WFP-FAO co-led Post 2015 Global Thematic Consultation on Hunger, Food Security and Nutrition

19-11-2012 - 10-01-2013

The discussion is now closed.

See below the contributions received or download the proceedings.
Summary of key themes emerged from the discussion is available here

This is YOUR OPPORTUNITY to contribute to this global debate.

As the target date for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaches, a number of processes have been put in place to seek inputs from country, regional and global levels, into the “Post-2015 Development Agenda and Framework”.  For more background information click here.

This is your opportunity to help identify the actions, goals, targets and indicators needed to achieve food and nutrition security, and the eradication of hunger, in a post-2015 world.  Many food security and nutrition policies, strategies and action plans have been written over the past number of  years.  Challenges and opportunities towards achieving food and nutrition security in a sustainable way have been identified, and many countries are making good progress.  Nevertheless, close to 870 million people around the world remain undernourished and do not have access to a healthy diet.  It is time for everyone to take urgent action – in a concerted manner – and to elaborate a new development agenda around lasting concerns of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.

The outcome of this e-consultation, together with the proposed CFS consultation, will feed into the high level experts consultation to be hosted by the Government of Spain in March 2013.

Ultimately, your contributions will feed into the UN General Assembly discussions beginning September 2013 for the elaboration of an agreed post 2015 global development agenda.

E-Consultation: next four weeks

Over the next four weeks, FAO and WFP will facilitate this e-consultation in drawing on the widest possible group of stakeholders and interested parties on how best to address hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition at all levels, and to seek your inputs on the elaboration of a new agenda for action beyond the current MDG framework.

We also invite you to submit papers, findings, or on-going work on the topic of hunger, food and nutrition security.

We seek your inputs on the following three themes:

Theme 1

(i) What do you see as the key lessons learned during the current Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Framework (1990-2015), in particular in relation to the MDGs of relevance to hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition? 

(ii) What do you consider the main challenges and opportunities towards achieving food and nutrition security in the coming years?

Theme 2

What works best?  Drawing on existing knowledge, please tell us how we should go about addressing the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges head on.  Provide us with your own experiences and insights.  For example, how important are questions of improved governance, rights-based approaches, accountability and political commitment in achieving food and nutrition security? 

Furthermore, how could we best draw upon current initiatives, including the Zero Hunger Challenge, launched by the UN Secretary General at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (, and the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition elaborated by the CFS?

Theme 3

For the Post-2015 Global Development Framework to be complete, global (and regional or national) objectives, targets and indicators will be identified towards tackling hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.  A set of objectives has been put forward by the UN Secretary-General under Zero Hunger Challenge (ZHC):

  1. 100% access to adequate food all year round
  2. Zero stunted children less than 2 years old
  3. All food systems are sustainable
  4. 100% increase in smallholder productivity and income
  5. Zero loss or waste of food.

Please provide us with your feedback on the above list of objectives – or provide your own proposals.  Should some objectives be country-specific, or regional, rather than global? Should the objectives be time-bound?


Contribution received:

Elin Weyler Stockholm International Water Institute, Sweden

Input for from Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) to the e-consultation on Hunger, Food and Nutrition

Hunger, Food and Nutrition are prerequisites for people’s livelihoods, sustaining life, and prosperity. A child that goes hungry will not assimilate knowledge, will not thrive as a human or become a contributing member of whichever society it belongs to. However, a child that is thirsty will not even feel hunger because thirst is a more urgent need. A child that feeds will stay hungry if it is plagued by diarrhoea, cholera or other infectious diseases that could be prevented by access to safe water and sanitation.

The same way that arable land and seeds are a prerequisite for food production, so is water. The water distribution across the globe in changing due to climate change, irrigation schemes, energy demands and crop choices. In order to feed a growing population we will have to consider water in whichever targets we set. The causes behind food insecurity may be assessed by looking at the three A’s:

  • Availability; production of food and its physical availability in various places – mediated by weather & climate, land use / agricultural methods, transport and storage infrastructure
  • Access, including how households and individuals are able to get hold of food – mediated by poverty, education, and cultural/social power to command resources
  • Absorption, including the ability to absorb food – mediated by health conditions, in turn mediated by water, sanitation and hygiene conditions.

As organisers of the World Water Week, SIWI, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers (CGIAR) as key collaborating partners, focused on Water and Food Security as overarching theme for the 2012 conference. Over 2500 water experts, attended over 200 sessions organized by over 250 convening international organizations to discuss the precarious challenge of feeding a thirsty world. The conclusions from each session and workshop are found on For the format of this discussion, let us here present some of the main overarching conclusions that address the questions in the scope. The full report from the 2012 World Water Week is available here:


Theme 1


Setting new priorities for a water and food secure world

Over the past half-century, dramatic improvements have been made to increase the quantities of food produced. Today, we feed more people than ever before, but we also leave more people hungry and send more food to waste than any time before in our history. Moving forward, focus must be on resource efficiency, effective distribution to the hungry and sustainable stewardship of water, land, and lifesupporting ecosystems. Large scale investments in agricultural research and development, infrastructure, irrigation and supply chain efficiency improvements, coupled with dramatic reductions in losses in the field and consumer waste will yield major returns. Providing farmers with better access to markets, both locally and internationally, is likewise crucial to support smallholders’ livelihoods and ensure the food they grow is beneficially used.

This will require a radical shift towards a smarter, healthier, more rational and sustainable global food system. There are many barriers that can delay action, such as a potentially unfavourable political economy, vested interests and bureaucratic inertia, which must be overcome. But the challenges faced to feed an increasingly thirsty world are outmatched by the opportunities they present to stimulate economic growth and provide for a healthier population. With commitment to coordinated action taken on a number of fronts, we can ensure that water will not be a limitation for future well-being on our planet and that everyone has access to clean water and sufficient nutrition to enjoy a sustainable diet.

Water and food security are inseparable

Land and water are prerequisites for agriculture and farmers are the main custodians of the world’s freshwater. Roughly 70 per cent of global freshwater withdrawals are used in agriculture. There are several areas where major efficiency gains, in terms of water,  energy, human as well as financial resources, can be made, such as producing ‘more crop per drop’, reducing losses and waste in the food supply chain, diversification of agricultural activities and employing a ‘landscape approach’ to development in order to expand food production and maintain ecosystem services. There are a number of other areas for which the convening experts called for increased attention: investment and policy intervention, including the promotion of healthy and sustainable diets, improved early warning systems to agricultural emergencies, wiser and fairer trade regulation, and coordinated approaches to assess trade-offs and maximise synergies between water, energy and food.

Producing more with less

Sustainable intensification of agriculture is critical to meet present and future food demand and will require effective action across a number of strategic areas such as energy efficiency, improving irrigation productivity and expanding the safe re-use of water and nutrient resources.

Investing big in small-holders

There is a huge untapped potential for increasing both the productivity and water efficiency of smallholder agriculture. To realise this potential, it is critical to understand the realities faced by many farming communities that lead to sub-optimal use of resources, as well as high rates of losses.

Fixing the leaks in the food supply chain

FAO estimates that 1.3 billion tonnes of food goes uneaten each year, with significant variation in the levels of losses and waste between seasons, years and between commodities and regions. Investments in improved harvesting, storage, transport and cooling infrastructure can reduce losses significantly. This, coupled with local producers’ increased access to better food processing, packaging and new markets, means that more food will be sold and less lost, providing economic and social benefits to both producer and consumer. The world is hungry because we are wasting food.

