Intégration de la sécurité alimentaire dans les processus de construction de la paix

27.11.2013 - 18.12.2013

Chers membres du Forum,

En 2010, le rapport sur L'état de l'insécurité alimentaire dans le monde (SOFI) a estimé qu'il y avait plus de 160 millions de personnes sous-alimentées vivant dans des situations de crise prolongée. Le pourcentage de personnes sous-alimentées dans des situations de crise prolongée est environ le triple de celui observé dans d'autres contextes en développement et, plus la crise se prolonge, plus les résultats en termes de sécurité alimentaire sont désastreux. Plus nous reportons les interventions concrètes, plus le problème s'aggrave, comme l'a démontré la situation en Afrique. En 1990, 42 % des douze pays frappés par des crises alimentaires en Afrique avaient connu auparavant des situations de crise pendant huit ans ou plus sur une période de dix ans; pour 2010, le nombre total de pays frappés par une ou plusieurs crises alimentaires avait doublé, et 79 % d'entre eux avaient connu des crises prolongées.

Le Comité de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale (CSA) a lancé un processus de consultation pour élaborer un programme d'action pour combattre l'insécurité alimentaire lors des crises prolongées, qui sera soumis à l'approbation du CSA à sa quarante et unième session en 2014. Cette discussion virtuelle a pour but de contribuer à la rédaction du programme d'action sur la base de l’apport de ceux qui connaissent de plus près les situations de crise prolongée.

Dans cette discussion, nous allons aborder des thèmes comme 1) les liens entre l'insécurité alimentaire et la fragilité, y compris moyennant des évaluations de la fragilité ; 2) le rôle que la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition peuvent jouer dans des états fragiles et touchés par des conflits, notamment dans le contexte spécifique des Objectifs de consolidation de la paix et de renforcement de l'état du New Deal ; 3) les rôles respectifs des gouvernements, des bases locales, de la société civile et des acteurs de l'aide du développement, et 4)  la manière de garantir la transparence et la pertinence moyennant une inclusion à grande échelle, y compris des groupes vulnérables et marginalisés, dans la prise de décision, la planification et le suivi.  

Cette discussion virtuelle requiert de votre expérience et de vos opinions pour pouvoir présenter au CSA un programme qui soit pratique et réalisable, et qui contribue à orienter la mise en oeuvre sur le terrain.

Le processus actuel d'élaboration du programme d'action reconnait l’existence de liens d'interdépendance très complexes entre le conflit et l'insécurité alimentaire  – les interventions de construction de la paix à différents niveaux sont considérées comme cruciales pour trouver une issue aux crises prolongées et pour garantir un environnement propice à la mise en place de systèmes alimentaires viables qui servent de base à la sécurité alimentaire et à la nutrition. La programmation en matière de sécurité alimentaire a en outre les retombées potentielles et crée des opportunités qui vont au-delà de la réponse aux problèmes de la faim et de malnutrition dans les populations touchées ; une amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire et de la nutrition peut contribuer à la pérennité de l'effort de construction de la paix en renforçant la cohésion sociale, les capacités, la confiance, la légitimité, entre autres éléments. Ceci est toutefois compliqué par le fait que les avoirs relatifs à la sécurité alimentaire et agricole risquent de se transformer en moteurs de conflits et/ou en facteurs de multiplication des menaces. 

Les pays et les contextes caractérisés par des crises prolongées sont souvent accompagnés de problèmes de gouvernance, de carences en termes de capacités et de systèmes de base. Que ce soit comme cause ou comme effet, lorsque les gouvernements sont incapables de répondre aux besoins publics et de fournir des services de base, le risque de fracture est élevé. Lorsque des approches participatives et inclusives sont mises en place, les possibilités de renforcement des capacités techniques et logistiques du gouvernement, voire sa légitimité, sont considérables. Une attention particulière doit être accordée aux groupes marginalisés et vulnérables.

