peoples towards development. An individual approach might guide development process towards a short-term progress accounting for a short group of individuals.

 

b) What do you consider the main challenges and opportunities towards achieving food and nutrition security in the coming years?

 

  • There is a core difference between 2000 when MDGs were set and now. Political will regarding development, and particularly regarding Hunger and Food Insecurity has risen and development has become an international policy issue high top in the agendas. This is, thus, a very challenging situation.
  • Efforts regarding food and nutrition security have been fostered worldwide latest years i.e. the renewed Committee on Global Food Security, the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the Right to adequate Food in the context of the national food security, the Voluntary Guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests in the context of national food security, the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP), the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) or the working group within the G20 amongst others. These efforts concreted in different initiatives should be considered as a cornerstone for the future development agenda as regards food and nutrition security. Lessons learned from above mentioned and others are a very good input to start from since most of them are the outcome of participatory and inclusive processes that have been fed with experiences at country level.
  • Effectiveness is definitely the main challenge for future development agenda. In this respect, the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation is the reference post2015 development agenda should be built upon since it provides the tool on the “HOW” we should work on development. Effectiveness will allow sustainable results and according to development effectiveness principles.
  • Another challenge is the sustainable use of natural resources and how to prevent climate change and mitigate its effects especially in agriculture.

 

THEME 2. a) What works best? What we should go about addressing the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges head on?

 

  • 3 out 4 food insecure people depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their living. It is also important to add that 75% of people suffering from abject poverty live in rural areas. This people devote 60-80% of their income to buy food.
  • Following the WB’s WDR 2008, agriculture is both a way for achieving food security and household income, which are the two dimensions of MDG 1: poverty and hunger. That is the paradox of hunger, that most hungry people are food producers, small-farmers. It should be clearly stated that any development goal regarding hunger reduction should be considered simultaneously in its two dimensions, as progress in food and nutrition security may in some cases deepen rural poverty for the rural poor if their participation on the provision of food security is not ensured. In this regard, agriculture development by smallholders may contribute to economic growth and substantially to poverty reduction.
  • Combining measures of improvement of livelihoods within vulnerable groups and risk prevention and management actions would result in better food and nutrition security indicators.
  • Figures and reports conclude that same groups and same places periodically suffer food insecurity due to their vulnerability to shocks comprising their permanent access to adequate food, compromising the realization of the right to food.
  • Determining proper targets and indicators require a proper identification and classification of vulnerable groups as well as the causes of their vulnerability.
  • In this regard, local or community-based food and nutrition insecurity surveillance systems contribute to prevent critical situation within vulnerable groups.
  • Social protection systems have demonstrated their positive impact in reducing vulnerability and strengthening resilience among vulnerable groups. Strategic food reserves as part of safety nets provide an opportunity for small producers as food providers as long as they avoid spoiling local markets.

 

THEME 3. a) Please provide us with your feedback on the list of objectives- or provide your own proposals. Should some objectives be country-specific, or regional, rather than global? Should the objectives be time-bound?

 

  • The future development agenda should adopt a rights based approach. Rights based approach means focusing on the most vulnerable, adopting human rights principles: participation, non discrimination, transparency, accountability. The right to food approach means that the main goal of food security is the realization of the human right to adequate food for every man, woman and child wherever and whenever.
  • Hunger Zero Challenge makes reference to women linked to nutrition. However, women’s role in food and nutrition security goes far beyond. Women make the difference as providers of food security at household and national level since However, women situation regarding food and nutrition security relates to access and control of productive resources like land, credit or technology.
  • Development agenda- objectives and targets- must be country-specific and country-driven. In this respect, targets and indicators should be defined locally, regionally and nationally. Global outcomes cannot undercover local situations. For example, hunger MDG at global level looks better that looking country-by country since figures in India or China have a high impact in global absolute figures.
See the attachment: Comments MoFAC Spain.pdf
Willem-Jan Laan Unilever, Netherlands
10-01-2013

Considering the large number of reports which have been written over the past number of years on food and nutrition security, I will focus on a number of specific recommendations which were included in initiatives with Unilever contribution.

 

- Recently our CEO Paul Polman argued in the Financial Times: “Now is the time for action to achieve global supply security”. He specifically provided 3 recommendations:

 

* We need increased investment in agricultural production and productivity, especially in Africa and Latin America. Governments and businesses need to direct investment towards strengthening whole value chains and support for smallholder farmers, particularly women.

* We need active policy programmes for food & nutrition security in individual developing countries, based on partnerships with the private sector, donors and civil society. Investments in fighting malnutrition would benefit people more than any other type of investment with a return of $30 for every $1 invested. Investment in nutrition can translate to a 2-3 per cent increase in a nation’s GDP each year, breaking the cycle of poverty that traps families and nations.

* We should eliminate the use of unsustainable biofuels. Most first generation biofuels are neither environmentally efficient nor cost effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the demand they place on land is destabilising world food supply and increasing prices.