Improving early warning and responding to a more turbulent climate

Building resilience to drought, floods and shifts in rainfall through adaptive planning is a critical need for the short, medium and long term. New approaches to develop climate smart agriculture and improve the “hydroliteracy” of rural communities can help poor farmers better withstand the shocks of a more variable climate. These systems also need to be accompanied mechanisms to act quickly to take preemptive action based upon available data.

Safeguarding ecosystems while expanding agriculture

A bundled view of ecosystem services can help optimise strategies to promote food security and ecosystem health. To work at a landscape level, new mechanisms are needed that can engage a broader range of stakeholders in negotiations around the benefits- and cost-sharing of ecosystem services, starting by increasing land-user knowledge of ecosystem processes.

Promoting fair and effective food trade

Food trade is a rational and necessary mechanism for achieving efficient use and better sharing of global water resources as well as socio-economic progress. Increased trade in agricultural commodities can provide opportunities for smallholder farmers but this requires they gain better access to markets and stronger bargaining power within them. This can be facilitated through modern information technology, effective government regulation and access to know-how and appropriate production technologies.

A call for collaboration

The challenges that our world is facing cannot be solved by isolated silo thinking and sectoral sub optimisations. Water plays key roles in agriculture, health, economic development, urbanisation, energy production, international affairs and the fulfilment of human rights.

Land acquisition

Investment in agricultural land by international actors has increased dramatically in recent years, primarily in Africa and Latin America. Investors will need reliable access to water for irrigation of its crops on the purchased or leased land. More attention, besides better safeguarding of local priorities and customary rights to land of indigenous populations, is also needed to ensure the effective and equitable management of both internal and transboundary water resources that will be used on leased lands.


Theme 2


The Sustainable Development Goals must address both process and outcomes by emphasizing equitable, transparent processes (participatory, integrative management) as  well as clear goals and measurable targets in terms human and ecological well-being (sustenance of aquatic ecosystems, energy production, and food security). Along with the increased focus on Public Private Partnerships, there is also the recognition of the importance of standard development to guide corporate water stewardship and allow comparison and communication across sectors.

Renewed national and international investments

As we move from the Millenium Development Goals to new Sustainable Development Goals there is a need for renewed national and international investment in the water and WASH sectors. The Millenium Development Goals have been enormously successful in uniting donor attention and allowing the development community to join forces in meet major global challenges. This suggests that uniting behind a list of concrete targets can have dramatic impacts. There is a continued need to prioritise water investments.

Recognising the real purpose of water use

In the agricultural context this can be measured a variety of ways from the amount of food produced per unit of water (crop per drop), to the economic value of agricultural production per unit of water, to the nutritional value of agricultural production per unit of water.

Supply chain focus

As much as half of the produced in the field is lost or wasted before and after it reaches the consumer. Increasing productivity means developing governance approaches that decrease both pre- and post-harvest losses and increase water productivity.

Defining good governance

In terms of next actions, an important point regards developing a common definition of ‘good governance’. To achieve better governance we need two critical components: 1) Better data and knowledge procurement, sharing, and use; and 2) Involvement of major actors like public sector, private sector, and donor communities.

Innovations strengthen monitoring

Monitoring the results of water governance interventions can be used to improve accountability and will enhance the projects implementation. More effective methods of stakeholder engagement can be done using recent technology in collecting and sharing data. For example, text messaging and crowd-sourcing offer new ways to democratise data collection and spatially-explicit databases and internet portals.

Create incentives to produce more food on existing agricultural lands, and within existing water use

There is potential in improving health, reduce water use and alleviate pressures on the environment by focusing more on nutrition sensitive diets. We are facing dietary challenges in opposing trends in different parts of the world; obesity in some regions and malnutrition in others. Currently 45 per cent of global crop water use goes to animal feed. Inland fisheries and aquaculture are two other vital protein sources for many of the worlds’ poor, particularly when crop fails.

Invest in small-holder agricultural water management to reduce malnutrition/hunger

Small-scale water management technology projects have often been overlooked by investors, although investment costs normally are low while profit margins tend to be relatively high. New business models (e.g. irrigation service providers), investment tools (e.g. the investment visualiser) and specialised insurance products were cited as useful contributions to this trend. Apart from the economic benefits, investments in small-holder agricultural water management also hold substantial benefits for food security. Being able to grow cash crops in the dry season, not only drastically improves the farmers´ economic possibility to buy better food, but it also contributes to a diversified diet. Small-scale agricultural water management thus must be controlled at some level to avoid environmental as well as human health damages. For a future nutrition-sensitive agriculture production to take form it is also essential that wastewater is treated safely and then re-used in the farms. 

Intersection between sub-topics and the benefits or synergies that cross-fertilization can bring to the water sector

The link between WASH and nutrition emerged on several occasions, primarily through a more refined understanding of the connections between WASH, malnutrition and diarrhea; the developing understanding of environmental enteropathy and its growing prevalence amongst the most vulnerable members of a community.

There is a need for a balance of technical, institutional and governance improvements; one without the other will delay progress in meeting development goals and perpetuate business as usual practices. A recommendation is to reach lower levels: to conduct regional dialogues that can lead to improved understanding and deliver more sustainable outcomes.

Feedback on the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition

The consideration of water in the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition, as part of economic and production issues, demographic and social issues are important. Recognition of the right to water is imperative and consideration taken to indigenous peoples. One aspect that might have to be considered in addition is that water will cross borders when land will not. Safe water and sanitation and its importance for nutrition is addressed. The role of water is considered for a sustainable agricultural production and we encourage the framework to expand on the issue under point VI. c) that “the demand for water for agricultural production and for other uses and ways of improving water management”.


Theme 3


Working towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

The aggregation of the dialogue at the World Water Week on this issue centered on the need for higher resolution in the revised goals, targets and indicators with respect to equity and non-discrimination. How can the political objectives of these goals be aligned with our need to promote stronger pro-poor investments by government? The water world is addressing this directly through an increasing focus on wealth quintile analysis of WASH coverage and an explicit emphasis on measuring the impact on the poorest in the proposed SDGs targets.

The world in 2050

The young generation of water professionals formulated the most pressing challenges and most promising solutions related to water and food security by 2050 during the World Water Week in Stockholm. A Core Team engaged with other young professionals who attended the conference and through video-interviews and social media inputs from those following the conference remotely, in order to formulate the vision which will be followed by an action plan during 2013.

This vision, although ambitious, is one they think should lead development efforts by stakeholders pertaining to water and food. The young vision has a good message for formulating SDG’s in recognizing that the only way to achieve an ‘ideal world’ is by being adaptive. This means that developing solutions, strategies and approaches, needs to be continuously checked and modified to respond to changing conditions. This is because they see that the only certain thing about the future is uncertainty.

Looking forward to the continued disucssion.


Stockholm International Water Institute and the World Water Week.