Il est admis depuis longtemps que la participation des femmes dans la résolution des conflits et dans la réhabilitation postérieure, ainsi que dans la création d'une paix durable est un mécanisme efficace et souhaitable[1]. Le rôle essentiel que jouent les femmes dans la sécurité alimentaire à l'échelle nationale et des ménages dans des situations d'après conflit passent par l'élimination de certaines barrières qui font obstacle à leur participation, telles que la violence et la crainte de violences qui freinent leur accès aux champs et aux marchés, ainsi que les restrictions sur les droits fonciers qui les empêchent d'hériter des terres et d'obtenir des crédits sur la base de cet héritage.

Pour que la sécurité alimentaire soit prise en compte dans le processus de construction de la paix, elle devra être intégrée d’emblée à l'analyse du conflit, qui devra examiner la situation des rapports de force, du ménage au niveau communautaire et de l'État. Ceci implique un développement qui ne soit pas seulement sensible aux conflits. Pour créer des environnements propices à la résilience des communautés et des sociétés, il va falloir adopter des engagements flexibles à long terme et appliquer de nouvelles approches dans le financement accordé dans ce type de contexte.

Nous vous invitons à participer activement à cette discussion virtuelle axée sur les questions présentées ci-après afin de garantir la pertinence et l'efficacité du programme d'action proposé. Il serait particulièrement utile, pour tous les acteurs concernés, de fournir des exemples de stratégies, de programmes et d'outils qui ont porté fruit afin d'illustrer ce qui fonctionne et qui est susceptible d'être adapté à d'autres contextes.   

  1. À la lumière de votre expérience, quels sont les principaux programmes et processus qui permettent d’intégrer la sécurité alimentaire dans les efforts de construction de la paix et de favoriser une implication appropriée de la part de tous les acteurs concernés ?
  1. Quel rôle la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition peuvent-elles jouer dans des états fragiles et victimes de conflits, notamment dans le contexte spécifique des Objectifs de consolidation de la paix et de renforcement de l'état du New Deal, et quelle est la meilleure façon de prendre en compte les considérations de sécurité alimentaire et de nutrition dans les priorités du New Deal ?
  1. Qui devrait être tenu responsable des progrès accomplis en matière de sécurité alimentaire dans les contextes de crise prolongée et comment mesurer la progression dans la réalisation d’objectifs spécifiques ?

Alexandra Trzeciak-Duval
Diane Hendrick

[1] Dans sa Résolution 1325 adoptée en 2000, le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies a reconnu les contributions sous-valorisées et le potentiel sous-utilisé des femmes dans la prévention des conflits, le maintien de la paix, la résolution des conflits et la construction de la paix .

 

Alexandra Trzeciak-Duval and Diane Hendrick conveners of the discussion
19.12.2013

Many thanks to all for the thoughtful opening comments for our e-discussion on mainstreaming food security into peacebuilding processes. A number of ideas to nourish the Agenda for Action have emerged. They will provide inspiration for many more comments expected in the days and weeks to come.

Let’s recall the three questions posed to frame the e-discussion and summarise what we have learned from comments received so far.

1. In your experience, what are the key programmes and processes through which to mainstream food security into peacebuilding processes and get appropriate buy-in from all those involved?

We have the beginnings of a set of principles/criteria that must apply to any programme or process to mainstream food security into peacebuilding:

