Contributions for Approches fondées sur les droits de la sécurité alimentaire dans les crises prolongées

Shaika Rakshi ICCO, India

For more than three decades, ICCO  has been supporting initiatives on Food and Nutrition Security works with multiple stakeholders to ensure rights and ownership of marginalized people to resources, securing livelihoods , diversification of local productions, facilitation of marketing of products through approaches like direct poverty alleviation, civil society development and policy influencing . The strategies include organizing small farmers, empowerment through awareness building on technology, nutrition and rights related to food security, alignment of partners' programs with the government and tapping into government resources, improvement of production, marketing of surplus/additional products, improving access to resources and capacity building.

ICCO is believes that every person on earth - man, woman and child - has the right to have access to  safe nutritious and adequate food. Improving the food and nutrition security of small-scale rural producers is at the core of our program. We support them to sustainably increase production for a better income and for better nutrition. At an international level we work with key partners  across more than 40 countries to improve policy environments for women and men in order to ensure that our successes endure.

ICCO’s successful model of strengthening local food systems consists of three important pillars:

•             We support community groups to organize themselves and link with (local) policymakers. We ensure that women are equally represented in these groups and we assist women’s groups.

•             We support small-scale (female) producers to sustainably increase their production and improve their ties with local markets. This improves the availability of food in a household and enhances income, which are very important aspects toward addressing food security in the long term.

•             Food also needs to be of high quality therefore ICCO stimulates production for a diverse diet, combined with promoting nutrition education.

The Food and Water security Coalition India ,supported by ICCO works on  rights based approach .It provides synergy, cross learning, field level activities leading to advocacy for policies and process that serve to promote food and water security in India. The major challenges of working in Food security in India has been lack of an enabling environment that concretely  addresses availability, access, and absorption or nutrition of food.

ICCO believes that partnering is essential to address these challenges. We see working with the governments , engaging with policy makers and private sector as crucial to take the agenda of Food and Nutrition security forward.


Warm regards


Shaika Rakshi

Program Officer


South & Central Asia Regional Office

3rd Floor Ramnath House,Plot 18

Yusuf Sarai Community Centre

Yusuf Sarai,New Delhi-110049


Mariam Jaajaa The Arab Group for the Protection of Nature /The CSM Working Group on ...

CSOs in the CSM believe that a primary purpose of the Agenda for Action is to enable governments and other stakeholders to implement existing CFS policy guidance and to honour their existing humanitarian and human rights obligations in protracted crises. These obligations, which have been negotiated between all governments, provide the strongest and most legitimate guidance for national and regional actions.

Such guidance has a direct role in preventing the emergence, prolonging, deepening or re-emergence of crises, as well as the emergence and aggravation of food insecurity in times of crises.

·         If the Agenda for Action adopts "resilience" as its overarching framework then its definition should be broadened to include the ability to realize rights and obligations despite crises and to further help resolve crises.

·         The Agenda for Action should prepare an implementation support package for all stakeholders to assist in implementing CFS and other legal frameworks with specific relevance to promoting food security in protracted crises.

  The first step in this implementation support package is the development of  a comprehensive inventory of norms to ensure accurate knowledge of humanitarian law and of all the different Human Rights legal frameworks (international, regional)that are related to the different protracted crises contexts (i.e. natural disasters and human induced crises). Such inventory should include all obligations that directly or indirectly contributing to food security/food insecurity. This inventory should be included in Appendix C or attached in a technical paper with the Agenda for Action.

  A second step would be for national legal systems and their institutions to interpret these norms and reform their policies as appropriate.

 Actions taken should be revised to address violations which are often causes of crises, as well as food insecurity in crises.

·         It is very important that CSOs stress again the need of directing the A4A and the importance of operationalizing CFS guidance and other human rights obligations  at all states and not only states suffering from crises, for the following reasons

    a)    to prevent crises in countries at risk

    b)   to request all states to respect and abide by extra-territorial obligations that have enormous impacts on food security on a national level - and here we find the Maastricht principles as an excellent reference towards defining these principles

    c)  to protect displaced populations and host communities

·         The principle proposed on promoting the voluntary guidelines on the responsible tenure of land, fisheries and forests is key but not comprehensive as there are other factors determining food security and nutrition, apart from tenure.

We suggest that the  first overarching principle should be  "Promoting compliance with existing international humanitarian and human rights obligations and CFS policy guidance as the most legitimate source of policy guidance.

Some answers to the below guiding questions

Question 1

1-      Communities should be at the center of analysis/assessment of underlying structural causes and consequences of protracted crises- Their documentation of events, violations and rights should be facilitated.

2-      It is important to build rights awareness and community capacity to demand rights from duty bearers.

3-      Communities need to develop autonomous innovative means to hold on to their rights, protect their natural resources and define ways to reduce consumption.

4-      There should be an accountability mechanism that ensure that donor /development/humanitarian agencies as well as the private sector are abiding by international obligations while the public sector is weak or absent.  An international judicial platform could be strengthened to allow communities to transmit cases of violations of the food right in protracted crises.

