Rights-based approaches to Food Security in Protracted Crises

22.10.2013 - 20.11.2013

This e-discussion will explore efforts to ensure food security and nutritional needs through human rights-based approaches in protracted crises. It will seek to identify suggestions for the Agenda for Action for Addressing Food Insecurity in Protracted Crises, to be considered by the CFS in 2014.

What distinguishes this topic from previous e-discussions, is that it already benefits from a well-developed normative framework of treaties, general principles and norms of international law, and provides an opportunity to “operationalize” those binding and bonding standards of universal application to policies, programs, projects and relationships, both within institutions as well as in the field.

The global community, faced with the suffering that accompanies food insecurity, is challenged also to address its causes rooted in violations of human rights as defined in international law. A further challenge lies in ensuring human rights through the harmonization of humanitarian and development aid processes with human rights norms.

For every human right, states bear corresponding obligations to respect, protect and fulfill that specific human right. These include, but are not limited to the human right to adequate food. In order to operationalize that right, the exercise of several “process” human rights also must be upheld at once, including the human rights to participation, freedom of expression, freedom of association, freedom of peaceful assembly, freedom of (access to and imparting) information. Indispensable, too, may be the exercise of the human right to education.

Rights to property, both as a human right and as specific rights enshrined in local law, include the “right to own property individually and in association with others.” Given the context of food security in protracted crises, the rights to equitable access to land and natural resources can make the same life-and-death difference for persons and communities, even entire peoples. Both the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights emphasize among their over-riding implementation principles that “In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence” (common Article 1.2).

All states bear the obligation not to recognize, support, cooperate or transact with, or benefit from an illegal situation resulting in gross violations of human rights or breaching a peremptory norm of international law. That means that all states bear self-executing domestic and extraterritorial obligations to prevent, end and remedy such illegal situations.

The customary-law standard of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes, in its preamble, that human rights constitute “a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society…secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.” Therefore, while the formula of respect, protection and fulfillment of human rights is the primary obligation of all states, they also bear the obligation to ensure those human rights are upheld by those parties operating within and from their territory of jurisdiction and effective control.

The international principle of humanitarian intervention has become an emerging standard, within the limits of state sovereignty. In certain crises affecting food security, a state may be required first to declare a famine, in order to engage the mechanisms of international food assistance. A state’s duty to do so forms one example of how the implementation principle of international cooperation—also enshrined in both human rights Covenants—complements the extraterritorial obligation specific to the human right to food.

The delivery of such aid may positively affect the human right to food in the immediate term, but derogate other human rights in the longer term. The prolonged nature of food aid without sufficient other remedial measures, in addition to the great drain on aid resources, actually may tend to have corrosive effects on several human rights. Prolonged food aid in isolation of development and human rights interventions may displace further the capacities and opportunities of local people to rise from the crisis, while local land and natural resources, institutional capacities, policy-making authority and other local assets are degraded, leaving little with which communities can sustain resilience and/or rebuild livelihoods in a self-determined future.

With the entire bundle of human rights in mind, this discussion allows you to raise these and other dilemmas in addressing food security in protracted crises. It also seeks to identify ways that concerned parties can go beyond building in resilience to cope with crises toward actually resolving crises to the extent possible. That would make the difference between working “in” protracted crises and working “on” protracted crises.

This is your opportunity to tell us about challenges, actions, principles, adjustments, recommendations and good practices.


Based on your knowledge and experiences, consider the following questions:

  1. How can we apply Rights-based approaches in areas with weak or no central government control?
  2. What are the challenges? (e.g. economic causes and consequences, political dimensions, logistic, resource constraints)
  3. What are the lessons from good and bad practices? (e.g. improvement of coordination, integration and harmonizing of approaches: immediate and long-term; humanitarian/relief, development and human rights; transitional justice and accountability; etc.)
Shaika Rakshi ICCO, India

For more than three decades, ICCO  has been supporting initiatives on Food and Nutrition Security works with multiple stakeholders to ensure rights and ownership of marginalized people to resources, securing livelihoods , diversification of local productions, facilitation of marketing of products through approaches like direct poverty alleviation, civil society development and policy influencing . The strategies include organizing small farmers, empowerment through awareness building on technology, nutrition and rights related to food security, alignment of partners' programs with the government and tapping into government resources, improvement of production, marketing of surplus/additional products, improving access to resources and capacity building.

ICCO is believes that every person on earth - man, woman and child - has the right to have access to  safe nutritious and adequate food. Improving the food and nutrition security of small-scale rural producers is at the core of our program. We support them to sustainably increase production for a better income and for better nutrition. At an international level we work with key partners  across more than 40 countries to improve policy environments for women and men in order to ensure that our successes endure.

ICCO’s successful model of strengthening local food systems consists of three important pillars:

•             We support community groups to organize themselves and link with (local) policymakers. We ensure that women are equally represented in these groups and we assist women’s groups.

•             We support small-scale (female) producers to sustainably increase their production and improve their ties with local markets. This improves the availability of food in a household and enhances income, which are very important aspects toward addressing food security in the long term.

•             Food also needs to be of high quality therefore ICCO stimulates production for a diverse diet, combined with promoting nutrition education.

The Food and Water security Coalition India ,supported by ICCO works on  rights based approach .It provides synergy, cross learning, field level activities leading to advocacy for policies and process that serve to promote food and water security in India. The major challenges of working in Food security in India has been lack of an enabling environment that concretely  addresses availability, access, and absorption or nutrition of food.

ICCO believes that partnering is essential to address these challenges. We see working with the governments , engaging with policy makers and private sector as crucial to take the agenda of Food and Nutrition security forward.


Warm regards


Shaika Rakshi

Program Officer


South & Central Asia Regional Office

3rd Floor Ramnath House,Plot 18

Yusuf Sarai Community Centre

Yusuf Sarai,New Delhi-110049


Mariam Jaajaa The Arab Group for the Protection of Nature /The CSM Working Group on ...

CSOs in the CSM believe that a primary purpose of the Agenda for Action is to enable governments and other stakeholders to implement existing CFS policy guidance and to honour their existing humanitarian and human rights obligations in protracted crises. These obligations, which have been negotiated between all governments, provide the strongest and most legitimate guidance for national and regional actions.

Such guidance has a direct role in preventing the emergence, prolonging, deepening or re-emergence of crises, as well as the emergence and aggravation of food insecurity in times of crises.

·         If the Agenda for Action adopts "resilience" as its overarching framework then its definition should be broadened to include the ability to realize rights and obligations despite crises and to further help resolve crises.

·         The Agenda for Action should prepare an implementation support package for all stakeholders to assist in implementing CFS and other legal frameworks with specific relevance to promoting food security in protracted crises.

  The first step in this implementation support package is the development of  a comprehensive inventory of norms to ensure accurate knowledge of humanitarian law and of all the different Human Rights legal frameworks (international, regional)that are related to the different protracted crises contexts (i.e. natural disasters and human induced crises). Such inventory should include all obligations that directly or indirectly contributing to food security/food insecurity. This inventory should be included in Appendix C or attached in a technical paper with the Agenda for Action.

  A second step would be for national legal systems and their institutions to interpret these norms and reform their policies as appropriate.

 Actions taken should be revised to address violations which are often causes of crises, as well as food insecurity in crises.

·         It is very important that CSOs stress again the need of directing the A4A and the importance of operationalizing CFS guidance and other human rights obligations  at all states and not only states suffering from crises, for the following reasons

    a)    to prevent crises in countries at risk

    b)   to request all states to respect and abide by extra-territorial obligations that have enormous impacts on food security on a national level - and here we find the Maastricht principles as an excellent reference towards defining these principles

    c)  to protect displaced populations and host communities

·         The principle proposed on promoting the voluntary guidelines on the responsible tenure of land, fisheries and forests is key but not comprehensive as there are other factors determining food security and nutrition, apart from tenure.