  • Be context specific and in touch with realities on the ground. (Eileen Omosa, UoA & CeBRNA, Canada)
  • Develop guidelines for development actors based on the analysis of the role of local communities and their traditional arrangements for managing and sharing scarce resources. These must include gender and stakeholder analysis – with their participation -- to identify the bundle of rights held by different people to a resource and modalities for access to it. (Eileen Omosa; Hari Kala Kandel, Canada)
  • Together with local communities, facilitate the adaptation of traditional arrangements to changes in the environment, e.g. demographic, trans-border, climatic and other impacts. (Pat Heslop-Harrison, University of Leicester, UK; Krishna Kaphle, Tribhuvan University, Nepal)
  • Target and work with women in the informal sector whose economic support is vital to their families and communities and who, together with elders, often have a major role in influencing conflict situations. (Jean Max Fleur, WFP, Haiti; Eileen Omosa)
  • Ensure secure conditions of public safety that enable farmers to access their land for cultivation and harvest, people to access markets to buy and sell production, and people to access their families and social networks to help one another. (Eileen Omosa, Laetitia van Haren, World Watch Food Tank/Synergies for Biological and Cultural )
  • Aim for food security and enhancing the ability of groups to provide for themselves in a sustainable way without dependency on external assistance. (Gunasingham Mikunthan, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka; Hector Morales, GIZ, Colombia; Laetitia van Haren, Ruby Khan, FAO Somalia, Kenya, Susanne Kayser-Schilleger, Marshall Islands; Krishna Kaphle)

2.    What role can food security and nutrition play in fragile and conflict-affected states, particularly in the specific context of the New Deal Peacebuilding and Statebuilding Goals, and how best can food security and nutrition considerations be integrated into New Deal priorities?

  • Food security, nutrition and livelihoods can serve as a confidence-building platform where communities negotiate on the basis of an issue of mutual importance. Often agreement can be reached around shared goals like nutrition for children and vulnerable, poor households, women and the elderly. (Ruby Khan, FAO Somalia, Kenya; Heiko Recktenwald, Germany)
  • Negotiating the responsible management of communal resources (water, land, forests, etc.) can serve as an entry point to facilitate agreement on other issues that are too difficult to tackle initially. (Ruby Khan)
  • Working on livelihoods through a rights-based approach, i.e. providing access to marginalised groups, minorities, etc., can increase buy-in, not only into the peace process but also in support of political participation. (Ruby Khan)

3.    Who should be held accountable for progress on food security in protracted crisis contexts and how can we measure progress towards specific targets?

The improvement of the state-society social contract for the provision of basic services must underpin any peacebuilding process. Poverty, lack of access to basic services and general issues of basic independence are issues caused and exacerbated by poor governance. Thus governing authorities are accountable. (Gunasingham Mikunthan, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka; Krishna Kaphle, Tribhuvan University, Nepal)

But it is also the responsibility of all the parties behind the conflict or crisis to ensure that the population whose rights they claim to defend has access to food. (Kenneth Senkosi, Forum for Sustainable Agriculture in Africa, Uganda)

One of the monitoring indicators would be the level of commitment, through both verbal or policy statements by both or all leaderships behind the conflict, allowing civil society and international actors to follow-up and probe the conflicting parties’ efforts to ensure a food secure population in situations of political instability. (Kenneth Senkosi, Forum for Sustainable Agriculture in Africa, Uganda)

To keep the discussion going, we would like to probe some of these ideas further.

1) Although getting communities emerging from conflict to work together on superordinate goals -- in this case something like nutrition for children -- as a way of re-building relationships is a staple of conflict transformation approaches, in complex conflict settings a simple transfer to other areas of social interaction will not be straightforward. Sometimes natural resource access and use are merely another arena in which to play out conflict stemming from elsewhere and addressing these inter-group conflicts at another point could result in better cross-community problem solving around food access and distribution. Any intervention within a complex system will have indirect as well as direct effects, some intended, some not. This provides opportunities but should make us wary of linear assumptions.

2) The discussions around interventions at community level, intended to have an impact on food security and peacebuilding outcomes, are very relevant as much of the conflict around natural resources occurs at this level. However, the peacebuilding and statebuilding goals, and the way in which the international system approaches them, are very state-focused. What are the necessary approaches to relate these community level processes to the international state-level interventions? There is obviously much good reflection and thinking going on out there, and much to build on as we continue this discussion. We have heard voices from civil society, academia, agencies and individual practitioners. What is surprising is that we haven’t heard from key stakeholder groups we would have expected to -- and we know they have important perspectives and insights. We are especially thinking about those involved in and around New Deal processes, particularly at country level, given the importance of this initiative and its link to protracted crisis situations and fragile contexts.