Paul Sommers California State University, Fresno, United States of America


As someone, who is both an agriculturists and nutritionists, and who has worked on agriculture and nutrition linkages for more than 30 years primarily at field implementation level, my approach has been to put nutrition at the center as the driver for agricultural activities.  As an agriculturalists, I am ready to use the tools in my resource kit to respond to demand and increase productivity of crops and or livestock. So nutrition has to take the lead and growers will then follow. Nutrition needs to identify the dietary gaps, especially micronutrient malnutrition, when the deficiencies occur, as well as locally grown and consumed crops that are nutrient dense in the micronutrients missing in the diet. Nutrition staff  also need to work with communication specialists to design an effective behavioral change strategy so that demand for those foods are created. Once the dietary issues and crops are known and a market demand plan is in place then I can use the tools  in my agriculture  kit to work with small holder growers to  increase on-farm availability for direct consumption as well as  local market access of those crops.

The policy implications of this strategy are clear. Countries are quickly adopting the market based value chain approach as a main means of improving small holder food security.  By viewing specific dietary deficiencies as drivers for new or expanding markets, the agricultural value chain approach takes on a whole new meaning where it not only grows incomes but addresses a very real and specific dietary issue in a specific location.

FAO Gouvernance Study Group (Astrid Agostini, Dubravka Bojic, Juan GarciaCebolla, Carol Djeddah, Florence Egal, Nicole Franz, Rebecca Metzner, Jamie Morisson, Jonathan Reeves, Mike Robson, Margret Vidar, Rolf Willmann)


This is a collective contribution from a number of members of the FAO Gouvernance Study Team responding in particular to:

Theme 2. What works best? Drawing on existing knowledge, please tell us how we should go about addressing the hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition challenges head on. Provide us with your own experiences and insights. For example, how important are questions of improved governance, rights-based approaches, accountability and political commitment achieving food and nutrition security?”


Many participants in the e-consultation underlined the importance of civil society participation and ownership, accountability of institutions, as well as of the coordination of policies, institutions and actions. These aspects relate to different dimensions of improved governance. Indeed, from the perspective of food and nutrition security, livelihoods and sustainable natural resource management, improved governance is critical for multiple reasons and notably:


First, the increasing complexity of development-related processes.

At the global level, factors beyond national control can affect efforts to reduce hunger and malnutrition; these include energy supply (and price), global commodity markets, and trade policies. Whether a given country is member of WTO or not, and whether it has ratified relevant international instruments – in human rights, agricultural, trade, natural resources or environmental fields – can and often do have implications for a range of food, production and  natural resources management policy and legal frameworks. So too will a country’s capacity to negotiate within international fora and to implement relevant international commitments.

At the global as well as at the country level, recent years have seen a growing plurality of actors (with many new, more active and more diverse stakeholders and interests, and more visible divergences in power between interest groups) with an interest in food security. This can make inclusive processes difficult to manage effectively. At the national level, there is also an increasing awareness of the interconnectedness between the environment, social and economic spheres.  Development goals can be achieved but it has become apparent that for progress to be sustained requires unprecedented levels of interdisciplinary collaboration across sectors and  institutions, and between actors.


Second, increasing uncertainty surrounds the potential impact of climate change (with the likelihood of increased resource competition and risk of conflict), and the level of willingness of key stakeholders with vested interests in current systems to engage in reform.  This makes more difficult the design and implementation of efficient and effective interventions in situations where asymmetries in information are the norm.


Third - for the majority of people, their most direct experience of “governance” is at local level through interaction with local extension agents, local agro-dealers, forest guards, fisheries officers, public health services, agricultural, social and education services. Even the best designed natural resource, social and economic policies will be ineffective in the absence of effective systems for service delivery, regulation, control of corruption and protection of rights. Inequalities in access to natural resources (rights to access land or water resources) and/or to inputs and services such as seeds, fertilizers or credit strongly limit agricultural productivity. Lack of transparency and information about Social Protection programmes, lack of awareness among possible beneficiaries, and wide “administrative discretion” lead to the failure of such programmes to reach many of those in greatest need.

While there is not a direct correlation between the two issues, it can be observed that many states with low food and nutrition security lack the capacity to create enabling and coherent policy and legal framework, be transparent and accountable to relevant stakeholders, and to enforce the rule of law and encourage gender equality.  This is often accompanied by a lack of capacity and of opportunity, for the people, to take an active part in decision-making processes and hold governments to account.

By contrast, when governance structures, both formal and informal, exercise their functions in an accountable, transparent and equitable manner, and give voice to a wide range of diverse interests, including those of the food insecure and hungry who are often excluded and marginalised, the resulting activities should contribute more fully to improving food and nutrition security in a country.


Setting the “building blocks” of the governance of food and nutrition security

Looking at hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition issues from a governance perspective offers insights and information that can improve the design of policies, programmes and projects, and provide tools to make their implementation and enforcement more effective.

While there is not, as yet, a universally agreed definition of governance, it is generally accepted that governance refers to the formal and informal rules and processes through which public and private stakeholders articulate their interests and decisions are made, implemented and sustained in different jurisdictions and levels. Taking a governance perspective requires decision-making processes affecting food and nutrition security, livelihoods and the management and sustainable use of natural resources to be in line with a number of key principles.

They are:

Participation – that people and their institutions are able to participate freely, fully, actively and meaningfully in the planning, design, monitoring and evaluation of decisions affecting them;

Accountability – that leaders are answerable within their organizations and to the people they serve, for their actions;

Transparency – that decision-makers are as open as possible about all the decisions and actions that they take and that timely and reliable information on these decisions and actions is freely and easily available;

Equality and Fairness – that all groups, particularly the most vulnerable, have equal opportunities to improve or maintain their well being;

Efficiency and Effectiveness – that rules and regulations apply equally to all groups, and that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society, while making the best use of resources at their disposal; and

Rule of Law – that governments are as bound by laws as the citizens and private corporations, and that the laws themselves are consistent with international human rights.

These principles should be used nationally to consider how improved governance can support the achievement of food security goals.  One size does very definitely not fit all contexts. Different countries face different development challenges at various stages of their development, and hence require different capacities and approaches to tackle them effectively. What works in one setting may not necessarily work in another. The particular socio-economic, legal and political conditions of each country will facilitate or constrain progress towards better governance.

In other words, the purpose of having a number of key governance principles is not to describe the ideal state of “good food and nutrition security governance”, but to provide practical guidance for prioritizing interventions, designing and assessing development strategies necessary to achieve the post-2015 UN development agenda.

These key principles can also be useful in pointing out mechanisms that allow improving governance in food security and related sectors (e.g. agriculture, land, forests, fisheries) without requiring changes in the state governance system as such. The challenge is finding the right mix and form that fit the specific country context and its specific needs, and that will allow progress to be made.

Collective contribution from the FAO Governance Study Group (Astrid Agostini, Dubravka Bojic, Juan GarciaCebolla, Carol Djeddah, Florence Egal, Nicole Franz, Rebecca Metzner, Jamie Morrison, Jonathan Reeves, Mike Robson, Margret Vidar and Rolf Willmann)

Hinack Philippe Léopold CIRASTIC "Collectif Inter-Associatif pour la Réalisation des ...