- In 2012 several private sector actors did work together in the so-called B20 Task Force on Food Security. This Task Force, co-chaired by our CEO Paul Polman, provided recommendations for the G20 in Mexico in June last year (B20 report attached).

 

Recommendations with regard to Strengthening land rights were included:

 

Recommended industry commitments:

 

* Follow the Voluntary Guidelines for the Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests agreed through the Committee on Food Security (CFS).

* Ensure that agricultural investments are transparent, responsible and compatible with the Voluntary Guidelines as implemented by national authorities. Industry to respect special regulations on large-scale land acquisitions where such policies or guidelines are not in place.

* Develop robust investment standards through the Committee on Food Security.

Recommended public-sector commitments:

* Promote and adopt the Voluntary Guidelines for the Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests agreed through the Committee on Food Security.

* Establish adequate legal frameworks and enforcement measures to formalize and ensure land rights, and recognize informal and customary tenure, with specific safeguards for smallholders.

* Commit to contract transparency and appropriate dispute settlement procedures.

* Provide appropriate temporary measures, including special regulations on large-scale land acquisitions, as long as adequate legal frameworks are not implemented.

* Develop robust investment standards through the Committee on Food Security.

- Recently we have contributed to the UN Global Compact Key Pillars on Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture. This report contains an extensive list of good practices by private sector entities, working together with governments and civil society. This UN Global Compact report also refers to adequate principles for responsible investment in farmland and the activities of the Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI-platform):

 

The Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI) Platform is an industry initiative comprised of some of the world’s largest food companies who seek to support the development of sustainable agriculture worldwide. Created in 2002 by Nestlé, Unilever and Danone, SAI recognizes that food companies are the biggest purchasers of agricultural raw materials in the world and that by working together they bring scale, resources and expertise to the challenge of creating more sustainable food systems.

 

Today, the SAI Platform counts over 30 members, including Coca Cola, Kraft Foods, Heineken and McDonalds, who all agree that sustainable agriculture is “a productive, competitive and efficient way to produce agricultural products, while at the same time protecting and improving the natural environment and social/economic conditions of local communities”.

- We welcome current initiatives including the Zero Hunger Challenge and the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition. We support the UN Secretary General in setting objectives, targets and indicators for the Post-2015 Global Development Framework. We believe that eliminating hunger and malnutrition should be embedded in national food & nutrition programmes. These programmes should be time-bound and monitored annually at local level.

 

Global institutions, including the FAO, have an important role to play. Key tasks include:

 

* Monitoring progress at global level with annual scorecards.

* Sharing best practice in the areas of agricultural production, food security and nutrition.

* Supporting developing countries with their food & nutrition security programmes while sharing expertise with the private sector.

* Produce support for the implementation of national programmes by bringing together local stakeholders.

 

- We welcome the Action Plan included in the FAO Strategic Framework for 2014-2017. We have noted the commitment from Member Countries together with their development partners to adopt evidence-based and inclusive governance mechanisms for eradicating hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition. We particularly welcome the agreed actions which include “the promotion of governance systems which ensure the implementation of agreements such as the Voluntary guidelines on the Right to Food, and on Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security; and on Responsible Investment in Agriculture.”

 

- In accordance with the conclusions of the Committee on World Food Security (CFS), we are prepared to contribute to the stakeholder consultations on the principles for responsible agricultural investments in the coming year.

 

We look forward to the High Level consultation which will be hosted by the Government of Spain (March 2013) in order to provide concrete actions and positive outcomes at local level. Now is the time for action!

 

Willem-Jan Laan

Director Global External Affairs

Unilever

10 January 2013

Carmen Florentina Radu Start Focus, Romania
10-01-2013

What I would very much like to be developed is a global strategy and a common vision for 100 years in terms of food. And such a strategy is necessary. 100 years means hope, getting several generations into the topic and having a sustainable structure, for a common goal. With just a few years strategy, although it encourages to more rapid actions to achieve it, such case can be dropped out far more easily and contested, without reaching the sustainability point. Developing a strategy for 100 years would mean A. getting all the results of the researches until now and was was learned also through the MDGs, B. envisioning a future with healthy, affordable, safe food through consultations, for different age groups, different areas of the world according to their regional particularities, more developed and sustainable C. setting the goals D. establishing guideline steps(of 5, 10 years each), aid and monitoring structures.

 

Regards,

 

Carmen Florentina Radu

Ina Verzivolli International Baby Food Action Network, Switzerland
10-01-2013

Food and Nutrition Security From the Start of Life by the International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN)

There is growing concern today about the increasing global burden of malnutrition – both under nutrition and obesity – with health consequences throughout the life course. Malnutrition is a major factor in child health and survival; it has been estimated to be an underlying cause of up to 50–60 percent of under-five deaths[1]. Today, almost a quarter of the world’s children, especially in Africa and Asia do not get adequate food[2]. At the same time, there is a rising incidence of nutrition related noncommunicable diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

 

Malnutrition – both under- and over – sets in during the first two years of life, mostly during infancy[3]. Food and nutrition security during this period means ensuring early and exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months, followed by introduction of complementary foods along with continued breastfeeding up to two years.  A growing body of evidence points to the key role of infant and young child feeding practices, especially early and exclusive breastfeeding, in mitigating both forms of malnutrition and in the prevention of child mortality. Nonetheless interventions that address these practices have not received adequate attention during the MDGs era, and thus there is an unused potential for achieving progress in food and nutrition security in the childhood but also in the adulthood. The post-MDGs development agenda should bridge this gap and make a priority of such interventions.