Question 2

6-      The rise in prices and exploitation of merchants to conflicts (raising prices and smuggling goods)

7-      Closing of border crossings and airports to import or export food items/sanctions

8-       Local production patterns do not satisfy local consumption patterns

9-       Lack of  integration between the policies and activities of the  various institutions, ministries and sectors

10-  No monitoring over quality specifications of food aid or imported items

11-  Lack of information on how , where and when to access food

12-  Absence of civil society liberty and self-organization

13-  Marginalization of the agricultural sector or local food production systems in recovery programmes and aid schemes. E.g setting conditions on the agricultural sector to plant particular non-food/ export based crops

14-  Rehabilitation/reconstruction schemes that threaten community's' access to resources of production and harm the food security of the majority of the people on the long run.

15-  Pressure of the donor countries/development /humanitarian institutions to adopt policies that undermine food sovereignty

16-  Refugees demands on limited local resources

17-   Developmental and relief aid not directed at the most affected communities.

18-  Using food as a coercive tool/punishment against populations

Question 3

19-  Mapping and supporting local coping strategies while reducing need of negative coping strategies.

20-  Ensure integration of short and long term goal through strengthening diversified local food production systems

21-  Relying on locally produced food and material  when delivering assistance

22-  Strengthening Urban Agriculture

23-  Resource management alternatives (seed banks, water harvesting methods)

24-  Mainstream Risk analysis and Early Warning Systems that monitors Human Rights violations.



Raúl Montenegro Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina

A. Introducción

En general es difícil seguir las preguntas planteadas por los organizadores porque no parecen basarse en la compleja realidad de las crisis prolongadas y su relación con la alimentación. Parecen referirse principalmente a la parte operativa, más que al montaje de un sistema quizás más complejo pero también más realista de intervención. Es necesario por otra parte considerar, junto a "alimentos" el tema indisociable "agua potable".

B. Componentes de una estrategia para estar mejor preparados ante la ocurrencia de crisis.

1. Cada país debe estar representado en una base de datos orientada a la posible ocurrencia, dentro de su territorio, de crisis prolongadas que lleven a carencias alimentarias y de provisión de agua. Entre las variables fundamentales que debe cubrir esta base de datos se encuentran:

1.1. Tipos de crisis esperables y bases de datos sobre los distintos tipos de crisis. Por ejemplo crisis climáticas por sequías y por inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos, crisis por actividad volcánica, crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos, crisis por incendios, crisis por guerra, crisis por accidentes o eventos nucleares (por ejemplo de Nivel 7 en la escala del INES), o su combinación (en Filipinas se combinó temporalmente sismo y tifón; en Japón se combinaron tsunami y accidente nuclear nivel 7 (INES) en Fukushima Dai Ichi), etc.

1.2. La posibilidad de combinación da lugar a lo que llamamos "multicrisis" (como en los ejemplos anteriores). Es previsible que aumenten en nuestro planeta los fenómenos de multicrisis, por cuanto ha aumentado la población y la distribución de la población, y la posibilidad de ocurrencia simultánea de dos o más tipologías de crisis.

También es posible que las crisis o multicrisis se sucedan en el tiempo, golpeando a las poblaciones afectadas ante que hayan comenzado su proceso de reconstrucción.  

Existen crisis, como las nucleares (caso Chernobyk, caso Fukushima Dai Ichi) o por evento químico (aplicación masiva de armas químicas de las distintas generaciones, por ejemplo sarina y agente Vx), que inutilizan vastos sistemas de salud y de actuación institucional ante crisis por ejemplo. En estos casos, hasta los sistemas que habían sido previstos para enfrentar crisis y multicrisis quedan fuera de circulación.   

1.3. Es fundamental mapear en cada país la "geografía" de las crisis esperables ("Mapas de riesgos").   

2. Resistencia ambiental del país a crisis climáticas por sequías y por inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos, crisis por actividad volcánica, crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos, crisis por incendios, crisis por guerra, crisis por accidentes o eventos nucleares (por ejemplo de Nivel 7 en la escala del INES), o su combinación, etc. Siguiendo lo que recomendamos en nuestros trabajos, para calcular esa resistencia ambiental deberían considerarse varios indicadores, entre ellos:

2.1. Relación entre la superficie dedicada a: a) Ambientes nativos y cuencas hídricas protegidas; b) Ambiente de producción agropecuaria (incluida silvicultura) y c) Ambientes urbanos y en general ocupados por asentamientos humanos, y las "zonas de borde" entre estos ambientes o ecosistemas (ecotonos). Cuanto menos superficie de ambiente nativo tiene un país, mayor su inestabilidad ambiental. Los ambientes nativos de alta biodiversidad son los escudos protectores más eficaces contra todo tipo de crisis. Lamentablemente los países tienden a simplificar la mayor parte del territorio, sin considerar los servicios ambientales críticos que pierden. 

2.2. Meses del año con bioclimas fríos y bioclimas calientes (por ejemplo) o el modelo que corresponda al país considerado. Igualmente, consideración de épocas del año con peor presión climática (época de sequías, época de lluvias, época de tormentas, etc.).  