Hunger, food and nutrition security: towards a post-2015 development…

[contribution in French, English version below]

Notre Raisonnement!- Face aux questions orientées sur la problématique de la Faim, la Sécurité Alimentaire et, Nutritionelle dans le monde : « Comment faire pour y remédier à cette espèce d’injustice honteuse et, latente ? – À qui la faute, première ; lorsqu’on sait pertinemment que les vrais affamés et, attiseurs de l’insécurité alimentaire se trouvent en premier lieu au cœur des offices institutionnels susceptibles d’œuvrer pour son éradication? – De qui se moque-t-on éperdument ? À chaque fin d’une décennie, les Seigneurs autoproclamés du temple de Jupiter (l’ONU ou L’ORNU), nous baratinent avec un scoop nouveau ! Mais Le CIRASTIC persiste et signe disant que : c’est du pauvre appauvrit, que provient de la misère…».

  À l’attention de l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies (la FAO- le PAM – les OMD) :

   Le CIRASTIC répond de justesse aux questions posée sur les trois thèmes : 1- 2- 3

Sur le Thème -1 : Voici ce que pense le CIRASTIC des enseignements à tirer du cadre (1990-2015) des objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement:

[On a noté la ferveur manifeste des uns et des autres; lors des prises de paroles, des allocutions sous la forme des discours qui ont suscité un brin d'espoir. Mais, hélas!!! -Parce que beaucoup de ce tout dit, ne demeure dans les faits, que des résolutions qui suspendent l’espoir, face au désespoir cuisant. - On a vu et compris ; on a attendu dans l’espoir d’entendre l’écho positif du réel escompté ! Mais, encore, hélas! Parce que qu’on néglige le réel au profit du virtuel édulcoré du sophisme au relativisme absolu. Les multiples mobilisations des fonds à débloquer, n’ont jusqu’ici, eu que d’effet positif virtuellement! Sur le vrai terrain escompté, c’est la misère honteuse (…). - Beaucoup de résolutions sur le bon sens qui dénotait la prise de conscience. Et après, rien de concret pour éradiquer ce fléau honteux. - Le minimum des fonds débloqués, aurait dû faire beaucoup de bonnes choses en faveur de ces populations dans le monde en détresse, sous cet angle. Mais, malheureusement encore, une bonne partie de ces fonds récoltés a servi comme d'habitude : à « nourrir les effets virtuels, au détriment de l'essentiel nécessiteux ». D'où notre question sans réponse, à savoir: Qu'est-ce qu'on a fait du minimum de ces fonds alloués qui stimulerait l'envi des mêmes donateurs à toujours donner sans compter? À ce propos précis, les tords sont partagés entre les Donateurs aveugles et les Gestionnaires de ces fonds alloués pour aider les vrais pauvres. - Autre enseignement, est que: les uns et des autres, sont priés d'avoir l'obligeance d'arrêter de se moquer d'eux-mêmes ; en croyant se moquer des populations victimes qui souffrent atrocement de cette injustice honteuse (la faim, l’insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition, qui ne sont qu’un aspect majeur de la pauvreté appauvrit qui en résulte à la misère…].

B- À propos des principaux défis et opportunités, voici ce que nous pensons:

: Si la pauvreté est la pire forme de violence, parce que : «elle est inéluctablement la manifestation de linjustice exacerbée». - Comme la pauvreté n’affecte pas seulement  les pays dits défavorisés; il serait indispensable de conjuguer tous nos efforts en donnant du sens aux formes acquises pour une transformation qui a du sens réel et non virtuel.* Considérant qu’une partie des connaissances liée au savoir du sujet connaissant se situe à l’interface de deux ou, de plusieurs influences positives ou négatives: le défi se situe au niveau de l’interdisciplinarité. Parce que nous mouvons dans un monde en pleine mutation incessante; ce qui nous responsabilise tous! Qu’on le veule ou pas. D’où na nécessité impérieuse de faire preuve au moins pour une fois, de probité intellectuelle. Comment cela ? En bien, en conjuguant nos acquis de forme (atouts, efforts), par la transformation productive escomptée par ces populations de plus 1milliard qui souffrent. pour se faire, nous, nous permettons se rappel 1: (Quels sont, à votre avis, les principaux enseignements qui peuvent être tirés du Cadre (1990-2015) des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement (OMD), en particulier en ce qui concerne les OMD liés à la faim, à la sécurité alimentaire et à la malnutrition ? - Quels sont, à votre avis, les principaux défis et opportunités pour parvenir à garantir la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle dans les années à venir?).

Sur le Thème -2-  Voici en quelque sorte, une prospective des mesures efficaces qui vont au-delà des effets virtuels très disproportionnés de la réalité escomptée. Le CIRASTIC propose :

-1- Apprendre à ne plus attendre le temps de l’extrême gravité d’une situation, pour proposer l’apport des secours éclairs ou ponctuels! -2- Il faudrait penser à la mise en œuvre des structures qui vise à améliorer sensiblement à moyen et à long terme, les conditions de vies de toutes ces populations qui subissent cette espèce de misère honteuse et injuste. - En rassemblant et intégrant toutes les différentes catégories de forces vives susceptibles de stimuler et de générer à bon escient les différentes ressources surplace. Ce faisant, l'on tiendra le taureau par les cornes.  -3- Multiplier toutes les pistes qui quantifient et qualifient l'expertise valorisante à vulgariser par l'éducation des masses populaires ; les différentes méthodes scientifiques et techniques qui responsabiliseraient chacun. "Nous du CIRASTIC, nous avons des plans de mise en œuvre à proposer sous la forme d'un appel à proposition..."


-B- Quand à l’accent mis sur l'importance sur la gouvernance, le CIRASTIC pense que: «le problème vient du fait de l'ignorance alimentée par l'avidité et l'égocentrisme de certains gouvernants qui laissent sciemment ce tout mesquin, prendre le pas d’avance ; au détriment de la nécessité de faire des choses de manière objective. (Ce qui bénéficierait aussi les masses populaires concernées). D’où l’importance des luttes utiles à mener pour  sensibiliser et mobiliser dans l’optique inspirée, réaliste et rationaliste. Afin d’obtenir le pragmatisme qui passe par l'éradication tangible des fléaux honteux et injustes. - C'est une situation qui concerne tous les pays du monde ! Au Bien que les influences d’une problématique diffèrent d’une région à une autre, la question de respect de l’éthique, n’est, l’apanage de personne face à une urgence qui nécessite une action vitale

-C- On ne peut tirer le meilleur parti de toutes ces initiatives que lorsque l'action escomptée est réalisée ! Ou est en train d'être réalisée. Les résolutions ne suffisent plus que l’on les garde dans les bunkers dorés! Nous voulons, et implorons les actions par la mise en œuvre qui intègre la prise en compte de toutes les différentes forces vives des domaines concernés et autres...