We suggest that the  first overarching principle should be  "Promoting compliance with existing international humanitarian and human rights obligations and CFS policy guidance as the most legitimate source of policy guidance.

Some answers to the below guiding questions

Question 1

1-      Communities should be at the center of analysis/assessment of underlying structural causes and consequences of protracted crises- Their documentation of events, violations and rights should be facilitated.

2-      It is important to build rights awareness and community capacity to demand rights from duty bearers.

3-      Communities need to develop autonomous innovative means to hold on to their rights, protect their natural resources and define ways to reduce consumption.

4-      There should be an accountability mechanism that ensure that donor /development/humanitarian agencies as well as the private sector are abiding by international obligations while the public sector is weak or absent.  An international judicial platform could be strengthened to allow communities to transmit cases of violations of the food right in protracted crises.

Question 2

6-      The rise in prices and exploitation of merchants to conflicts (raising prices and smuggling goods)

7-      Closing of border crossings and airports to import or export food items/sanctions

8-       Local production patterns do not satisfy local consumption patterns

9-       Lack of  integration between the policies and activities of the  various institutions, ministries and sectors

10-  No monitoring over quality specifications of food aid or imported items

11-  Lack of information on how , where and when to access food

12-  Absence of civil society liberty and self-organization

13-  Marginalization of the agricultural sector or local food production systems in recovery programmes and aid schemes. E.g setting conditions on the agricultural sector to plant particular non-food/ export based crops

14-  Rehabilitation/reconstruction schemes that threaten community's' access to resources of production and harm the food security of the majority of the people on the long run.

15-  Pressure of the donor countries/development /humanitarian institutions to adopt policies that undermine food sovereignty

16-  Refugees demands on limited local resources

17-   Developmental and relief aid not directed at the most affected communities.

18-  Using food as a coercive tool/punishment against populations

Question 3

19-  Mapping and supporting local coping strategies while reducing need of negative coping strategies.

20-  Ensure integration of short and long term goal through strengthening diversified local food production systems

21-  Relying on locally produced food and material  when delivering assistance

22-  Strengthening Urban Agriculture

23-  Resource management alternatives (seed banks, water harvesting methods)

24-  Mainstream Risk analysis and Early Warning Systems that monitors Human Rights violations.



Raúl Montenegro Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina

A. Introducción

En general es difícil seguir las preguntas planteadas por los organizadores porque no parecen basarse en la compleja realidad de las crisis prolongadas y su relación con la alimentación. Parecen referirse principalmente a la parte operativa, más que al montaje de un sistema quizás más complejo pero también más realista de intervención. Es necesario por otra parte considerar, junto a "alimentos" el tema indisociable "agua potable".

B. Componentes de una estrategia para estar mejor preparados ante la ocurrencia de crisis.

1. Cada país debe estar representado en una base de datos orientada a la posible ocurrencia, dentro de su territorio, de crisis prolongadas que lleven a carencias alimentarias y de provisión de agua. Entre las variables fundamentales que debe cubrir esta base de datos se encuentran:

1.1. Tipos de crisis esperables y bases de datos sobre los distintos tipos de crisis. Por ejemplo crisis climáticas por sequías y por inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos, crisis por actividad volcánica, crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos, crisis por incendios, crisis por guerra, crisis por accidentes o eventos nucleares (por ejemplo de Nivel 7 en la escala del INES), o su combinación (en Filipinas se combinó temporalmente sismo y tifón; en Japón se combinaron tsunami y accidente nuclear nivel 7 (INES) en Fukushima Dai Ichi), etc.

1.2. La posibilidad de combinación da lugar a lo que llamamos "multicrisis" (como en los ejemplos anteriores). Es previsible que aumenten en nuestro planeta los fenómenos de multicrisis, por cuanto ha aumentado la población y la distribución de la población, y la posibilidad de ocurrencia simultánea de dos o más tipologías de crisis.

También es posible que las crisis o multicrisis se sucedan en el tiempo, golpeando a las poblaciones afectadas ante que hayan comenzado su proceso de reconstrucción.  

Existen crisis, como las nucleares (caso Chernobyk, caso Fukushima Dai Ichi) o por evento químico (aplicación masiva de armas químicas de las distintas generaciones, por ejemplo sarina y agente Vx), que inutilizan vastos sistemas de salud y de actuación institucional ante crisis por ejemplo. En estos casos, hasta los sistemas que habían sido previstos para enfrentar crisis y multicrisis quedan fuera de circulación.   

1.3. Es fundamental mapear en cada país la "geografía" de las crisis esperables ("Mapas de riesgos").   

2. Resistencia ambiental del país a crisis climáticas por sequías y por inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos, crisis por actividad volcánica, crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos, crisis por incendios, crisis por guerra, crisis por accidentes o eventos nucleares (por ejemplo de Nivel 7 en la escala del INES), o su combinación, etc. Siguiendo lo que recomendamos en nuestros trabajos, para calcular esa resistencia ambiental deberían considerarse varios indicadores, entre ellos:

2.1. Relación entre la superficie dedicada a: a) Ambientes nativos y cuencas hídricas protegidas; b) Ambiente de producción agropecuaria (incluida silvicultura) y c) Ambientes urbanos y en general ocupados por asentamientos humanos, y las "zonas de borde" entre estos ambientes o ecosistemas (ecotonos). Cuanto menos superficie de ambiente nativo tiene un país, mayor su inestabilidad ambiental. Los ambientes nativos de alta biodiversidad son los escudos protectores más eficaces contra todo tipo de crisis. Lamentablemente los países tienden a simplificar la mayor parte del territorio, sin considerar los servicios ambientales críticos que pierden. 

2.2. Meses del año con bioclimas fríos y bioclimas calientes (por ejemplo) o el modelo que corresponda al país considerado. Igualmente, consideración de épocas del año con peor presión climática (época de sequías, época de lluvias, época de tormentas, etc.).  

2.3. Geomorfología general del país con indicación de zonas montañosas y rocosas, de zonas con humedales permanentes, de zonas con suelos de llanura, de zonas con desiertos, etc. China por ejemplo tiene un 43% de superficie montañosa, un 26% de mesetas montañosas y un 11,4% de desiertos. De allí que haya incrementado notablemente la técnica de "país expandido" comprando tierras en otras naciones o alquilando tierras para cultivo. Esta es una nueva forma de colonización mucho menos percibida que la tradicional.

2.4. Distribución y estado de las cuencas hídricas superficiales y subterráneas, en especial estado de las cuencas de captación (usualmente afectadas por destrucción de los ecosistemas nativos). Debe asumirse como cuenca hídrica no solamente las zonas de captación, usualmente zonas montañosas, sino también las zonas de llanura.

3. Resistencia social del país a crisis climáticas por sequías e inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos; crisis por actividad volcánica; crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos; crisis por incendios; crisis por guerras; crisis por accidente o evento nuclear, etc. Siguiendo lo que recomendamos en nuestros trabajos, para calcular esa resistencia social deberían considerarse varios indicadores, entre ellos:

3.1. Distribución y densidad de la población en distintas partes del territorio, y condiciones generales del hábitat en esas zonas (tanto la naturaleza del ambiente, por ejemplo zona de montaña, zona de llanura, zona de humedales, zona urbana de alta densidad, etc.).

3.2. Distribución dentro de un país o caracterización de las diferencias étnicas, religiosas y culturales que pudieran tornar más complejos los sistemas de preparación, intervención y participación.     

3.3. Preparación social para enfrentar desde lo individual, familiar y grupal las principales tipologías de crisis que podrían llevar a períodos extensos de falta de alimentos y agua. En particular si existen o no "Planes ciudadanos para actuar" en cada tipo de crisis posible.