2.3. Geomorfología general del país con indicación de zonas montañosas y rocosas, de zonas con humedales permanentes, de zonas con suelos de llanura, de zonas con desiertos, etc. China por ejemplo tiene un 43% de superficie montañosa, un 26% de mesetas montañosas y un 11,4% de desiertos. De allí que haya incrementado notablemente la técnica de "país expandido" comprando tierras en otras naciones o alquilando tierras para cultivo. Esta es una nueva forma de colonización mucho menos percibida que la tradicional.

2.4. Distribución y estado de las cuencas hídricas superficiales y subterráneas, en especial estado de las cuencas de captación (usualmente afectadas por destrucción de los ecosistemas nativos). Debe asumirse como cuenca hídrica no solamente las zonas de captación, usualmente zonas montañosas, sino también las zonas de llanura.

3. Resistencia social del país a crisis climáticas por sequías e inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos; crisis por actividad volcánica; crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos; crisis por incendios; crisis por guerras; crisis por accidente o evento nuclear, etc. Siguiendo lo que recomendamos en nuestros trabajos, para calcular esa resistencia social deberían considerarse varios indicadores, entre ellos:

3.1. Distribución y densidad de la población en distintas partes del territorio, y condiciones generales del hábitat en esas zonas (tanto la naturaleza del ambiente, por ejemplo zona de montaña, zona de llanura, zona de humedales, zona urbana de alta densidad, etc.).

3.2. Distribución dentro de un país o caracterización de las diferencias étnicas, religiosas y culturales que pudieran tornar más complejos los sistemas de preparación, intervención y participación.     

3.3. Preparación social para enfrentar desde lo individual, familiar y grupal las principales tipologías de crisis que podrían llevar a períodos extensos de falta de alimentos y agua. En particular si existen o no "Planes ciudadanos para actuar" en cada tipo de crisis posible.

4. Resistencia institucional del país a crisis climáticas por sequías e inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos; crisis por actividad volcánica; crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos; crisis por incendios; crisis por guerras; crisis por accidente o evento nuclear, etc. Siguiendo lo que recomendamos en nuestros trabajos, para calcular esa resistencia institucional deberían considerarse varios indicadores, entre ellos:

4.1. Completamiento del conocimiento y escenarios de crisis y multicrisis, ello conforme a lo ya analizado en el punto 1. Esto es, capacidad real al interior de cada país para prever las crisis y multicrisis posibles, y sus respectivos escenarios de gravedad (por ejemplo sucesión en el tiempos de múltiples multicrisis), todo lo anterior debidamente mapeado (ver punto 1). 

4.2. Naturaleza de la organización institucional pública, en particular divisiones jurisdiccionales del poder; características en términos generales de los grandes poderes que conforman los gobiernos a nivel nacional y regionales (ejecutivo, judicial, legislativo, otros), o bien sistemas dictatoriales, militares o cívico-militares, ya sea con poderes divididos, o con falsos poderes divididos; instituciones ad-hoc y peso relativo de esas instituciones en el organigrama general de las distintas jurisdicciones; presupuestos para situaciones sin crisis y previsiones presupuestarias para situaciones de crisis; grado de corrupción, etc. Resumidamente, "fuerza" relativa de los gobiernos.  

4.3. Preparación institucional de cada país para enfrentar los distintos tipos de crisis, en particular disponibilidad de instituciones dedicadas al tema, personal especializado para los distintos tipos de crisis, sistemas de movilidad, sistemas de comunicaciones, preparación del sistema de salud, sistemas de seguridad, etc. Usualmente no hay recursos económicos específicamente previstos, sino que se extraen –usualmente en forma caótica- de los fondos públicos disponibles.

4.4. Sistemas previstos de distribución de alimentos y agua, y de otros elementos necesarios en zonas de crisis.

4.5. Organización de simulacros y de ensayo de las crisis más posibles y de mayor impacto, complementario y esencial de los planes ciudadanos de actuación ante distintos tipos de crisis (crisis climáticas por sequías e inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos; crisis por actividad volcánica; crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos; crisis por incendios; crisis por guerras; crisis por accidente o evento nuclear, etc.).  

4.6. Existencia de sistemas educativos y de información, continuos, en épocas sin crisis, para mejor preparar a la sociedad para tiempos de crisis. Cada ciudadano debería acceder a un "kit" mínimo de prevención y acción para los distintos tipos posibles de crisis. El rol educativo le corresponde al Estado principalmente, pero también a las instituciones privadas, ONGs, religiones, etc.

4.7. Preparación institucional de cada país para establecer rápidamente contactos y acciones conjuntas con otros países que pudieran contribuir a amortiguar los efectos, pero sobre la base de un proceso preparado previamente durante los tiempos "sin crisis".

C. Clasificación de los distintos países en función de sus resistencias ambientales, sociales e institucionales a los distintos tipos de crisis.

1. Esto es muy importante, pues en países con valores extremadamente bajos de los tres tipos de resistencia, los daños e impactos negativos esperados para distintos tipos de crisis son extremadamente altos (caso Haití, un ejemplo paradigmático de país con sus tres resistencias a nivel mínimo).  

2. Es muy importante a nivel de organizaciones internacionales de países (globales o regionales) que estas estructuras (por ejemplo MERCOSUR en América Latina; Comunidad Europea en Europa, etc.) tengan sistemas previstos de organización internacional para distintos escenarios posibles de crisis y de multicrisis. El sistema debe prever diferentes modalidades de participación en función de los niveles de resistencia que tenga cada país.