NB :«Des résolutions du Secrétaire général des Nations Unies- De la Conférence Rio+20 des Nations Unies sur le développement durable et CSA » Tous, doivent comprendre au-delà des mots que :

Sans la preuve d’un minimum de probité intellectuelle qui contribuerait à valoriser l’éthique, aucune initiative louable ne peut espérer trouver d’effets escomptés. Il faut impérativement que les efforts soient faits de Deux côtés majeurs. À savoir: Des Donateurs d'une part et Receveurs chargés de gérer ces fonds d'autre part. Mais, c’est auprès des Receveurs Chargés de Gérer le Fonds, qu'existe le problème ! Parce que c’est au cœur de leur institution qu’il y a de vrais affamés qui affament ! - De vrais pauvres qui appauvrissent en exhibant au virtuel médiatique, la misère des miséreux qu’ils ont eux-mêmes fabriqués(…). NB : «Si les pauvres qui croupissent dans les institutions et ailleurs; cessent d'appauvrir les victimes miséreux, on aura moins du misérabilisme avéré ! Parce que la misère émane de la pauvreté des pauvres qui s’évertuent à se substituer par tous les moyens aux vrais riches

-On a vu au sein même de l'office des ONG, plusieurs projets dérobés par ceux qui étaient susceptible de les valoriser! On a vu et on continue à le voir que certains ONG financés, ne font pas ce qu'il faudrait faire sur le terrain! D’où la nécessité impérieuse de sensibiliser tous les partis! C’est ce que nous pensons sans ambages. Le CIRASTIC en est victime de ce système mesquin instauré…


-D- Thème -3- Ce que nous pensons : au-delà du scénario à répétition interminable que l’on nous sort à chaque fin d’une décennie au cœur du socle des Nations Unies. Nous n’espérons que ce nouvel scoop soit véritablement porteur d’espoir ; face aux multiples défis honteux à relever :

"La faim qui n'est qu'un, aspect fondamental de l’injustice criarde et honteuse,* Nous osons espérer que le tout dit en terme de résolutions, ne soit pas simplement vide et creux"! *Nous espérons que ça ne sombre pas dans les abîmes de l'obscurantisme édulcoré du sophisme au relativisme absolu. *Nous, du CIRASTIC ; Nous, nous permettons d'implorer un minimum de bon sens et de la compassion face à cette urgence qui s'impose après tant de temps. *NOUS, PENSONS QUE TOUT EST POSSIBLE D’UN SEUL TENANT! À CONDITION DE REDEFINR DANS L’OPTIQUE INSPIREE, REALISTE ET RATIONALISTE, LES RÔLE DE CHAQUE ACTEUR Concerné - chaque partie du monde à ses besoins spécifiques liés à ses propres réalités de tous les jours. Le combat commun, mérite aussi la prise en compte des spécificités par secteurs.  NB : Nous u CIRASTIC nous avons de manière explicite, un capital imaginatif à partager sous la forme d’un appel à proposition.  – Il s’agit «des initiatives pragmatiques de mise en œuvre qui visent à améliorer sensiblement les conditions de vies des populations, multiples ». Notre potentiel imaginatif est à l’échelle continentale. Nous du CIRASTIC, nous persistons à penser que : la lutte contre la pauvreté en général, passe par l’implantation des bases de l'éducation scientifiques et techniques appropriées. Il faut un minimum qui stimule et consolide…

En attendant, Merci de votre bonne compréhension !  Et, au plaisir d’une coopération vraiment franche.

  • Consolider les Bases-Stimuler le créativité et voir se Développer des liens de solidarité  ***

[English version]

Hunger, food and nutrition security: towards a post-2015 development ...
Our reasoning! - Face to questions directed to the problem of Hunger, Food Security and Nutritional around the world: "How to remedy this kind of injustice and shameful, latent? - Who is to blame, first, knows when the real hunger and food insecurity catalysts are in the first place at the heart of institutional offices could work for its eradication? - Who are we kidding madly? At each end of a decade, the self-proclaimed lords of the temple of Jupiter (the UN or the ORNU), we flannel with a scoop again! The CIRASTIC but persists and signs saying: it is the poor poorer, that comes from misery ...”

To the attention of the General Assembly of the United Nations (FAO-WFP - MDGs):
 The CIRASTIC responds accurately to questions asked on three themes: 1 - 2 - 3
On Theme -1:

Here's think that the lessons of CIRASTIC framework (1990-2015) of the Millennium Development Goals:

[There was fervor manifests each other, when taking words, speeches in the form of speech which aroused a glimmer of hope. But, alas! -Because much of what said it all, does not remain in effect, suspend the resolutions to hope against despair cooking. - We have seen and understood we waited in the hope of hearing the positive response of the real expected! But still, alas! Because it neglects the real benefit of virtual watered sophistry to absolute relativism. Multiple mobilizations funds to unlock have so far only had a positive effect virtually! Expected on the true ground, it is shameful misery (...).

- Many resolutions on common sense which denoted awareness. And after, nothing concrete to eradicate this scourge shameful. - The minimum funds released, should have a lot of good things for the people around the world in distress, from this angle. But unfortunately, much of the money raised was used as usual to "feed the virtual effects at the expense of the most needy." Hence our unanswered question, namely:

What we did the minimum of these funds would stimulate the environment of the same donors always give without counting? In this precise, twist Donors are shared between blind and managers of these funds to help the real poor.

- Another lesson is that: each other, are requested to kindly stop making fun of themselves, believing mocking the victims who suffer terribly from this shameful injustice (hunger food insecurity and malnutrition, which are a major aspect of poverty resulting in impoverished misery ...].

-B- About Challenges and opportunities, here's what we think:
If poverty is the worst form of violence,   because "it is inevitable    the  manifestation of ' exacerbated injustice."

 -  As  poverty n'   not only affect  the so-called disadvantaged   it would need to combine our efforts in giving meaning to acquired forms for a transformation that has real meaning and not virtual. * Considering that part of the knowledge related to knowledge of the knower is located at the interface of two or  ,  several positive or negative influences:  

The  challenge at the level of interdisciplinary. Because we move in a constant changing world, which empowers all we !  Like it or not spineless. Where did imperative to exercise at least once, intellectual integrity. How so? As well, combining our assets form (strengths, effort), the productive transformation expected by these populations over 1 billion who suffer. to do so, we allow ourselves to recall 1: (What, in your opinion, the main lessons that can be learned Framework (1990-2015) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly in the MDGs related to hunger, food security and malnutrition - What are, in your opinion, the main challenges and opportunities for achieving food security and nutrition in the years to come?).

On Theme -2 - Here somehow, a prospective effective measures that go beyond the effects of virtual reality very disproportionate expected. The CIRASTIC offers:

-1 - Learning not to wait for the time of the extreme gravity of the situation, to provide input or occasional flashes relief!  -2 - Consideration should be given to the implementation of structures that aims to significantly improve in the medium and long term, the living conditions of these people who undergo this kind of misery shameful and unjust. - By collecting and integrating all the different types of forces that stimulate and generate various resources wisely treading water. In doing so, we take the bull by the horns. -3 - Multiply all the tracks that quantify and qualify the rewarding expertise to popularize the education of the masses, the different scientific methods and a technique empowers each. "We the CIRASTIC, we have plans to implement to offer in the form of a call for proposals ..."

-B- When the emphasis on the importance of governance, CIRASTIC think: "the problem is the ignorance fueled by greed and selfishness of some leaders who knowingly let this all mean , take no advance at the expense of the need to do things objectively. (This would also benefit the masses involved). Hence the importance of the struggles to lead useful to sensitize and mobilize the optical inspired, realistic and rational. To get the pragmatism that passes through the eradication of flails tangible shameful and unjust. - This is a situation that affects all countries of the world! Although the influences of a problem differ from one region to another, the question of ethical, is the prerogative of individual faced with an emergency that requires a vital action

-C- You can make the most of all these initiatives expected that when the action is carried out!  * Or is being carried out. Resolutions not enough that they are kept in bunkers gold! We want and crave action by the implementation that integrates the consideration of all the different forces and other relevant fields ...
NB: "Resolutions of the United Nations Secretary-General-De Rio +20 United Nations Sustainable Development and CSA" All should understand beyond the words:
Without a modicum of intellectual integrity that help promote ethics, no laudable initiative can hope to find the desired effects. It is imperative that efforts be made to two major sides. Namely: The Donors and Recipients on the one hand to manage these funds on the other. But it is with trays Officers manage the Fund, the problem exists! Because it is at the heart of their institution there are real hungry starving! - Real-depleting poor showing in the virtual media, the misery of destitute they themselves have made (...).