4. Resistencia institucional del país a crisis climáticas por sequías e inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos; crisis por actividad volcánica; crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos; crisis por incendios; crisis por guerras; crisis por accidente o evento nuclear, etc. Siguiendo lo que recomendamos en nuestros trabajos, para calcular esa resistencia institucional deberían considerarse varios indicadores, entre ellos:

4.1. Completamiento del conocimiento y escenarios de crisis y multicrisis, ello conforme a lo ya analizado en el punto 1. Esto es, capacidad real al interior de cada país para prever las crisis y multicrisis posibles, y sus respectivos escenarios de gravedad (por ejemplo sucesión en el tiempos de múltiples multicrisis), todo lo anterior debidamente mapeado (ver punto 1). 

4.2. Naturaleza de la organización institucional pública, en particular divisiones jurisdiccionales del poder; características en términos generales de los grandes poderes que conforman los gobiernos a nivel nacional y regionales (ejecutivo, judicial, legislativo, otros), o bien sistemas dictatoriales, militares o cívico-militares, ya sea con poderes divididos, o con falsos poderes divididos; instituciones ad-hoc y peso relativo de esas instituciones en el organigrama general de las distintas jurisdicciones; presupuestos para situaciones sin crisis y previsiones presupuestarias para situaciones de crisis; grado de corrupción, etc. Resumidamente, "fuerza" relativa de los gobiernos.  

4.3. Preparación institucional de cada país para enfrentar los distintos tipos de crisis, en particular disponibilidad de instituciones dedicadas al tema, personal especializado para los distintos tipos de crisis, sistemas de movilidad, sistemas de comunicaciones, preparación del sistema de salud, sistemas de seguridad, etc. Usualmente no hay recursos económicos específicamente previstos, sino que se extraen –usualmente en forma caótica- de los fondos públicos disponibles.

4.4. Sistemas previstos de distribución de alimentos y agua, y de otros elementos necesarios en zonas de crisis.

4.5. Organización de simulacros y de ensayo de las crisis más posibles y de mayor impacto, complementario y esencial de los planes ciudadanos de actuación ante distintos tipos de crisis (crisis climáticas por sequías e inundaciones; crisis por tormentas muy violentas, o sucesión de tormentas en tiempos cortos; crisis por terremotos; crisis por actividad volcánica; crisis por destrucción de la base proveedora de recursos; crisis por incendios; crisis por guerras; crisis por accidente o evento nuclear, etc.).  

4.6. Existencia de sistemas educativos y de información, continuos, en épocas sin crisis, para mejor preparar a la sociedad para tiempos de crisis. Cada ciudadano debería acceder a un "kit" mínimo de prevención y acción para los distintos tipos posibles de crisis. El rol educativo le corresponde al Estado principalmente, pero también a las instituciones privadas, ONGs, religiones, etc.

4.7. Preparación institucional de cada país para establecer rápidamente contactos y acciones conjuntas con otros países que pudieran contribuir a amortiguar los efectos, pero sobre la base de un proceso preparado previamente durante los tiempos "sin crisis".

C. Clasificación de los distintos países en función de sus resistencias ambientales, sociales e institucionales a los distintos tipos de crisis.

1. Esto es muy importante, pues en países con valores extremadamente bajos de los tres tipos de resistencia, los daños e impactos negativos esperados para distintos tipos de crisis son extremadamente altos (caso Haití, un ejemplo paradigmático de país con sus tres resistencias a nivel mínimo).  

2. Es muy importante a nivel de organizaciones internacionales de países (globales o regionales) que estas estructuras (por ejemplo MERCOSUR en América Latina; Comunidad Europea en Europa, etc.) tengan sistemas previstos de organización internacional para distintos escenarios posibles de crisis y de multicrisis. El sistema debe prever diferentes modalidades de participación en función de los niveles de resistencia que tenga cada país.

3. Urge una Convención sobre Crisis y Multicrisis de Envergadura por Causas Antrópicas y No Antrópicas, que provea marcos globales claros, lógicos y entendibles, y una asociación entre países para mejor prevenirlas y enfrentarlas. Dentro del contexto de esta propuesta Convención debería considerarse muy especialmente los casos en que las crisis y multicrisis llevan a la carencia de alimentos y de agua potable, y los protocolos para mejorar esa intervención.


Prof. Dr. Raúl A. Montenegro, Biólogo

Presidente de FUNAM (Fundación para la defensa del ambiente)

Profesor Titular de Biología Evolutiva (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)

Premio Nóbel Alternativo 2004 (RLA-Estocolmo, Suecia)

Premio Global 500 de Naciones Unidas 1989 (UNEP-Bruselas, Bélgica)

Nuclear Free Future Award 1998 (Salzburgo, Austria)

Premio a la Investigación Científica (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Shivani Bhardwaj Food Water Security Coalition India, India

The Indian government now gives food grain dole as food right to each poor family and FWSCI (Food Water Security Coalition India) has critiqued this by asking for cooked food provision at work and place of stay for all who may want to avail it. Yet each organization can do only a part of the analysis as the right to food has many dimensions and to work on each sub theme takes am organization to work a life time.  

Right based approach needs to be first applied at home to feed your own self and family members mindfully, equitably and sustainably. For this planning and talking about food and health routines is necessary. Talking about each other’s wellness and getting to know what is good for the body and soul takes time, research and getting together emotion. Once this is collected, collated and nurtured each family can grow, buy and prepare/ pack food for the day. Thus gender and generation and sustainability dynamics need attention first within self to begin asking for action outside of self. We all need to be engaged in generating, food and water in a way we are not consumers but conservers and nurturing beings as well. 

Having clean water, land, space to live/work/cook/eat and rest, energy (fuel/sunlight) is an important part of right to food. These need to be negotiated with the people within governance structures. 

We at Food Water Security Coalition India work towards micro and meso debate to provide holistic framework to people working towards impacting resource constrains to meet the food and water insecurity in our country. Our members have organized various consultations. Worked on food sovereignty by working on seed rights, water and sanitation to retain clean environment to generate food as per the soils capacity to give the human and animal the vegetation it can survive on. Our members have also researched on pilots for home plots and local water drip and low sprinkler irrigation as well as on climate change impacting agriculture.

With five years of work together our coalition wonders how we can impact the debate and actual sustainable availability of food and water for all. Work on land housing and water is an intrinsic part of food rights. Working of human rights of workers, children, men, women, disabled and elderly are another dimension as food and water needs are specific to nutrition needs of differing people. 

We welcome a continued dialogue for generating a common clarity. 



Dr. Mohamed Solaimia الخليل , West Bank

>> English version below<<

في بداية تعقيبي لا بد من إبداء إعتراضي على عدم وجود فلسطين كدولة وتم الاستعاضة عنها بالضفة الغربية مع الاخذ بعين الاعتبار انه تم الاعتراف الدولي بفلسطين كدولة كاملة الحقوق والسيادة.

بإعتقادي ان من الممكن جداً تطبيق الأساليب القائمة على الحقوق في المناطق التي تحظى برقابة حكومة مركزية ضعيفة أو تنعدم بها الرقابة الحكومة المركزية وذلك من خلال تقوية منظمات المجتمع المدني والمنظمات المهنية وتشجيع دورها الريادي في المجتمع، مما لا شك فيه ان تظافر الجهود وتوحيدها بين تلك المنظمات من خلال شبكات محلية ينضم تحتها الكم الاكبر من مؤسسات الجتمع المدني الفاعلة والتي تتشارك في الاهداف والغايات سيحقق بالضرورة اللبنة الاساسية التي من خلالها سيتم مراقبة اداء الحكومات المركزية وتصويبها لان تلك الشبكات تعبر عن نبض الشارع وتعكس هموم ومتطلبات وتطلعات افراد المجتمع على مختلف انتماآتهم ولديها مسؤلية مجتمعية عالية. 

يعتبرالتحدي الاكبر الذي يواجه كافة شعوبنا في سيادته على غذائه هو عدم القدرة على سيادته على مصادره الطبيعية بشكل او بآخر وتحكم المستثمرين في مقدرات الشعوب ولا أغالي اذا ما قلت ان هناك استثماراً غير مسؤول همه الوحيد هو تحقيق اكبر ربح ممكن على حساب صغار الفلاحين، الذين اصبحوا بسبب هذه الممارسات عمال زراعيين يعملون باجر في اراضيهم. لذا لا بد من إعادة تنظيم المزارعين في جمعيات يستطيعوا من خلالها حماية اراضيهم وتعظيم دخولهم.  