3. Urge una Convención sobre Crisis y Multicrisis de Envergadura por Causas Antrópicas y No Antrópicas, que provea marcos globales claros, lógicos y entendibles, y una asociación entre países para mejor prevenirlas y enfrentarlas. Dentro del contexto de esta propuesta Convención debería considerarse muy especialmente los casos en que las crisis y multicrisis llevan a la carencia de alimentos y de agua potable, y los protocolos para mejorar esa intervención.


Prof. Dr. Raúl A. Montenegro, Biólogo

Presidente de FUNAM (Fundación para la defensa del ambiente)

Profesor Titular de Biología Evolutiva (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)

Premio Nóbel Alternativo 2004 (RLA-Estocolmo, Suecia)

Premio Global 500 de Naciones Unidas 1989 (UNEP-Bruselas, Bélgica)

Nuclear Free Future Award 1998 (Salzburgo, Austria)

Premio a la Investigación Científica (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Shivani Bhardwaj Food Water Security Coalition India, India

The Indian government now gives food grain dole as food right to each poor family and FWSCI (Food Water Security Coalition India) has critiqued this by asking for cooked food provision at work and place of stay for all who may want to avail it. Yet each organization can do only a part of the analysis as the right to food has many dimensions and to work on each sub theme takes am organization to work a life time.  

Right based approach needs to be first applied at home to feed your own self and family members mindfully, equitably and sustainably. For this planning and talking about food and health routines is necessary. Talking about each other’s wellness and getting to know what is good for the body and soul takes time, research and getting together emotion. Once this is collected, collated and nurtured each family can grow, buy and prepare/ pack food for the day. Thus gender and generation and sustainability dynamics need attention first within self to begin asking for action outside of self. We all need to be engaged in generating, food and water in a way we are not consumers but conservers and nurturing beings as well. 

Having clean water, land, space to live/work/cook/eat and rest, energy (fuel/sunlight) is an important part of right to food. These need to be negotiated with the people within governance structures. 

We at Food Water Security Coalition India work towards micro and meso debate to provide holistic framework to people working towards impacting resource constrains to meet the food and water insecurity in our country. Our members have organized various consultations. Worked on food sovereignty by working on seed rights, water and sanitation to retain clean environment to generate food as per the soils capacity to give the human and animal the vegetation it can survive on. Our members have also researched on pilots for home plots and local water drip and low sprinkler irrigation as well as on climate change impacting agriculture.

With five years of work together our coalition wonders how we can impact the debate and actual sustainable availability of food and water for all. Work on land housing and water is an intrinsic part of food rights. Working of human rights of workers, children, men, women, disabled and elderly are another dimension as food and water needs are specific to nutrition needs of differing people. 

We welcome a continued dialogue for generating a common clarity. 



Dr. Mohamed Solaimia الخليل , West Bank

>> English version below<<

في بداية تعقيبي لا بد من إبداء إعتراضي على عدم وجود فلسطين كدولة وتم الاستعاضة عنها بالضفة الغربية مع الاخذ بعين الاعتبار انه تم الاعتراف الدولي بفلسطين كدولة كاملة الحقوق والسيادة.

بإعتقادي ان من الممكن جداً تطبيق الأساليب القائمة على الحقوق في المناطق التي تحظى برقابة حكومة مركزية ضعيفة أو تنعدم بها الرقابة الحكومة المركزية وذلك من خلال تقوية منظمات المجتمع المدني والمنظمات المهنية وتشجيع دورها الريادي في المجتمع، مما لا شك فيه ان تظافر الجهود وتوحيدها بين تلك المنظمات من خلال شبكات محلية ينضم تحتها الكم الاكبر من مؤسسات الجتمع المدني الفاعلة والتي تتشارك في الاهداف والغايات سيحقق بالضرورة اللبنة الاساسية التي من خلالها سيتم مراقبة اداء الحكومات المركزية وتصويبها لان تلك الشبكات تعبر عن نبض الشارع وتعكس هموم ومتطلبات وتطلعات افراد المجتمع على مختلف انتماآتهم ولديها مسؤلية مجتمعية عالية. 

يعتبرالتحدي الاكبر الذي يواجه كافة شعوبنا في سيادته على غذائه هو عدم القدرة على سيادته على مصادره الطبيعية بشكل او بآخر وتحكم المستثمرين في مقدرات الشعوب ولا أغالي اذا ما قلت ان هناك استثماراً غير مسؤول همه الوحيد هو تحقيق اكبر ربح ممكن على حساب صغار الفلاحين، الذين اصبحوا بسبب هذه الممارسات عمال زراعيين يعملون باجر في اراضيهم. لذا لا بد من إعادة تنظيم المزارعين في جمعيات يستطيعوا من خلالها حماية اراضيهم وتعظيم دخولهم.  

At the beginning of my comment, I need to express my objection on the absence of Palestine as a state and the West Bank comes instead, taking into consideration that there is an international recognition of Palestine as state with full rights and sovereignty.