This conversation will not be complete without them. This e-discussion will continue over the holiday period until 17 January 2014 so there is still plenty of time to weigh in!

Henk-Jan Brinkman United Nations, United States of America
19.12.2013

Dear all,

It is important to mainstream food security into peacebuilding but I would argue that the reverse is equally or even more important given the size of the programmes.   Cullen Hendrix and I have higlighted int he attached ways to do that.   To quote:

"FAO-WFP (2010) identifies five characteristics of protracted crises: duration or longevity; conflict; weak governance or public administration; unsustainable livelihood systems and poor food security outcomes; and breakdown of local institutions. These characteristics are quite common in the Sahel. Food security interventions through the integration of a peacebuilding approach could address these symptoms of a protracted crisis through the generation of peace dividends, the reduction of conflict drivers, the enhancement of social cohesion, and the building of legitimacy and capacity of governments."

Best regards,

Henk-Jan

Kenneth Senkosi Forum for Sustainable Agriculture in Africa, Uganda
17.12.2013

Dear Moderators,

Allow me share views from an African context. As regards, the issue of accountability towards food security in protracted crisis situations, I strongly believe that its the responsibility of both and/or more parties behind the crisis/conflict to ensure that the population whose rights both claim to be fighting to defend has access to food even if it is aid supplies.  Its very sadenning when we watch news that even aid workers were denied access to a given population, the immediate result of which is always enhanced food and nutrition insecurity. Additionally, in situations where one party claims to be fighting a bad government, food security would not be greatly compromised if the conflicting parties would avoid the temptation of turning their guns on the innocent population they both claim to be fighting for. This would give chance for the population to continue with their subsistance farming activities. In terms of monitoring progress, I suppose one of the indicators would be the level of committment (both verbal and/or policy statements) by both leaderships behind the conflict. This would give a window for international and/or local civil society to followup and probe either parties strives/efforts towards a food secure population in situations of political instability.

Regards,

Kenneth Senkosi

Hector Morales GIZ, Colombia
14.12.2013

We have to made a step forward to pass the stage of food security to sustainable effective food production projects.

The underdeveloped world needs better research patrons to make added value to their products. That includes agro industrial projects.

Peace building should take into account the value of research and knowledge to include into small communities. Applied research methods can make better life to all.

We have to take into account that subsidarie governmental programms can some times be counterproductuve, due to the fact that people can not make a living on their own. DO no harm theories and sustantable approaches are good ways to develope progress and trust.

Here are some projects of peace building in Colombia :

www.cercapaz.org

Laetitia van Haren World Watch Food Tank/ Synergeis for Biological and Cultural ...
12.12.2013

Ensure safe access to the market and no "ponctionnement", that is, remove barrriers (whether they exist in the form of road blocks or individuals with guns holding up assers-by)  on the road towards the market where those bringing produce to sell have to give some of their produce to one "access controller" after another,  where police, militia, local administrors or plain thugs serve themselves unlawfully and sometimes even violently.

Ensure public safety in general so that all people, including women and children, can go to the fields or go wherever they want or need close or far, for safe pedestrian mobility is the condition sine qua non for re-establishing food security, whether by farming one's own plot, working on someone else's land or earning one's livelihood in another manner.

Ensure that young people are also included both in the pacification and in the reconstruction process, also young, poorly or uneducated farmers, and even young slum dwellers. Give them some training if necessary, but involve them, because it is the repressed, unemployed and futureless youth that is the best fodder for cannons and corrupt politicians seeking to create a climate of terror.