At the beginning of my comment, I need to express my objection on the absence of Palestine as a state and the West Bank comes instead, taking into consideration that there is an international recognition of Palestine as state with full rights and sovereignty.

I think that it is possible to apply the rights based approach in the areas that has a weak central government control or has no central government control. This could be done through empowering the civil society organizations and the professional organizations and strengthen its leading role in the community. There is no doubt that having concerted efforts between such organizations through local networks that comprise most of the effective civil society organizations that share the same objective and goals will necessarily put the corner stone through which the central government performance can be monitored and corrected. This is due to the fact that such networks represent the street pulse and reflect people's concerns, requirements and aspirations and the networks also have high social responsibility.

The biggest challenge that face all our people is their control over their food and their inability to have sovereignty over its natural resources in a way or another in addition to investors control over people's destiny. I will not be exaggerating when I say that there is irresponsible investment that only aims at achieving the biggest profit possible at the expense of small farmers who turned out to be wage earners because of such practices. Then we should reorganize the farmers in associations through which we can protect their land and maximize their income.


Abbas Rahi Iraqi Organization for Rehabilitating Society and Environment (NGOs ), Iraq

Although most countries are trying to show that being interested in the principles of human rights and support for democracy in their countries, especially the Third World countries, including Arab countries. But he unfortunately canceled this principles upon the occurrence of crises or uprising and opposition to its rule resulting outcome occurred violation of human rights and inhumane humans, which stipulates respect for religions and constitutions local or international conventions

The absence of long-term strategic programs in Iraq has contributed to the growth and conflicts that led to the aggravation of poverty and destitution among many members of the community and that the result led to a systematic violation of the principles of human rights.
We are in Iraq at the present time are afraid of a return to armed groups that pose a threat to the political process in Iraq and its regional surroundings.  The first to be affected by the marginalized classes and the poor, minorities, and children and women.
Iraq is now under the hammer, anvil because of its location between the international and regional policies that surround it, including the problems of Syria - Iran - Turkey.

Result led to a worsening sectarian conflict between members of the community even though some try to deny it, but the facts show that the next conflict is sectarian
The challenges facing Iraqi society, for example, is a lot of conflict within the country and the different partners of the political process, which in turn led to the outbreak of administrative corruption and squandering of public money and the lack of infrastructure, lack of activation of some of the decisions that contribute to the provision of the minimum requirements for human beings to live in freedom and dignity.

Iraq has passed since 2003, many problems and that the most important lesson may well defined Iraqi society is to work a single national spirit and peaceful coexistence between groups of the same society and that their differences in backgrounds, nationalities and religions must be that invests a force and not a weakness walk into external programs.
Unfortunately, that Iraqi society has reached a state of pain in solving its problems despite being a country rich oil, and now citizen feel no desire to participate in the upcoming parliamentary elections (April 30, 2014) for being   suitable alternative to these faces and parties repeated in winning elections

To be their places of business that the main player and the main aggravation or solving crises are religious institutions in Iraq, which proved to have a key role in supporting the peaceful co-existence in Iraq of different ideas, but that happens from time to time is the emergence of groups do not have a big impact in the community adopts  external programs are implemented provoke confusion and fear and then worsened the situation between the members of the community.

The second basic Despite being does not have the same elements of the former is the institutions of civil society , NGOs and the community began to give their  confidence is better than previous years despite being have an expertise sufficient in the management of crises that occur and most of their roles was to provide and deliver humanitarian aid or adopt Initiative  for peace and educate community concepts of human rights or peace-building , etc., but in spite of this privilege to it is in dire need of training for the transfer of new skills and techniques for the community to change in some culture  society misconceptions and development activists performance for writing shadow reports and monitor the performance of the work of the government.

To work without the occurrence of such crises, there must be a strict regulatory program to monitor the work and performance of the government that was on the local and international level.

Transparency in the work of state institutions and the government is still below the level of ambition in Iraq, where the lack of confidence of the partners in governance has contributed significantly to the growing violence and the growth of conflicts between the fabric of Iraqi society, one which led to the intervention of some states and terrorist groups to make Iraq the instability and settling of accounts armed groups. to be re - building confidence between the partners of the political process and educate decision-makers and executive powers to the principles of respect for human rights and democracy support.

We urgently need to activate investment laws because it is an important part of the development of the country and the elimination of unemployment, especially in infrastructure and agriculture, which are associated with plants Fertilizers or canning and agricultural mechanization and agricultural banks, but unfortunately the instability of the security situation and the lack of clarity in the political process has made businessmen of foreign and even local escapes from investment in Iraq.

The economic factor in Iraq is moving day after day about the deterioration despite the fact that there are some good programs adopted by the government, but mismanagement and widespread corruption and cronyism between the parties led to the failure of many programs that were at the level of agriculture or industry.

Abbas Rahi Iraqi Organization for Rehabilitating Society and Environment (NGOs ), Iraq

  بالرغم من أن معظم الدول تحاول ان تجمل سياستها بمباديء حقوق الانسان ودعم الديمقراطية في بلدانها خصوصا دول العالم الثالث ومنها الدول العربية . الا انه للاسف تلغى هذه المعاير عند وقوع ازمات او انتفاضة ومعارضة لحكمها  مما يؤدي بالنتيجة وقع انهتاكات لحقوق الانسان وآدمية البشر التي نصت على احترامها الاديان و الدساتير المحلية او المواثيق الدولية .

ان غياب برامج استراتيجية طويلة الامد ا في العراق قد  ساهم في نمو بؤرة النزاعات والتي ادت الى تفاقم ظاهرة الفقر والعوز لدى افراد كثيرة من المجتمع والتي ادت بالنتيجة الى انتهاك منظم لمباديء حقوق الانسان .

اننا في العراق في الوقت الحاضر نخشى من عودة المجاميع المسلحة والتي تشكل خطرا على العملية السياسية في العراق ومحيطها الاقليمي . ويكون المتأثر الاول بها الطبقات المهمشة ومنها الفقراء والاقليات والاطفال والنساء .

ان العراق الان تحت مطرقة السندان  بسبب موقعه بين التجاذبات الدولية والاقليمية التي تحيط به  ومنها مشاكل سوريا – ايران – تركيا ،

ادت بالنتيجة الى تفاقم صراع طائفي بين افراد المجتمع على الرغم من البعض يحاول نفي ذلك ، لكن الوقائع تدل ان الصراع القادم هو طائفي بحت

ان التحديات التي تواجه المجتمع العراقي مثلا تتمثل بكثرة الصراعات داخل البلد واختلاف شركاء العملية السياسية والتي بدورها ادت الى تفشي مرض الفساد الاداري واهدار المال العام وغياب البنى التحتية ، وعدم تفعيل بعض القرارات التي تساهم في توفير الحد الادنى من متطلبات البشر للعيش بحرية وكرامة .

لقد مر العراق منذ عام 2003 بمشاكل كثيرة وان اهم درس قد عرفه المجتمع العراقي جيدا هو العمل بروح الوطنية الواحدة والتعايش السلمي بين فئات المجتمع الواحد وان اختلافهم في الانتماءات والقوميات والاديان يجب ان يستثمر كقوة وليس ضعف تخترقه الانجدات الخارجية

للاسف ان المجتمع العراقي فد وصل الى حالة من الياأس في حل مشاكله على الرغم من كونه من البلدان النفطية الغنية ، ومن الان يشعر المواطن بعدم الرغبة في المشاركة في الانتخابات البرلمانية القادمة ( 30 نيسان 2014) لكونه لايجد البديل المناسب لهذه الوجوه والاحزاب المتكررة في الفوز في الانتخابات

لنكون واقعين ان  اللاعب الاساسي والرئيسي في تفاقم او حل الازمات هي المؤسسات الدينية في العراق والتي اثبتت الايام ان لها دور اساسي في دعم التعايش السلمي في العراق على اختلاف انتمائتها ، لكن الذي يحدث بين فترة واخرى هي ظهور جماعات ليس لها تأثير كبير في المجتمع تتبنى عمليات او تنفذ انجدات خارجية تثير البلبلة والخوف ومن ثم تازم الموقف بين افراد المجتمع .