I think that it is possible to apply the rights based approach in the areas that has a weak central government control or has no central government control. This could be done through empowering the civil society organizations and the professional organizations and strengthen its leading role in the community. There is no doubt that having concerted efforts between such organizations through local networks that comprise most of the effective civil society organizations that share the same objective and goals will necessarily put the corner stone through which the central government performance can be monitored and corrected. This is due to the fact that such networks represent the street pulse and reflect people's concerns, requirements and aspirations and the networks also have high social responsibility.

The biggest challenge that face all our people is their control over their food and their inability to have sovereignty over its natural resources in a way or another in addition to investors control over people's destiny. I will not be exaggerating when I say that there is irresponsible investment that only aims at achieving the biggest profit possible at the expense of small farmers who turned out to be wage earners because of such practices. Then we should reorganize the farmers in associations through which we can protect their land and maximize their income.


Abbas Rahi Iraqi Organization for Rehabilitating Society and Environment (NGOs ), Iraq

Although most countries are trying to show that being interested in the principles of human rights and support for democracy in their countries, especially the Third World countries, including Arab countries. But he unfortunately canceled this principles upon the occurrence of crises or uprising and opposition to its rule resulting outcome occurred violation of human rights and inhumane humans, which stipulates respect for religions and constitutions local or international conventions

The absence of long-term strategic programs in Iraq has contributed to the growth and conflicts that led to the aggravation of poverty and destitution among many members of the community and that the result led to a systematic violation of the principles of human rights.
We are in Iraq at the present time are afraid of a return to armed groups that pose a threat to the political process in Iraq and its regional surroundings.  The first to be affected by the marginalized classes and the poor, minorities, and children and women.
Iraq is now under the hammer, anvil because of its location between the international and regional policies that surround it, including the problems of Syria - Iran - Turkey.

Result led to a worsening sectarian conflict between members of the community even though some try to deny it, but the facts show that the next conflict is sectarian
The challenges facing Iraqi society, for example, is a lot of conflict within the country and the different partners of the political process, which in turn led to the outbreak of administrative corruption and squandering of public money and the lack of infrastructure, lack of activation of some of the decisions that contribute to the provision of the minimum requirements for human beings to live in freedom and dignity.

Iraq has passed since 2003, many problems and that the most important lesson may well defined Iraqi society is to work a single national spirit and peaceful coexistence between groups of the same society and that their differences in backgrounds, nationalities and religions must be that invests a force and not a weakness walk into external programs.
Unfortunately, that Iraqi society has reached a state of pain in solving its problems despite being a country rich oil, and now citizen feel no desire to participate in the upcoming parliamentary elections (April 30, 2014) for being   suitable alternative to these faces and parties repeated in winning elections

To be their places of business that the main player and the main aggravation or solving crises are religious institutions in Iraq, which proved to have a key role in supporting the peaceful co-existence in Iraq of different ideas, but that happens from time to time is the emergence of groups do not have a big impact in the community adopts  external programs are implemented provoke confusion and fear and then worsened the situation between the members of the community.

The second basic Despite being does not have the same elements of the former is the institutions of civil society , NGOs and the community began to give their  confidence is better than previous years despite being have an expertise sufficient in the management of crises that occur and most of their roles was to provide and deliver humanitarian aid or adopt Initiative  for peace and educate community concepts of human rights or peace-building , etc., but in spite of this privilege to it is in dire need of training for the transfer of new skills and techniques for the community to change in some culture  society misconceptions and development activists performance for writing shadow reports and monitor the performance of the work of the government.

To work without the occurrence of such crises, there must be a strict regulatory program to monitor the work and performance of the government that was on the local and international level.

Transparency in the work of state institutions and the government is still below the level of ambition in Iraq, where the lack of confidence of the partners in governance has contributed significantly to the growing violence and the growth of conflicts between the fabric of Iraqi society, one which led to the intervention of some states and terrorist groups to make Iraq the instability and settling of accounts armed groups. to be re - building confidence between the partners of the political process and educate decision-makers and executive powers to the principles of respect for human rights and democracy support.

We urgently need to activate investment laws because it is an important part of the development of the country and the elimination of unemployment, especially in infrastructure and agriculture, which are associated with plants Fertilizers or canning and agricultural mechanization and agricultural banks, but unfortunately the instability of the security situation and the lack of clarity in the political process has made businessmen of foreign and even local escapes from investment in Iraq.

The economic factor in Iraq is moving day after day about the deterioration despite the fact that there are some good programs adopted by the government, but mismanagement and widespread corruption and cronyism between the parties led to the failure of many programs that were at the level of agriculture or industry.

Abbas Rahi Iraqi Organization for Rehabilitating Society and Environment (NGOs ), Iraq

  بالرغم من أن معظم الدول تحاول ان تجمل سياستها بمباديء حقوق الانسان ودعم الديمقراطية في بلدانها خصوصا دول العالم الثالث ومنها الدول العربية . الا انه للاسف تلغى هذه المعاير عند وقوع ازمات او انتفاضة ومعارضة لحكمها  مما يؤدي بالنتيجة وقع انهتاكات لحقوق الانسان وآدمية البشر التي نصت على احترامها الاديان و الدساتير المحلية او المواثيق الدولية .