 NB: "If the poor languishing in institutions and elsewhere continue to impoverish the victims destitute, there will be less of misery proved! Because misery stems from the poverty of the poor who struggle to replace by all means to the real rich ...
-We have seen within the NGO office, several projects stolen by those likely to develop! We have seen and continue to see that some NGOs funded are not what should be done on the ground! Hence the urgent need to educate all parties! This is what we believe bluntly. CIRASTIC is the victim of this system established mean ...

- D- Theme -3 - What we think: beyond the endless repetition scenario that  ' we spell each end of a decade in the heart of the base of the United Nations. We do hope that this new scoop truly hopeful; shameful face the many challenges ahead:
"The hunger is a fundamental aspect of blatant injustice and shameful * -We hope that everything said in terms of resolutions is not just empty and hollow!" * We hope it does not sink into the abyss of obscurantism watered sophistry to absolute relativism. * -We, the CIRASTIC, We allow ourselves to implore a modicum of common sense and compassion in the face of this emergency is needed after so long.

* WE BELIEVE THAT EVERYTHING IS POSSIBLE ONE PIECE! PROVIDED IN THE CONTEXT OF REDEFINED INSPIRED AND REALISTIC rationalist THE ROLE OF EACH PLAYER Concerned - every part of the world to their specific needs related to their own everyday realities. The common struggle, also deserves consideration by specific sectors.

NB: CIRASTIC we explicitly share capital imaginative as a call for proposals. - It is "pragmatic initiatives implementation aimed at significantly improving the lives of people, many." Our imaginative potential is at the continental scale. We, of CIRASTIC, we continue to believe that: the fight against poverty in general, through the establishment of the foundations of education and scientific techniques. A minimum stimulates and strengthens ...
In the meantime, thanks for your understanding!

And the pleasure of a really frank cooperation.

Consolidate Remote stimulate creativity and see the development of solidarity

See the attachment: dans ce cadre.pdf
Martine Weve STOP AIDS NOW!, Netherlands

Thank you for this opportunity to comment.


This is a reaction to Ugo Gentilini’s request, for responses on the role of social protection in food security.


  • Social protection is eminent to promote and protect food security. Important to have a social protection measures in place to ensure that vulnerability of poor people can be reduced in a more sustainable way.


  • For PLHIV and people affected by HIV food security is an important issue. Without adequate nutrition PLHIV cannot adhere well to their needed medication intake. Food security and therefore social protection systems should be in place so that poor people and marginalised people, like people affected by HIV have access to their basic daily needs, e.g. nutritious food intake. Social protection systems and measures should therefore be accessible to all in need, most marginalized and vulnerable (no discrimination).


  • Governments and partners constraints in Social protection:
    • - Obvious financial constraints are there. Support on tax system strengthening is needed. Other ways of financing for the system, through community support efforts.
    • - There is a need for national social protection system or policies… At the moment, many countries do not have a national policy, so different efforts by different stakeholders, duplication of efforts etc., only focus on one area etc.
    • - Problems with targeting, not really most marginalised reached and fear for dependency.


  • Opportunities:
    • - Social protection and food security floor initiatives to be combined = should be pro-poor and pro-growth (preventive, protective, promotive and transformative social protection objectives).
    • - Rights-based approach and Child and HIV sensitive.
    • - Role of Civil Society in correct targeting, distribution, implementation.
    • - Role of beneficiaries., SHG systems, kitchen gardens, community cooperatives
    • - Social protection measures to reach multiple goals: food security, right to education, health, shelter
    • - See, enclosed recommendations for social protection by the Stop AIDS Alliance.



Martine Weve, HIV and Livelihoods advisor

Claudio Schuftan PHM, Viet Nam

III. Qs on themes and content of a new framework:

12. To what extent can we capitalize on MDGs achievements and failures in developing our post-2015 development agenda?

To a great extent and to begin with, the agenda can not again be drawn top-down --a challenge that I still see unresolved. Opening up the consultation to development workers worldwide reading this is only a variance of a top-down model.  We not only can, but must capitalize on both the positive and negative lessons learned from the MDGs. Which lessons? Ask the recipients of MDG ‘benefits’! This calls for governments and local civil society the world over to jointly open, in the next year, a wide dialogue on post-2015 options. Seed funding is needed if we are serious about this.

13. What is the legacy agenda of the existing MDGs that will be inherited in the next framework? Which elements should be revised in the light of lessons learned, such as the importance of girls’ education and gender equality?

Positive points notwithstanding, the legacy of MDGs shortcomings, as I see them, is that they had donor over-influence; had a technical over-emphasis; paid no attention to acting on the underlying social and economic inequalities; they lacked a systematic long-term financial commitment; had a predominant focus on health and education; and overlooked the entire participation and political economy contexts. Furthermore, they did not quantify the obligations of the rich countries (this assumed that poverty is a problem of poor people only); actions to be taken in the rich countries must simply be part of the next framework.

Poverty was defined in the MDGs as a state in which people have to live in the equivalent of less than $US 1 a day (but inflation is likely to make the one dollar in 2000 worth around 60 cents by 2015); and China, Cuba, and Vietnam (where, by the way, I live, so I am in a position to know), have long focused on structural development concerns, but have not labeled them as ‘Millennium Development Goals’, i.e., not wanting to play the MDGs game.

These are all shortcomings we do not want to carry over to the next framework. Beware: the elements to be revised, such as the ones insinuated in the question, are not for us reading this questionnaire to decide! Additions and revisions are to come from consultations with claim holders and duty bearers down below in many little places giving this process the flexibility needed in terms of the participative selection of contents and the timing of their participative introduction.

14. Which issues were missing from the MDGs and should now be included? How to address inequality, jobs, infrastructure, financial stability, and planetary boundaries?

It is not for us to decide these issues. They must come from dialoguing with claim holders and duty bearers at national and sub-national level importantly including women and youth organizations, trade unions, social movements, parliamentarians, local civil society organizations, organizations of migrants (who cannot be ostracized as non-citizens!)…

Inequalities are a result of power imbalances so, obviously, the organization of a counter-power is the answer for the next period; rights holders have to become de-facto claimants through processes of empowerment and social mobilization.

Employment issues must be discussed directly with trade unions for inputs.

Nobody knows better the shortcomings in infrastructure than their daily users (and/or those who need it and do not have it); we have to reach out to get their inputs.

Financial instability is a trademark of the cycles of boom and bust of capitalism and, as we now know better, is caused by the reckless behavior of greedy megabanks and financial institutions and individuals. Global and national regulation --including people’s audits-- must keep them at bay making sure taxpayers never again bail them out for the disasters they bring about. A Tobin-type tax is an issue whose time has (belatedly) come. People’s audits also must be introduced to look into the issues of odious foreign debt in poor countries.