العامل الاساسي الثاني على الرغم من كونه لايملك نفس مقومات السابقة هي مؤسسات المجتمع المدني غير الحكومية  والتي بدا المجتمع يعطيها ثقة افضل من السنوات السابقة على الرغم من كونها لاتملك الخبرات الكافية في ادارة الازمات التي تحدث ومعظم ادوارها كان تقديم  وتوصيل المساعدات الانسانية او تبني مبادراة للسلام وتثقيف المجتمع بمفاهيم حقوق الانسان او بناء السلام وغيرها  ،   لكن على الرغم من هذا الامتياز الى انها بحاجة ماسة الى التدريب لنقل مهارات واساليب جديدة للمجتمع لتغير في بعض ثقافت المجتمع الخاطئة وتطوير اداء الناشطين لكتابة تقارير الظل ومراقبة اداء عمل الحكومة .

للحيولة دون وقوع مثل هذه الازمات يجب ان يكون هناك برنامج رقابي متشددة لمراقبة عمل واداء الحكومة ان كان على المستوى المحلي و الدولي .

.ان الشفافية في عمل مؤسسات الدولة والحكومة لاتزال دون مستوى الطموح في  العراق ، حيث غياب ثقة الشركاء في الحكم قد ساهم مساهمة كبيرة في تنامي العنف ونمو الصراعات بين نسيج المجتمع العراقي الواحد مما ادى الى تدخل بعض  الدول والجماعات الارهابية بجعل العراق منطقة عدم استقرار وتصفية حسابات المجاميع المسلحة .يجب ان يعاد بناء الثقة بين شركاء العملية السياسية وتوعية اصحاب القرار والسلطات التنفيذية بمباديء احترام حقوق الانسان ودعم الديمقراطية

انا بحاجة ماسة الى تفعيل قوانين الاستثمار لانها جزء مهم من تطور البلد والقضاء على البطالة وخصوصا في البنى التحتية والزراعة  ومتعلاقاتها من مصانع للاسمدة او التعليب والمكننة الزراعية  والمصارف الزراعية ، لكن للاسف عدم استقرار الوضع الامني وسوداوية العملية السياسية جعلت المستشمر الاجنبي وحتى المحلي يهرب من الاستثمار في العراق .

ان العامل الاقتصادي في العراق يتجه يوما بعد يوما نحو التدهور على الرغم من ان هناك بعض البرامج الجيدة التي تتبناها الحكومة ، لكن سوء الادارة وتفشي ظاهرة الفساد الاداري والمحسوبية بين الاحزاب ادت الى فشل كثير من البرامج ان كانت على مستوى الزراعة او الصناعة .


Qasim Almudhaffer Iraqi bee -keepers Association, Iraq

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يتمتع العراق بمناخ جيد يساعد على اكثار ونمو النخيل(نخيل البلح) ويشكل البلح ماده غذائيه جيده ممكن الاستفاده منها في الازمات والتمور عادةً تكون صالحه للاستهلاك البشري لاكثر من سنتين اذا تهيأ لها ضروف خزن مناسبه , وكان العراق ينبت فيه اكثر من ٣٢ مليون نخله مثمره  ولكنها تقلصت بسبب الاهمال والحروب وضعف الاهتمام الحكومي بسبب وجود واردات النفط حيث اصبح الان عدد النخيل لايتجاوز ٦ ملاين نخله اغلبها شاهق وخدمتها صعبه كما ان القيود الحكوميه على تصدير التمور وقلة الوسائل الحديثه في ادخالها في الصناعه والزراعه ادى ايضاً الى تراجع اسعارها وهذا سبب رئيسي بعدم الاهتمام بزراعة النخيل ولغرض الارتقاء وتطوير زراعة النخيل لابد من حث الحكومه على استخدام الوسائل الحديثه في زراعة النخيل وتقديم الخبرات في الصناعه الحديثه للتمور وايجاد الاسواق المناسبه لها ... ومنظمة الفاو لديها الكثير الذي يمكن ان تقدمه في هذا المجال ونحن على استعداد بتقديم مالدينا من خبره في هذا المجال مع امكانية ادخال منضمات غير حكوميه واتحاد الفلاحين في هذا المجال 

Iraq enjoys a good climate that helps in the reproduction and growth of palm trees (dates palm trees). Dates constitute good nutrients that can be used in crisis. Dates can also be valid for human consumption for more than two years if stored in the right conditions. More than 32 fruitful palm trees grow in Iraq but this number has decreased because of negligence, war conditions and the lack of government attention because of the present of oil imports. The number of palm trees have now become six million most of them are very tall and difficult to serve. In addition, government constraints on dates export and the lack of modern methods for using them in industry and agriculture has led to the decrease in the dates price and this is the main reason for not giving enough attention to planting palm trees. For the sake of improving and developing planting palm trees, the government should be urged to use the modern methods in planting palm trees and providing expertise in the modern industry of dates as well as finding the appropriate markets. The United Nations FAO has a lot to offer in this field and we are ready to provide all the experience we have in this field along with the possibility of engaging non-governmental organizations and the farmers' association in this field.


Mohamed Hakash الجامعة الوطنية للقطاع الفلاحي, Morocco

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بعد التحية والتقدير للمبادرة والمجهود المبذول من اجل ضمان السيادة الغذائية لكافة الشعوب وخاصة الشعوب المحاصرة التي تعيش ازمات وحروب مفروضة عليها.

اعتبر ان فرض تطبيق الحق في الغذاءفي ظل دولة ضعيفة اومستبدة او متحكم في ارادتها يمر عبر النضال من اجل تعبئة الشعب على التنظيم وخلق تعاونيات للعمل الانتاجي المباشر. لقد علمتنا تجارب الشعوب قديما وحديثا كيف استطاعت الشعوب ان تضمد جراحها ويتضامن افرادها لمواجهة الفياضانات والزلازل وحتى الحروب ، وكيف قاومت الاستبداد ومزقت سياج الحصار الاقتصادي والسياسي والثقافي. ان شعب اليابان علمنا الكثير في الحالة الاولى كما  ان شعب البرازيل علمنا  بحركته "البدون ارض"  كيف  استطاع ان ينتزع الارض لم لايحرثها ويخلق تعاونيات زراعية فوقها ليضمن بذلك الحق في الغذاء والعيش الكريم للعديد من المحرومين والمحرومات من خيرات بلادهم وبلادهن.

ان اساليب فرض الحق في الغذاء وانتزاع السيادة الغذائية تتعدد بتعدد تواريخ الشعوب وتجاربها وعاداتها وتقاليدها ومحنها ومعاناتها. ويبقى التضامن هو القاسم المشترك بين الانسانية جمعاء شريطة ان لا يكون التضامن رقما سياسيا او صدقة جارية.

وتبقى الديمقراطية و التحرر من الاستبداد ومحاربة الفساد والاحتكار والاستحواذ على خيرات الشعوب هي الشروط الاساسية لتحقيق العيش الكريم، ان الانتاج الغذائي في العالم الحالي يمكن ان يلبي ضعف حاجيات الانسانية كلها، فل نتسائل اذن لماذا يعيش ازيد من مليون نسمة في الفقر المدقع ولماذا يموت يوميا مئات الاطفال جوعا وبردا.

I would like to express my appreciation to the initiatives and effort exerted for the purpose of ensuring food security for all nations specially the ones that are besieged in crisis and wars.