ان غياب برامج استراتيجية طويلة الامد ا في العراق قد  ساهم في نمو بؤرة النزاعات والتي ادت الى تفاقم ظاهرة الفقر والعوز لدى افراد كثيرة من المجتمع والتي ادت بالنتيجة الى انتهاك منظم لمباديء حقوق الانسان .

اننا في العراق في الوقت الحاضر نخشى من عودة المجاميع المسلحة والتي تشكل خطرا على العملية السياسية في العراق ومحيطها الاقليمي . ويكون المتأثر الاول بها الطبقات المهمشة ومنها الفقراء والاقليات والاطفال والنساء .

ان العراق الان تحت مطرقة السندان  بسبب موقعه بين التجاذبات الدولية والاقليمية التي تحيط به  ومنها مشاكل سوريا – ايران – تركيا ،

ادت بالنتيجة الى تفاقم صراع طائفي بين افراد المجتمع على الرغم من البعض يحاول نفي ذلك ، لكن الوقائع تدل ان الصراع القادم هو طائفي بحت

ان التحديات التي تواجه المجتمع العراقي مثلا تتمثل بكثرة الصراعات داخل البلد واختلاف شركاء العملية السياسية والتي بدورها ادت الى تفشي مرض الفساد الاداري واهدار المال العام وغياب البنى التحتية ، وعدم تفعيل بعض القرارات التي تساهم في توفير الحد الادنى من متطلبات البشر للعيش بحرية وكرامة .

لقد مر العراق منذ عام 2003 بمشاكل كثيرة وان اهم درس قد عرفه المجتمع العراقي جيدا هو العمل بروح الوطنية الواحدة والتعايش السلمي بين فئات المجتمع الواحد وان اختلافهم في الانتماءات والقوميات والاديان يجب ان يستثمر كقوة وليس ضعف تخترقه الانجدات الخارجية

للاسف ان المجتمع العراقي فد وصل الى حالة من الياأس في حل مشاكله على الرغم من كونه من البلدان النفطية الغنية ، ومن الان يشعر المواطن بعدم الرغبة في المشاركة في الانتخابات البرلمانية القادمة ( 30 نيسان 2014) لكونه لايجد البديل المناسب لهذه الوجوه والاحزاب المتكررة في الفوز في الانتخابات

لنكون واقعين ان  اللاعب الاساسي والرئيسي في تفاقم او حل الازمات هي المؤسسات الدينية في العراق والتي اثبتت الايام ان لها دور اساسي في دعم التعايش السلمي في العراق على اختلاف انتمائتها ، لكن الذي يحدث بين فترة واخرى هي ظهور جماعات ليس لها تأثير كبير في المجتمع تتبنى عمليات او تنفذ انجدات خارجية تثير البلبلة والخوف ومن ثم تازم الموقف بين افراد المجتمع .

العامل الاساسي الثاني على الرغم من كونه لايملك نفس مقومات السابقة هي مؤسسات المجتمع المدني غير الحكومية  والتي بدا المجتمع يعطيها ثقة افضل من السنوات السابقة على الرغم من كونها لاتملك الخبرات الكافية في ادارة الازمات التي تحدث ومعظم ادوارها كان تقديم  وتوصيل المساعدات الانسانية او تبني مبادراة للسلام وتثقيف المجتمع بمفاهيم حقوق الانسان او بناء السلام وغيرها  ،   لكن على الرغم من هذا الامتياز الى انها بحاجة ماسة الى التدريب لنقل مهارات واساليب جديدة للمجتمع لتغير في بعض ثقافت المجتمع الخاطئة وتطوير اداء الناشطين لكتابة تقارير الظل ومراقبة اداء عمل الحكومة .

للحيولة دون وقوع مثل هذه الازمات يجب ان يكون هناك برنامج رقابي متشددة لمراقبة عمل واداء الحكومة ان كان على المستوى المحلي و الدولي .

.ان الشفافية في عمل مؤسسات الدولة والحكومة لاتزال دون مستوى الطموح في  العراق ، حيث غياب ثقة الشركاء في الحكم قد ساهم مساهمة كبيرة في تنامي العنف ونمو الصراعات بين نسيج المجتمع العراقي الواحد مما ادى الى تدخل بعض  الدول والجماعات الارهابية بجعل العراق منطقة عدم استقرار وتصفية حسابات المجاميع المسلحة .يجب ان يعاد بناء الثقة بين شركاء العملية السياسية وتوعية اصحاب القرار والسلطات التنفيذية بمباديء احترام حقوق الانسان ودعم الديمقراطية

انا بحاجة ماسة الى تفعيل قوانين الاستثمار لانها جزء مهم من تطور البلد والقضاء على البطالة وخصوصا في البنى التحتية والزراعة  ومتعلاقاتها من مصانع للاسمدة او التعليب والمكننة الزراعية  والمصارف الزراعية ، لكن للاسف عدم استقرار الوضع الامني وسوداوية العملية السياسية جعلت المستشمر الاجنبي وحتى المحلي يهرب من الاستثمار في العراق .