 

Please find attached the full submission.

Felicity Savage World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action and Infant Feeding Consortium, ...
10-01-2013

During the current MDG Framework, it was shown conclusively  that breastfeeding is critical to child health, preventing stunting, and with life-long benefits; that current health care practises undermine breastfeeding; and that exclusive breastfeeding rates can be increased by counselling and support before during and after delivery in health facilities and the community.

 

Therefore it should be the right of every mother and child to receive such support, and provision of skilled help to 100% of women and infants should be an objective of the Post 2015 Global Development Framework. 

 

The other proposed objectives for the Zero Hunger Challenge make no sense and are unachievable without provision for laying the foundations of health and nutrition in the first six months of a child's life, and continuing up to 2 years. 

Juanita Jauer Steichen IBFAN/LLL FRANCE/COFAM/REGAAL, France
10-01-2013

Policies on infant nutrition and health such as the World Health Organization’s Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes as well as overwhelming evidence-based research have demonstrated the crucial rôle of breastfeeding on infant ntrition and infant and maternal health. Yet breastfeeding rates continue to fall around the world, largely due to the impact of the aggressive marketing of formula, and the social manipulation by advertising, undermining breastfeeding as the biological and social norm for infant feeding, even among the poorest populations. Follow-on and growth milks have been determined to be unnecessary, despite unsubstantiated claims by industry to the contrary, and, along with special babyfoods through early childhood, present a continued financial burden to families with no nutritional advantage over family foods. The International Code and WHA Resolutions are insufficiently legislated, and there is growing concern about the widespread conflicts of interest between industry and health sectors. Please see IBFAN's position statement on Sponsorships for more detail.

Breastfeeding is a fundamental human right, and recognised as such by the Convention on the Rights of the Child.Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding along woth appropriate complementary foods to age two years or beyond, represents food, health and care, as it prevents malnutrition, protects both mother and child against disease (with protection increasing with duration of breastfeeding) and reduces economic differences.

The UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food addressed the World Breastfeeding Conference 2012 in New Delhi, emphasising the importance of breastfeeding as a human right for both the mother and the child, the neeed for the full implementation of the International Code on the Marketing of breastmilk Substitutes as well as maternity protection for working mothers and better education for girls and women.

Peer support in the form of mother to mother breastfeeding support groups or breastfeeding peer counsellors have been found to be one of the most effective ways of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding.

The World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative launched by IBFAN/WABA in 2004 is a tool to evaluate the state of breastfeeding according to different criteria, and allows countries to monitor breastfeeding rates and implement actions for improvement. Currently used by 83 countries, the WBTI should be implemented worldwide in order to improve breastfeeding rates, maternal protection at work, education, ans Code implementation.

During emergency situations – wars, floods, earthquakes, epidemics – breastfeeding saves the lives of those most vulnerable, infants and young children. lives. When food distribution comes to a halt, when fuel, drinling water, medicine and health services are unavailable, the breastfed baby or infant has significantlt improved rates of survival.. In 1998, during the first three months of conflict in Guinea-Bissau, the death rate among 9-20 month old non breastfed children was 6 times higher than those who were breastfed.

Breastfeeding is vital for the MDGs.

Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Breastfeeding is economical and provides high quality, irrepalceable nutrition through breastmilk, and its complex and species-specific composition.

Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education 

Well-nourished babies and infants are equiped to learn. Breastfeeding is shown to improve cognitive and neurological devlopment.

Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women

 Empowers women who realise that they can meet their child's emotional and nutritional needs through breastfeeding. Gives all children an equal good start in life.

Goal 4 Reduce  child  mortality

Reduced infection, better nutrition, reduced risk of malnutritio.

Goal 5 Improve  maternal  health

Many benefits - decreased maternal postpartum blood loss,lower incidence of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer, as well as the probability of decreased bone loss post-menopause. …

Goal 6 Fight HIV and other diseases

Research shows that breastfeeding in conjunction with ARV treatment protects the child

Goal 7 Ensure environmental sustainability

 Breastfeeding is green ! Environmentally friendly, it has an invisble carbon footprint when compared to that of formula production..

Goal 8 Develop a  global  partnership  for  development

 The Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding encourages collaboration and partnerships in multiple sectors on national, local and international levels. Optimal infant feeding has a major impact on health outcomes and on economic productivity.

See the attachment: message of Prof Schutter.pdf
Roxanne Howdle United Kingdom
10-01-2013

Please prioritise implementing WHO goals and Baby Friendly Initiative with regards to breastfeeding (mainly preventing all promotions and samples) in UK, Europe as well as continuing to resist attempts by Danone and Nestle to illegally promote infant formula products around the world.