I think that imposing the principle of the right to food in a weak or dictatorship country or a country with a controlled willpower passes through strife for the sake of mobilizing people's effort to organize and create cooperatives for direct productive work. The old and recent experience of nations has taught us how people were able to address its problems through concerted efforts to face floods, earthquakes and even wars and how they were able to deal with the economic, political and cultural siege. The people of Japan has taught us a lot in the first case and the people of Brazil has taught us with the movement of "without land" how to take the land from those who do not plough it and then create relevant agricultural cooperatives in order to guarantee the right to food and good living for the large number of people who are deprived from the welfare of their country.

The methods of imposing the right to food and acquiring food sovereignty are many depending  on the history, experiences, customs, traditions, plagues and sufferings of nations. Solidarity remains to be the common factor for all humanity provided that this solidarity does not become a standard record or an ongoing charity.

Democracy and freedom from tyranny, fighting corruption and monopoly in addition to usurping people's wealth remain to be the basic conditions for achieving good living. The world food production is sufficient to meet double the human demand… then, let's ask ourselves the question: why more than a million inhabitants live in extreme poverty and why hundred of kids die daily because of hunger and cold.


UG2014 Group 8 University, Guyana

“For too long the development debate has ignored the fact that poverty tends to be characterized not only by material insufficiency but also by denial of rights. What is needed is a rights-based approach to development. Ensuring essential political, economic and social entitlements and human dignity for all people provides the rationale for policy. These are not a luxury affordable only to the rich and powerful but an indispensable component of national development efforts.” - Kofi Annan

We are a group of five University of Guyana Students who are currently in our final year of studies of a Bachelor of Social Science Degree in Economics. We are currently working on a thesis for our Agricultural Economics 2 Course (To investigate Guyana’s participation in the MDG’s initiative of the collaborative efforts to eradicate hunger and malnutrition by 2015”) and offer below our humble contribution to this discussion. We have tried to relate it to our country’s situation (Guyana, South America) as much as possible and drawn from the knowledge we have gleaned thus far in our studies and research.

·         Rights-based approaches to Food Security in Protracted Crises.

A number of Third World countries experience protracted crises especially those that are faced with droughts and earthquakes. In Third World counties, people can hardly afford the basic necessities to survive; this is usually an effect of a weak or inefficient government. As mentioned in the opening quote, these developing countries may be in their current state due to a human rights violation. Going forward in our response we are holding all other variables constant and looking at the issue of food security solely as a human rights problem.

A new dimension to pursue food security is the Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA), which seeks to reduce the level of inequality and discrimination. This approach takes human rights into consideration when making policies and allows the public to participate to help make the decisions that will determine their standard of living in the future. The fact that HRBA allows the public to hold those that are responsible to fulfil their rights accountable; gives the public a greater opportunity to take part. However the application of HRBA to areas that have a weak or no central government control, can help ensure that the citizens suffering due to the protracted crisis can have their basic human rights fulfilled and can level the playing field thus reducing the problem of food insecurity.

One way we suggest that HRBA can be implemented in areas with weak or no central government is for the other sectors of the golden quadrant to step up (civil society, private sector and knowledge sectors).  For example, in most cases we find that when individuals are not properly informed about something they have no cause to fight for it. This is where we suggest the knowledge sector can play its part. Citizens suffering in the protracted crisis areas should be informed about their rights to basic needs (food, clothing and shelter). Once they are properly informed they can now call out to the civil and private sectors for help in attaining these rights.

The civil society being more in touch with these individuals can coordinate with the private sector in ensuring these individuals get their basic human rights. Our suggestions are that these individuals not be given aid but rather given a chance to support themselves. In other words civil society can coordinate with the private sector for training and jobs for these individuals. This gives them a source of income in which they can now attempt to sustain themselves. This will also lead to investment initiatives and higher productivity level for the country. This will give the Government better resources and they are now in a better position to strengthen central government and ensure human rights are granted to the citizens.

In this way we see how three of the four sectors of the golden quadrant can work to strengthen the last sector and how they can all work together maximising their strengths and covering their weaknesses. This may seem like a very simple solution in black and white to a very serious problem, it however requires a lot of on the ground work. A major problem of developing countries is a term in development economics known as the coordination failure. It is this inefficiency of major players (such as the golden quadrant) to efficiently and effectively coordinate their activities to attain a common goal that often finds developing countries with the ability to greatly reduce poverty still in a poverty trap.

In our country Guyana, we have managed to meet the target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger and made great strides in reducing poverty levels.[1] This is mainly due to government initiatives. Perhaps more active support along with efficient coordination from other sectors in the golden quadrant will lead to us achieving this MDG by the 2015 deadline.

Group Members:

Alexander Defraitas

Ricardo Deokie

Jamiyla Morian

Suraiya Ramkissoon

Veronica Sukhai


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "Countries in protracted crisis: what are they and why do they deserve special attention?" The State of Food Security in the World, 2010: 12-26.

United Nations Development Group. Human rights-based approach to development programming (HRBA). 2006. http://www.undg.org/content/programming_reference_guide_(undaf)/un_country_programming_principles/human_rights-based_approach_to_development_programming_(hrba) (accessed November 11, 2013).

United Nations Development Program. Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. 2012. http://www.undp.org.gy/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=... (accessed October 28, 2013).

Universal Peace Federation. Human Rights Quotes. 2006-2013. http://www.upf.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1295:hum... (accessed November 11, 2013).

[1] (United Nations Development Program 2012)


Mohamed Mohamed Beshir the Cooperative Agricultural Yemeni Association, Yemen

>> English version below<<

شكرن علا الاهتمام وما يشير حول الإسالة الثلاثة  المذكورة

مشاركتنا على النحو التالي

تطبيق الأساليب القائمة على الحقوق في المناطق الذي تحظاء برقابة الحكومة نحن في منظمة المجتمع المدني

1- ان الحكومة في ضل الصراعات الممتدة في هذه السنوات الماضية غير قادرة على الرقابة فعلى الحكومة ان توفر العدالة الاجتماعية في العلاقات الاقتصادية الهادفة إلى التنمية تحقيق التكافل والتوازن الاجتماعي وتكافأ الفرص ورفع مستو معيشة المجتمع وتعددية الملكية والشراكة الاقتصادية بين القطع العام والخاص والتعاوني والمختلط والقطاع الأهلي ورفع المركزية ووضع التشريعات القانونية والقضائية لحماية الحقوق

2- التحديات في ظل هذه الظروف لا يحل لها إلا تدخل المجتمع المحلى  والمجتمعات الدولية وبذات في الدوال التي واجهت ظروف اقتصادية واجتماعية حيث تحتاج المجتمعات والجمعيات المنتجة والاسرا الزراعية وأصحاب الحيازات الصغيرة الذي يمثلوا حجر الزاوية في نضام الأمن الغذائي وان يطلق العنان لتنافس المشروع والمعاملات المتساوية وجاعل القطاعات المختلفة تتمتع بلا معايير والحكم الرشيد

3- الاستفادة من الممارسات الجيدة والسيئة وعقد مؤتمر الحوار الشامل في اليمن خرج مخرجات جيدة وستتيح الفرص لتحقيق الأساليب الإنسانية وتضمن تقرير العدالة الانتقالية والمساواة والشراكة الرسمية والشعبية وا وضع مشاركة منظمات المجتمع المدني شريكة في موقع القرار وكان اعتبار منظمة المجتمع المدني مكون اساسى وتمثلت با أربعين مقعد وستتبنى الدولة رويت المجتمعات المدنية وصولنا الى موقع القرار وهذا هدافنا للمظلمات وسؤ يواصل المنتجين والاسرا الزراعية والجمعيات إلى تحقيق هداف الأمن الغذائي .....

نسال الله إنا تصلكم هذاها المشاركة وانتم تتمتعون بصحة جيدة وتطمحون في المزيد من ما تفيض بهي أفكاركم على مشاركتنا المتواضعة

محمد محمد بشير

رئيس الاتحاد التعاوني الزراعي اليمني

Thanks for your attention and as related to the three questions, our participation will be as follows:

Rights based approach are applied on areas that enjoy government monitoring  and we are in a civil society organization.