ان العامل الاقتصادي في العراق يتجه يوما بعد يوما نحو التدهور على الرغم من ان هناك بعض البرامج الجيدة التي تتبناها الحكومة ، لكن سوء الادارة وتفشي ظاهرة الفساد الاداري والمحسوبية بين الاحزاب ادت الى فشل كثير من البرامج ان كانت على مستوى الزراعة او الصناعة .


Qasim Almudhaffer Iraqi bee -keepers Association, Iraq

>> English version below<<

يتمتع العراق بمناخ جيد يساعد على اكثار ونمو النخيل(نخيل البلح) ويشكل البلح ماده غذائيه جيده ممكن الاستفاده منها في الازمات والتمور عادةً تكون صالحه للاستهلاك البشري لاكثر من سنتين اذا تهيأ لها ضروف خزن مناسبه , وكان العراق ينبت فيه اكثر من ٣٢ مليون نخله مثمره  ولكنها تقلصت بسبب الاهمال والحروب وضعف الاهتمام الحكومي بسبب وجود واردات النفط حيث اصبح الان عدد النخيل لايتجاوز ٦ ملاين نخله اغلبها شاهق وخدمتها صعبه كما ان القيود الحكوميه على تصدير التمور وقلة الوسائل الحديثه في ادخالها في الصناعه والزراعه ادى ايضاً الى تراجع اسعارها وهذا سبب رئيسي بعدم الاهتمام بزراعة النخيل ولغرض الارتقاء وتطوير زراعة النخيل لابد من حث الحكومه على استخدام الوسائل الحديثه في زراعة النخيل وتقديم الخبرات في الصناعه الحديثه للتمور وايجاد الاسواق المناسبه لها ... ومنظمة الفاو لديها الكثير الذي يمكن ان تقدمه في هذا المجال ونحن على استعداد بتقديم مالدينا من خبره في هذا المجال مع امكانية ادخال منضمات غير حكوميه واتحاد الفلاحين في هذا المجال 

Iraq enjoys a good climate that helps in the reproduction and growth of palm trees (dates palm trees). Dates constitute good nutrients that can be used in crisis. Dates can also be valid for human consumption for more than two years if stored in the right conditions. More than 32 fruitful palm trees grow in Iraq but this number has decreased because of negligence, war conditions and the lack of government attention because of the present of oil imports. The number of palm trees have now become six million most of them are very tall and difficult to serve. In addition, government constraints on dates export and the lack of modern methods for using them in industry and agriculture has led to the decrease in the dates price and this is the main reason for not giving enough attention to planting palm trees. For the sake of improving and developing planting palm trees, the government should be urged to use the modern methods in planting palm trees and providing expertise in the modern industry of dates as well as finding the appropriate markets. The United Nations FAO has a lot to offer in this field and we are ready to provide all the experience we have in this field along with the possibility of engaging non-governmental organizations and the farmers' association in this field.


Mohamed Hakash الجامعة الوطنية للقطاع الفلاحي, Morocco

>> English version below<<

بعد التحية والتقدير للمبادرة والمجهود المبذول من اجل ضمان السيادة الغذائية لكافة الشعوب وخاصة الشعوب المحاصرة التي تعيش ازمات وحروب مفروضة عليها.

اعتبر ان فرض تطبيق الحق في الغذاءفي ظل دولة ضعيفة اومستبدة او متحكم في ارادتها يمر عبر النضال من اجل تعبئة الشعب على التنظيم وخلق تعاونيات للعمل الانتاجي المباشر. لقد علمتنا تجارب الشعوب قديما وحديثا كيف استطاعت الشعوب ان تضمد جراحها ويتضامن افرادها لمواجهة الفياضانات والزلازل وحتى الحروب ، وكيف قاومت الاستبداد ومزقت سياج الحصار الاقتصادي والسياسي والثقافي. ان شعب اليابان علمنا الكثير في الحالة الاولى كما  ان شعب البرازيل علمنا  بحركته "البدون ارض"  كيف  استطاع ان ينتزع الارض لم لايحرثها ويخلق تعاونيات زراعية فوقها ليضمن بذلك الحق في الغذاء والعيش الكريم للعديد من المحرومين والمحرومات من خيرات بلادهم وبلادهن.

ان اساليب فرض الحق في الغذاء وانتزاع السيادة الغذائية تتعدد بتعدد تواريخ الشعوب وتجاربها وعاداتها وتقاليدها ومحنها ومعاناتها. ويبقى التضامن هو القاسم المشترك بين الانسانية جمعاء شريطة ان لا يكون التضامن رقما سياسيا او صدقة جارية.

وتبقى الديمقراطية و التحرر من الاستبداد ومحاربة الفساد والاحتكار والاستحواذ على خيرات الشعوب هي الشروط الاساسية لتحقيق العيش الكريم، ان الانتاج الغذائي في العالم الحالي يمكن ان يلبي ضعف حاجيات الانسانية كلها، فل نتسائل اذن لماذا يعيش ازيد من مليون نسمة في الفقر المدقع ولماذا يموت يوميا مئات الاطفال جوعا وبردا.

I would like to express my appreciation to the initiatives and effort exerted for the purpose of ensuring food security for all nations specially the ones that are besieged in crisis and wars.