Ensure the creation of re-opening in a fair manner of producers' ( and other) cooperatives. If the cooperatives have been corrupted by power  shifts caused or produced by the conflict, unfortunately most often towards more inequality, then either work towards correcting the existing cooperatives or, if this is totally impossible, start up new ones. I would always prefer cleaning up existing frameworks and institutions, though. The rebuilding of fairly functioning cooperatives should go together with honest weighing and paying processes, whether this means price control or the opposite, depending on the situation,

Get every family  or household to grow food in some way, that is, promote urban farming  and horticulture in  composting bags,  and  promote actually also eating those vegetables by teaching how to use them in the mainstream diet. I say this because I have seen  so much vegetable farming only started for selling to the elites, foreign or not, whereas food security and indirectly general socio-economic security would be enhanced if, when market demand drops, the family could reduce its expenses by consuming more of their own produce (not to mention the nutritional benefit of course of eating more veggies). This helps urban poor families to supplement their income and their food intake. 

However, for peace through food security we must be aware that food is not enough, there must be an inbuilt margin of non-survival consumption or those who hold the power, from the lowest level in the household to the highest levels of government, will simply prefer to starve (with some poetic exxaggeration!) those who are under their control than  give up their own consumption of whatever is power and status enhancing.  

Food security, peace and stability are seriously thwarted by the demand for drugs, alcohool, sex, violence (yes violence is not only a means to an end it also acts as a drug in combination with other drugs) which so appeal to young and mature men, especially if "normal" satisfaction perpectives for the present and the future are out of reach.  So we won't escape the never ending challenge to diminish the attraction and/or availability of those powerful but destructive means to feel good, strong, or simply to forget...Chaos serves access to those drugs, so peace through food security has a truly strong adversary!  

Ruby Khan FAO Somalia, Kenya
11.12.2013

Food security, nutrition and livelihoods can serve as a confidence building platform where communities negotiate on an issue that is of mutual importance. It can serve as areas to negotiate and agree particularly on nutrition for children and vulnerable, poor households, women, elderly, where most groups find common goals. In addition, negotiating the responsible management of communal resources (water, land, forests, etc.) can also serve as a way to reach agreement where other issues are too difficult to agree on.

Additonally, working on livelihoods through a rights based approach, ie providing access to marginalized groups, minorities, etc. can increase buy in not only in the peace process but also in support of political participation within the mainstream, and facilitate the discussions on other more difficult issues. Fringe groups can be brought to the table if basic issues such as food security and increasing self-sufficiency in the ability for communities to provide for themselves will be supported. This reduces the idea of dependency on external assistance which becomes a grievance in the narrative of certain political groups.

The improvement of state-society contract (as mentioned previously) cannot be underestimated as a precursor or underlying peacebuilding processes. Poverty, lack of access to basic services and general issues of basic dependence on the state or external actors should be addressed in a comprehensive way by development actors to increase the impact of the provision of basic services to meaningfully contribute to peacebuilding processes.

 

Erin McCandless consultant; Interpeace, United States of America
07.12.2013

I'm sure you know of the attached report, as FAO participated. But just in case!

See the attachment: Peace dividends and beyond.pdf
07.12.2013

Well, what a wonderful question 1! The distribution of food must be fair.  You can't buy peace directly but maybe in this indirect way. You have some force.

Susanne Kayser-Schillegger none , Marshall Islands
05.12.2013

Having lived for more than 27 years in Africa with ample opportunity to watch and experience food shortages as well as food distribution. Food distribution does not work, it is more often than not stolen and does not reach people. I have witnessed tinned food - a gift from Danmark - being sold in an Arabic Souk while it was given to people in Sudan! We have found that the best way to ensure that people get food is to give them simple tools and good seeds, dig a well or two and the people will proudly look after themselves since the fields are their own and the production is in their hands. Do not make people professional beggars relying on food support that may never arrive, give them dignity by giving them tools, water and seeds. Abstain from silly big farming projects, engage in grassroot projects that reach the people directly and much can be achieved. 

Jean Max St Fleur WFP, Haiti
02.12.2013

Une formation sur la problématique de la sécurité alimentaire dans une perspective de construction de processus de paix doit cibler ces milliers de femmes du secteur économique informel, dans les pays en voie de développement, qui défrichent les terres agricoles, génèrent de l’argent pour nourrir leurs foyers, éduquer leurs enfants et soutenir leurs communautés.