  1. The government that suffered from protracted conflicts during the past few years will not be capable to perform its monitoring role. The government's duty is to provide social justice in the economic relations  that aim at development, achieving social balance, realizing  equal opportunities and raising the standards of living. This is in addition to plurality of ownership, economic partnership between the public, private, cooperative and mixed sectors, removing centralization  and developing legal and judicial legislations to protect rights.   
  2. Such challenges require the intervention  of the local and international community  and it started in the countries that faced economic and social conditions as the communities, productive associations, agricultural families and small owners who represent the corner stone in the  food security system need to unleash legitimate competition and fair transactions  and then enable the different sectors to have standards and governance.
  3. Benefitting from the good and bad practices  and holding a conference for a comprehensive dialogue in Yemen that  came up with good outputs as this will allow the opportunities for realizing human ways and ensure transitional justice, equality and formal and informal partnerships.  This should be coupled with engaging civil society organizations as a partner in decision making. We have put the civil society organizations as a main component and this is represented in forty seats and the government will adopt the vision  of civil societies and how they can reach the decision making locations. The producers and the agricultural families will continue their efforts in achieving food security objectives.

May God bless your efforts and help you in providing more ideas to our modest contribution.

Beshir Mohamed Mohamed

Chairman of the Yemeni Cooperative Agriculture Associaton


Emilia Venetsanou freelancer, Italy

For further promoting HRBA to FNS, including in the context of protracted crisis, we have to speak Human Rights. For doing so, it is necessary awareness raising and training among the professionals and the general public.

Institutional and human capacity building must be promoted through inter-complementary and mutually reinforced pilot experiences in the field and training activities at all levels (Action - Recherche – Formation). This way, a certain common language and culture between the "development / emergency people" and the "human rights people" can gradually be built.

Regarding the debate, I want to say that the introduction paper is of impressively high quality, providing a concise yet thorough outline on the subject. Both introduction paper and several contributions are asking for further inputs on “How”. We know “What” HRBA could be, but, it is missing “How” HRBA could be implemented. The operationalization issue. However, the development and humanitarian machinery in place, including normative the institutional framework, is about the very operationalization of the HRBA. Since the aftermaths of the second World War, the UN institutions (bodies, agencies, funds, and so on), by mandate, are there for the promotion and protection of All Human Rights for All. It is important to recognise the progress made since 1948. This is not about philosophy or something happening elsewhere. We have made progress and we have to start being aware of. Yet, when we work for HRs, e.g. through livelihoods promotion or humanitarian assistance, we have to be aware of and for that Human Rights have to be explicit. We have to speak HRs and get familiar with HRs language.

That did not happened for several years. And we know that from our personal experience. Is out there any agronomist or anthropologist that in the 70’s, 80’s, 90’s were thinking that while engaged in a FAO or WFP project were HRs promoters? Of course, not. HRs were not explicit. We used to “identify beneficiaries” and not “deliver service to rights holders”. To promote HRs, HRs have to be explicit and the appropriate language fostered.




Commune de Abomey-Calavi dans l'Arrondissement de Hêvié

Le CAFIP est un centre de référence dans le domaine agropastorale au Bénin œuvrant pour la promotion de la sécurité alimentaire, par la production agropastorale, la formation et l’insertion socio-professionnelle des jeunes et des femmes. Ainsi vu, le CAFIP est un centre d’incubation à l’entreprenariat agropastoral pour les jeunes et les femmes en quête d’auto-emploi dans le secteur agropastoral. Il offre le droit aux citoyens africains en l'occurence de venir y renforcer leurs capicités aux fins de développer par eux-mêmes, des initiatives qui aident les individus, les groupements, les familles à réduire les frontières de l'insécurité alimentaire et à exercer ainsi le droit à l'alimentation.

Dans ses efforts constants d’atteindre les objectifs qu’il s’est assignés, le CAFIP, après un diagnostic de l’environnement socio-économique qui caractérisent les communautés à la base, développe des activités qui cadrent bien avec les contraintes liées à l’exploitation de petites superficies cultivables (maraichages, pisciculture hors sol, cuniculture, productions de champignons comestibles,…) comme une réponse sociale aux populations paysannes qui perdent de jour en jour, leurs surfaces cultivables, du fait de l’achat anarchique de leurs terres, de l’expropriation de celles-ci pour des besoins d’industrialisation, et/ou de l’avancée des villes.

Les expériences acquises du développement de ses spéculations, ont permis de développer les activités suivantes à l’endroit des populations locales :

  • Des formations agropastorales régulières à l’endroit des jeunes et des femmes ;
  • Suivi sur sites des stagiaires formés ;
  • Mise en place d’un projet en cours de finalisation d’une fédération des stagiaires pour faciliter la mise en marché de leur production ;

Pour impacter davantage les populations, le centre a décidé d’orienter ses futurs efforts vers la création d’un laboratoire d’expérimentation et de recherches agropastorales et la diffusion des expériences acquises au sein des groupements agropastoraux, des formations scolaires, ainsi que les collectivités locales avec pour base communautaire d’actions, les arrondissements.

Yves Joël ZOFFOUN, Directeur Exécutif de CAFIP




Mustafa Khawaja West Bank

>> English version below<<

.واحدة من اهم من اهم المحاور في الاداء الجيد هو تطوير ادوات المراقبة في العمل لضمان اداء افضل.  وحيث احيانا يكون ضعف الحكومة المركزية اسميا او بمعنى اخر لا يوجد ادوات رقابية فعالة، يمكن العمل ضمن التوجهات الاتية (واحدة من المذكورة ادناه او اكثر):

1. تشكيل لجان شعبية من الاحياء ومراكز الجهات المختلفة المقصودة

2. تشكيل ائتلافات واسعة لتشكيل لجان رقابة خاصة بالمجتمع المحلي

3. تنظيم تقليد الاجتماعات العامة الدورية  للحديث عن اهم المشاكل والانجازات

4. تشكيل لجان قاعدية لتمثيل السكان

5. استخدام ايجابي لدور العبادة مثل صندوق شكاوى او الاستماع لاحتياجات الناس

6. تفعيل دور النشطاء المحليين في نشر ثقافة الحقوق والمطالبة بها

One of the most important pillars of good performance is the development of monitoring tools in order to ensure better performance. Since we can find  sometimes weakness in the central government or in other words there are no effective monitoring tools, then we can adopt one or more of the following approaches:

  1. Form people's committee from the municipalities and the districts of the different competent entities.
  2. Formulate large coalitions  in order to form special  monitoring committees affiliated to the local community.
  3. Organize regular  plenary meetings to discuss problems and achievements.
  4. Form base level committees to represent the people.
  5. Positive use of mosques and churches in the form of a complaint center or by listening to people's requirements.
  6. Stimulate the role of local activists in spreading the awareness of rights and the culture of claiming them. 


Marcia Simpson-James The Carbon philter Institute, United Kingdom

It may come as a shock to many people, but Britain is presently in a food crisis. Britain has many "Food Banks", where the poor can go, and find food. This food has been given away by other people, so that the poor do not starve on the streets of modern Britain. Lots of people are struggling to survive, and many are forced into homelessness, and, borderline starvation. Britain's benefits system is becoming mre selfish and less and less human rights-based.

Mauricio Rosales FAO, Italy

Some participants find the concept of the HRB, and especially the right to food, more of a rhetorical concept and raise concern about practical implications. A lot of progress on the practical implementation of the right to food has been achieved in the last 10 years. Governments, Parliaments and civil society organizations at global, regional and national levels had been engaging into making it a reality.  This can be seen in the growing number of right to food based policies and programs and legislations (including constitutional changes) that enable participation and accountability mechanisms. FAO has been instrumental on this and it is paving the way by raising the discussion of the right to food to the level of the FAO Committee on World Food Security. The discussion have served to upsurge the implementation of legal and policy measures that contribute to the realization of the right to food. A recent report by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food highlight some of the advance on the implementation:

South Africa, Kenya, Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, the Ivory Coast and Niger have already given direct constitutional protection to the right to food, while reform processes are underway in El Salvador, Nigeria, and Zambia.