I think that imposing the principle of the right to food in a weak or dictatorship country or a country with a controlled willpower passes through strife for the sake of mobilizing people's effort to organize and create cooperatives for direct productive work. The old and recent experience of nations has taught us how people were able to address its problems through concerted efforts to face floods, earthquakes and even wars and how they were able to deal with the economic, political and cultural siege. The people of Japan has taught us a lot in the first case and the people of Brazil has taught us with the movement of "without land" how to take the land from those who do not plough it and then create relevant agricultural cooperatives in order to guarantee the right to food and good living for the large number of people who are deprived from the welfare of their country.

The methods of imposing the right to food and acquiring food sovereignty are many depending  on the history, experiences, customs, traditions, plagues and sufferings of nations. Solidarity remains to be the common factor for all humanity provided that this solidarity does not become a standard record or an ongoing charity.

Democracy and freedom from tyranny, fighting corruption and monopoly in addition to usurping people's wealth remain to be the basic conditions for achieving good living. The world food production is sufficient to meet double the human demand… then, let's ask ourselves the question: why more than a million inhabitants live in extreme poverty and why hundred of kids die daily because of hunger and cold.


UG2014 Group 8 University, Guyana

“For too long the development debate has ignored the fact that poverty tends to be characterized not only by material insufficiency but also by denial of rights. What is needed is a rights-based approach to development. Ensuring essential political, economic and social entitlements and human dignity for all people provides the rationale for policy. These are not a luxury affordable only to the rich and powerful but an indispensable component of national development efforts.” - Kofi Annan

We are a group of five University of Guyana Students who are currently in our final year of studies of a Bachelor of Social Science Degree in Economics. We are currently working on a thesis for our Agricultural Economics 2 Course (To investigate Guyana’s participation in the MDG’s initiative of the collaborative efforts to eradicate hunger and malnutrition by 2015”) and offer below our humble contribution to this discussion. We have tried to relate it to our country’s situation (Guyana, South America) as much as possible and drawn from the knowledge we have gleaned thus far in our studies and research.

·         Rights-based approaches to Food Security in Protracted Crises.

A number of Third World countries experience protracted crises especially those that are faced with droughts and earthquakes. In Third World counties, people can hardly afford the basic necessities to survive; this is usually an effect of a weak or inefficient government. As mentioned in the opening quote, these developing countries may be in their current state due to a human rights violation. Going forward in our response we are holding all other variables constant and looking at the issue of food security solely as a human rights problem.

A new dimension to pursue food security is the Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA), which seeks to reduce the level of inequality and discrimination. This approach takes human rights into consideration when making policies and allows the public to participate to help make the decisions that will determine their standard of living in the future. The fact that HRBA allows the public to hold those that are responsible to fulfil their rights accountable; gives the public a greater opportunity to take part. However the application of HRBA to areas that have a weak or no central government control, can help ensure that the citizens suffering due to the protracted crisis can have their basic human rights fulfilled and can level the playing field thus reducing the problem of food insecurity.

One way we suggest that HRBA can be implemented in areas with weak or no central government is for the other sectors of the golden quadrant to step up (civil society, private sector and knowledge sectors).  For example, in most cases we find that when individuals are not properly informed about something they have no cause to fight for it. This is where we suggest the knowledge sector can play its part. Citizens suffering in the protracted crisis areas should be informed about their rights to basic needs (food, clothing and shelter). Once they are properly informed they can now call out to the civil and private sectors for help in attaining these rights.

The civil society being more in touch with these individuals can coordinate with the private sector in ensuring these individuals get their basic human rights. Our suggestions are that these individuals not be given aid but rather given a chance to support themselves. In other words civil society can coordinate with the private sector for training and jobs for these individuals. This gives them a source of income in which they can now attempt to sustain themselves. This will also lead to investment initiatives and higher productivity level for the country. This will give the Government better resources and they are now in a better position to strengthen central government and ensure human rights are granted to the citizens.

In this way we see how three of the four sectors of the golden quadrant can work to strengthen the last sector and how they can all work together maximising their strengths and covering their weaknesses. This may seem like a very simple solution in black and white to a very serious problem, it however requires a lot of on the ground work. A major problem of developing countries is a term in development economics known as the coordination failure. It is this inefficiency of major players (such as the golden quadrant) to efficiently and effectively coordinate their activities to attain a common goal that often finds developing countries with the ability to greatly reduce poverty still in a poverty trap.

In our country Guyana, we have managed to meet the target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger and made great strides in reducing poverty levels.[1] This is mainly due to government initiatives. Perhaps more active support along with efficient coordination from other sectors in the golden quadrant will lead to us achieving this MDG by the 2015 deadline.

Group Members:

Alexander Defraitas

Ricardo Deokie

Jamiyla Morian

Suraiya Ramkissoon

Veronica Sukhai


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "Countries in protracted crisis: what are they and why do they deserve special attention?" The State of Food Security in the World, 2010: 12-26.

United Nations Development Group. Human rights-based approach to development programming (HRBA). 2006. (accessed November 11, 2013).

United Nations Development Program. Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. 2012. (accessed October 28, 2013).

Universal Peace Federation. Human Rights Quotes. 2006-2013. (accessed November 11, 2013).

[1] (United Nations Development Program 2012)