For planetary boundaries, we should fall back on work done by UNEP and in Rio; but what is needed for the new framework is to set aside funding to educate the public at large, all over the world, about these boundaries so as to make this an additional  topic of their empowerment and mobilization.

All the above notwithstanding, remember the most crucial element missing in the MDGs was a conceptual framework of the causes of underdevelopment (or maldevelopment) alluded-to earlier.

15. How should a new framework incorporate the institutional building blocks of sustained prosperity, such as freedom, justice, peace and effective government?

I wish I understand what ‘institutional building blocks’ are. So I am a bit at a loss here. But anyway, first of all, the concept of sustained prosperity must be de-linked from the concept of economic growth with the latter having to be seriously questioned.

Freedom, justice and peace are all embedded in the human rights framework which will have to, once and for all, be the guiding framework for post-2015 development agenda. [It is a real pity (or a scandal? ) we are facing having to wait another 24 months for this to become true!].

As for effective government, I have always said that elected officers are as good as the people who elected them; electors deserve those they elect(ed). The problem is that (the often anachronistic and formal) representative democracy is made use of every 4, 6 or 8 years. “You made a bad choice? You are stuck till the next election”. Under these circumstances, nothing short of making the accountability/watch dog function a function of civil society (with commensurate funding) will be good enough in the new framework. Actually, the ultimate purpose of social mobilization is the application of local direct democracy to remedy the serious shortcomings of representative democracy.

16. How should a new framework reflect the particular challenges of the poor living in conflict and post-conflict situations?

I assume that by ‘the poor’ actually the question means ‘poor people’ (or people living in poverty). I hope I make my point…

If we are talking about ‘particular challenges’, can we expect the new framework to have general recommendations here? Is this a contradiction? Would global recommendations have any chance to work?

I strongly feel this is, par-excellence, a topic for South-South cooperation (with commensurate funding). Countries living in conflict and/or post-conflict can give better advice to others on what to do/not to do. The international community’s help should come in the implementation of the recommendations coming from such S-S cooperation --the help firmly based on the principles of their extra-territorial human rights obligations now recognized by ECOSOC.

17. How can we universalize goals and targets while being consistent with national priorities and targets?

The first question I have here is: Must we again universalize goals and targets? And then: Does the MDGs experience tell us universalization of national level targets was a good thing so as to follow it now? I have said that I personally prefer the setting of benchmarks over the setting of goals and targets (whatever the difference is between these two).

National priorities have to be based on a progressive realization of human rights long-term plan with annual benchmarks. The priorities must be disaggregated to the district/municipality level so as to first concentrate actions on the x% of the most marginalized ones. (Vietnam has done so with a hundred thirty some districts). [This applies equally to giving priority to marginalized groups in society; I do not need to name them here since they are well known]. This all is what the human rights based approach calls for! So, nothing new here. In this case, we are talking about a human rights principle that is not subject to progressive realization, but calls for immediate implementation, namely the principle of non-discrimination.

The only way another set of universal goals is going to get us further in the next phase is to mandate those goals be achieved in each district/municipality and not as a national average.

18. How will a new framework encourage partnerships and coordination between and within countries at all stages of development, and with non-state actors such as business, civil society and foundations?

If the framework should encourage partnerships and which partnerships is the first question to be asked here. We need to know which partnerships the question refers to. Partnerships with whom?
‘Partnerships’ between countries have a very sorry historical past in the realm of neo-colonialism. Partnerships in traditional ODA do not have much to show for either in terms of each partner wielding equal weight in decision-making (this includes partnerships with often non-transparent/non-democratic mega philanthropies and foundations).
South-South partnerships are an upcoming potentially promising avenue the new framework should definitely refer to, explore and foster.
A special worrisome ‘animal’ here are public-private-partnerships that have been plagued by devastating conflicts of interest and by claims of white-washing the conscience of participating TNCs. Quite a bit has been written about this and I will not go into more details. (I call your attention to seminal work done on this by IBFAN and by Judith Richter).
[It would be desirable the new framework calls for greater transparency of mega philanthropies with an opening-up of their internal decision making processes].
The new framework simply has to put in place mechanisms through which governments together with representatives of civil society have a controlling stake in all partnerships. Governments and civil society organizations have learned (and suffered) by now and are now up-to-the-job, from now on, to take this mandated role.   
At global level, PPPs are also a big worry at the UN in general (Global Compact) and in UN agencies. The People’s Health Movement has been active in denouncing this state of affairs in WHO calling for concrete and definitive measures to be taken. The question also calls for  coordination between countries and within countries. The latter, I understand well. But does ‘between countries’ refer to foreign aid? If yes, I have made my point. If not, this coordination will have to be further explained.
19. How specific should the Panel be with recommendations on means of implementation, including development assistance, finance, technology, capacity building, trade and other actions?

I would say the Panel should not be specific on such means, but perhaps propose a range of options. It is for the participatory country and sub-country level to work on them and gain full ownership of the ones finally selected. There should be a specific time period and funding set aside for this.
As regards development assistance, foreign aid has to be made to abide by the human rights framework and by the principles of extra-territorial obligations.
The transfer of technology is a key additional issue. At grassroots level, the technology has to be appropriate, as decided by its direct future users. Otherwise, we have witnessed how TNCs transfer second hand technology to developing countries --technology they have replaced by a more advanced one in rich countries. This perpetuates underdevelopment and must, therefore, be countered.
Capacity building: my experience is in health. I have seen the proliferation of aid-funded vertical programs, be they for TB/HIV/malaria or for family planning… They all duplicate in big part the training offered with the same service provider at the point of delivery being called out for yet another training. Add to this that often different donors repeat the very same training due to a total lack of coordination. The service provider attends mostly for the sitting allowance provided and returns home not applying what has been learned. I call this disease ‘workshopitis’. The remedy? In health, we need roving multidisciplinary provincial teams that go facility by facility, stay 2-3 days in each, observe how services are provided, correct deficiencies, add new knowledge, leave a list of to-dos and return in three or six months to check on changes only to make yet a new round of recommendations, and so on.
Trade is also a big problem. Rich countries have stayed away from using WTO as a vehicle for their international trade deals and have opted for bilateral free trade agreements where they can better use their muscle to extricate more favorable conditions. The negative human rights consequences of most of these FTAs are nothing short of appalling. The rich in the poor countries may benefit, but not poor people. The new framework cannot possibly ignore this fact at the risk of coming up with a ‘robbing Peter to pay (rich) Paul’  agenda of development. [Not coincidentally, this also applies to poor countries servicing their odious foreign debt].  
20. How can accountability mechanisms be strengthened? What kind of monitoring process should be established? How can transparency and more inclusive global governance be used to facilitate achievement of the development agenda?

The answer is: Through civil society organizations specifically funded to act as watch dogs.
The monitoring should be based on annual benchmarks so as to check if on processes set in motion to assure the progressive realization of human rights are on course. (This presupposes each country prepares a long-term progressive realization plan of action with a, say, ten years horizon. The new framework must explicit this).
If a more inclusive global governance is to be understood as participatory governance, then the issues pertaining to governance transparency are included in the watch dog function.
What this question does not touch-upon is the issue of providing accessible redress mechanisms. The obligation of States is to take steps to prevent, investigate, punish and redress any abuse through effective policies, legislation, regulations and adjudication. States must ensure that those affected by business-related abuses or other human rights abuses have access to a prompt, accessible and effective remedy including, where necessary, recourse to judicial redress and non-judicial accountability and grievance mechanisms. The new framework must address this issue.
It is well known that CSOs are active in many countries in preparing shadow reports for the UN Human Rights Council. The framework must explicitly encourage CSOs to participate. Once the Council engages in the universal periodic review of the human rights issues of each country it issues recommendations which, unfortunately, are not binding. Mentioning this fact, may help the new framework creating greater consciousness about this shortcoming which could result in some corrective action on this in the future.
21. How can a new framework tackle the challenge of coherence among the organizations, processes, and mechanisms that address issues that are global in scope?
[I saw the concept of ‘poverty of ambition’ being used in these post 2015 discussions; I think it fits nicely here].
Since Paris has, for all practical purposes failed, I think the in-country coordination of donors and local organizations should be made mandatory for multilateral and bilateral agencies and for non-governmental donors both on general aid and aid by sector. Central in the coordination process will be addressing the global issues that the new framework will suggest be prioritized worldwide with the specific mandate to adopt/adapt them to the local realities and priorities. Coordination meetings are to be chaired by two government representatives ideally from the ministries of planning and finance and must have a representative participation of CSOs. More human and financial resources have to be specifically allocated by donors for such a coordination function.
Underlying the actual willingness and commitment of all involved agencies to work in a coherent manner will, in many cases, call for a profound exercise of revisioning and remissioning of what they do based on an honest question: Are we part of the problem or of the solution? The new framework can no longer condone silo mentality, vertical programs, each donor for himself in development work. Service delivery work is not enough; technical capacity building work is not enough; advocacy work is barely enough. Remissioning is about these institutions funding and engaging in empowerment an social mobilization work in the countries they work in.
Globally, it would be highly desirable that the new framework proposes ways to be worked out for the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights also to be involved in coherence, in processes and in mechanisms issues.
Furthermore, it seems indispensable that in the post-2015 period the UN special rapporteurs be allocated adequate budgets to allow them to have proper small staffing and more travel funds to do their (excellent) work.
22. How can we judge the affordability and feasibility of proposed goals, given current constraints?
Affordability is strictly a country by country matter. Being a cautious optimist, I think the current constraints will be overcome. Therefore, to be prominently kept in mind are the provisions of the extraterritorial obligations of rich countries. This means that countries showing well justified shortcomings to embark in the progressive realization of human rights will go to donor agencies for help. Given that the progressive realization is based on yearly progress marked by benchmarks --and countries will have ad-hoc plans-- donors will be able to commit resources long-term, in tranches, based on the budgeted official progressive realization plan of each country. Coupling this with CSOs participation on accountability issues gives us some hope for (cautious) optimism on feasibility.
Affordability/feasibility issues can be and have been addressed successfully in several instances through participatory budgeting initiatives. These ought to have an important place in the post-2015 recommendations.

Christine Campeau Ecumenical Advocacy Alliance (EAA), Switzerland

Dear Moderator,


Based on EAA’s long experience working with farmers and agricultural communities around the world, and with our governments at national and international levels, we welcome the opportunity to submit the following critical points for consideration. Our submission is attached.


We would also like to note our participation in the drafting of the Beyond 2015 position paper on food and nutrition security and would like to express that the attached contribution further supports this document.


Best regards,



Jean-Christophe S. Djiman Toudonou Ingénieur Agroéconomiste, Benin

Au crépuscule des OMD,en particulier en ce qui concerne les OMD liés à la faim, à la sécurité alimentaire et à la malnutrition, je peux dire que beaucoup d'efforts ont été effectuer mais l'atteinte de ces objectifs semble être un mirage, cas toute les actions qui concourraient à la réalisation de ces nobles objectifs étaient toutes divergentes et ceci surtout dans les zones dites les plus vulnérable. En effet les indicateurs, les proxys d'évaluation du niveau de vie, l’état nutritionnel, de la sécurité alimentaire dans le monde, ne sont pas encore connus de tous et partagés pas tous ou encore maitrisés pas tous, ce qui rend très relatif le choix des réels cibles, par conséquent le nombre d'individu souffrant de la faim n'est pas souvent bien couvert. L'instabilité politique, et les crises géopolitiques influencent énormément, les rapports d'évaluation. C'est en cela que je trouve que aucun engagement politique en tous cas en Afrique pour assurer la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle semble être une épée de Damoclès cas la maturité politique n'est pas encore chose évidente,donc c'est donné un outils de plus pour assujettis les populations déjà vulnérables et renforcer plus encore l'anneau infernal de la faim, la pauvreté, et tous ces vices.Comme le dit un adage de chez moi,( pour être chef, assure toi de maitrisé la faim des gens). Une action pluridisciplinaire, intersectorielle ce veux obligatoire et surtout la formation des jeunes pour qu'ils deviennent des spécialistes très avérer. un objectif : rendre les OMD accessibles dans toutes les langues maternelles principales des pays du monde pour favoriser la bonne compréhension des indicateurs dans un délais de 2 ans après l'élaboration des nouveaux OMD

Subhash Mehta Devarao Shivaram Trust, India

My thoughts on a more integrated multi sect oral response to meeting the nutritious food needs through agriculture in addition to my contributions 134 and 182; I am sharing Prof Dr Amar KJR Nayak’s case study (www. on how he and his colleagues, over a short term, have transformed one of the poorest communities in South Asia to one of long term sustainability by following the low cost integrated agriculture of the area for meeting their nutritious food needs, by using the producer org/ company (PC) intervention staffed by professionals ( creating human and institutional capacity among rural educated as general practitioners in agriculture) to manage risk, take over problems and responsibilities, other than on farm activities of their members, reduced hunger, mal nutrition, poverty, effect of climate change and suicides while improving livelihood, net income and purchasing power:


Integrated Low Cost Agriculture for Internal Consistency and External Synergy for Sustainability of Smallholder Farmers: Case of Nava Jyoti Agricultural Community

XIMB Sustainability Seminar Series, Working Paper 4.0 , August 2012

Amar KJR Nayak1


Both from a theoretical perspective and empirical evidences from smallholder agricultural community, the paper argues that technology intensive agriculture is unsuitable for smallholder  farmers [most believe that ecological agriculture is technology intensive] in  rural  agricultural  settings.  It  argues  that  integrated  low  cost agriculture is internally consistent  for sustainable agriculture and externally synergistic to smallholder   farmers,   local   ecology   and   greater   overall   performance   to   different stakeholders. Performance of smallholder farmers and the processes adopted in Nava Jyoti community over the last three years and evidences from a sample of organic farmers in India suggests that integrated low cost agriculture is the only way for sustainability of our food production  system at the base of the pyramid; that could ensure food  sufficiency, nutritional security and environmental safety for all. Intensive Agricultural Technology with GM Crops at its core may only be an illusion for food security.

Key Words

Food security, agricultural technology paradigm, smallholder farmer, net farmer income, internal consistency, external synergy, integrated low cost agriculture, sustainability

1 ©Amar KJR Nayak, Professor of Strategy and NABARD Chair Professor, Xavier Institute of

Management, Bhubaneswar, Email:


See the attachment: Navajyoti case study

Please find attached the input from the Climate Emergency Institute.

Yours Sincerely

Peter Carter

See the attachment: 6 Jan FAO Hunger MDGs (2).pdf