Right to food framework laws, often taking the shape of 'Food and Nutrition Security' laws, have been adopted in Argentina, Guatemala, Ecuador, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Nicaragua, and Honduras, with several other Latin American countries in the process of adopting similar measures.

Countries including Uganda, Malawi, Mozambique, Senegal and Mali have adopted, or are in the process of adopting, framework legislation for agriculture, food and nutrition that enshrines rights-based principles of entitlements and access to food.

The South African High Court ordered a revision of the Marine Living Resources Act and the creation of the Small-Scale Fishers Policy to ensure the socio-economic rights of small-scale fishers (2012).

Increasing litigation and Court rules for the protection of the right to food had been made in The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights and the ECOWAS Court of Justice ECOWAS; India and Nepal Supreme Courts

Regional policies that are human rights based are being implemented in the CARICOM countries and Portuguese speaking countries in Africa.

These are only flew examples of many of the advances on the practical implementation of the right to food. More information can be found at the FAO’s right to food website: http://www.fao.org/righttofood/en/

Russell Dlamini World Vision, Rwanda

The rights based approach must not ignore sustainability in its three segments ecological, economical and social. The freedoms brought about respect for human rights, although important should be addressed when production is already there for they only address social sustainability and lack the other two. In essence it can be a hindrance to food security.

Human rights cannot make a person food secured. It is production, access and utilization that make one food secure. Therefore it is important that we consider first things first. If providing land for subsistence farming is placed prioritised in the rights based approach, then the approach is justified and food security can be achieved.

Food aid can save lives in emergencies but when prolonged, it becomes detrimental to the society. Food aid that only involves food distribution must therefore be given only in emergencies. There is also a tendency of organization involved in food aid to justify their existence by providing food distribution even where livelihoods can be used as a tool to food security.

Sustainability should be included in the initial plans of response even in areas affected by famine. The amount of money used in food aid is too much and if it can be used well can transform food insecure communities to secured communities.

Subhash Mehta Devarao Shivaram Trust, India

I am trailing below an extract from IIED's annual report, as learning, creating human and institutional capacity and meeting the funding needs of rural communities to produce their own requirements of nutritious food, is the key to solving this problem - not hand outs!

Sharing learning for change:

Learning is at the heart of IIED’s work: we place value on building our knowledge, creating the space to test out in practice what we have learnt and finding ways to bring people together to share ideas and experiences.

The Annual Report takes stock of what we did in 2012-13, highlighting what we have achieved – from the great event of Fair Ideas at Rio+20 in July 2012 and the international networks we have been part of, to the meetings of only a few people, but all with valuable local insights to contribute to problem solving or making a change.

This past year has shown us even more clearly that small amounts of funding to support local action can have remarkable results. These funds can give poor people a more effective voice, allowing them to play a stronger part in negotiations at all levels. We will take this knowledge, plus the learning and experiences we have shared with partners, into 2013/14 – the last in our current five-year strategic period.

“Knowledge is the greatest tool for human progress but it won’t suffice – we also need leadership and determination to work together.” 

–Julia Marton-leFèvre, head of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature

Ainul Jaria Bt Maidin International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia

I believe all mankind should be treated with dignity and be given access to the basic needs of life for them to sustain themselves. The basic need in my opinion is food, shelter, access to clean water, sanitation, education and opportunities to participate in development.

Enoch Raymonf Nyayuiti NAAHM Nigeria, Nigeria

There is no doubt that in the annals of laws and rights ascribed in constitutions of countries, every human right, it is the state or states that bear a corresponding obligations to ensure the respect, the protection and the fulfilment that goes with a specific human right. These therefore include, but is not limited to the human right to adequate food only. In order to operationalize Right to Food (RTF) we have to see that such a  right, in its exercise should have several “process” as  human rights also must be upheld at once, including the human rights to participation, freedom of expression, freedom of association, freedom of peaceful assembly, freedom of (access to and imparting) information. Indispensable, too, may be the exercise of the human right to education.

This can only be enhanced and achieved through a concerted effort of national advocacy and consistency policy streamlining and organizations working in the sector must be involved in doing so.

Sisay Yeshanew FAO, Italy

I think Martin Fowler's question or concern is shared by many. HRBA has been around for a while now, more in development discourse than in emergencies, but there still are issues about its operationalization.  The debate ranges from the very applicability of human rights in emergenceis considering the challenges posed by the failure of governance structures to the added value of HRBA in terms of changes in peoples lives. At the risk of adding to the theoretical discussion that Martin has warned us against, I would like to say a bit on what HRBA entails and ask practioners in the humanitarian field to provide us with practical examples on the application of human rights in the context of work on emergencies.

The trust of HRBA is a change in mind-set and hence the way activities are carried out. It suggests a move away from the charity mind-set to people-centered intervention that recognizes the rights of affected people, including marginalized and vulnerable groups, and the duties of the various actors involved. It helps to define program roles, responsibilities and expectations through participatory and transparent processes that strengthen the accountability of relevant actors, and the dignity, equality and authority of affected people.

The primary human rights obligations are those of states and they include putting in place early warning systems, taking emergency prevention, preparedness, response and rehabilitation measures, and seeking international aid and assistance to respond to disasters. All other actors should take the primacy of the obligations of the domestic state and the need to engage with crisis-affected people into account. All humanitarian agencies and non-state actors have at least the obligation to abstain from doing harm. Relevant examples of commitments undertaken by organizations engaged in emergency work, e.g., FAO and WFP, include: not exposing people to further harm and reducing risk to already vulnerable people, responding to affected-people’s expression of their rights and needs relating to efforts to assist them, ensuring gender equality and avoiding sexual exploitation and abuse by humanitarian staff, protecting groups with special needs, including the aged, the disabled and people living with HIV/AIDS, and  designing and carrying out food and livelihood assistance activities.

Actions that should be taken within an emergency program/project cycle based on the HRBA principles of participation, non-discrimination, empowerment, transparency and accountablity include:

- Ensure the free, informed and  full participation of local women, men and youth in decision-making in every stage of the project cycle: initial assessment, programme or project design, criteria for targeting, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

-Avoid discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnicity, language, religion, sex or other status, especially of vulnerable groups, in the design, implementation as well as monitoring and evaluation of emergency programs. Take into account the special needs of children and female-headed households, the aged and the disabled and the generally unequal access of women and men to power and resources, including in the distribution of food, seeds, fertilizers and other inputs.

- Ensure that the process and outcome of decision-making in every stage of the emergency program cycle is fully transparent. Provide information about the duties and responsibilities of relevant actors (including humanitarian staff), the rights and entitlements of affected people, and such specific matters as time and place of distribution of food and food-related aid in languages and formats that are available and accessible to all. Maintain two-way communication with affected communities.

- Broaden the space for and enable affected, vulnerable and marginalized people to play a primary role in ensuring their survival and protection as well as in building resilient livelihoods. Create awareness among beneficiaries, especially the most vulnerable and marginalized, on their rights and entitlements in the context of humanitarian aid, including against conducts that cause further harm, gender-based violence, sexual exploitation and abuse, and on the use of complaint mechanism in cases of impairments of their rights. Make humanitarian staff fully aware of the related duties and responsibilities.

- Avail inclusive and context-sensitive feedback channels that feed into continuous learning and improvement as well as timely response to affected people throughout the program/project cycle (e.g., on propriety of targeting and implementation) through various monitoring  mechanisms, including routine spot checks, easily accessible and confidential complaint mechanisms, focus group discussions.

Aziza Darghouth OTCP Observatoire Tunisien De La Citoyenneté Participative, Tunisia

>> English version below<<

  1. Comment pouvons-nous appliquer les approches fondées sur les droits là où le gouvernement central exerce un contrôle faible ou inexistant?

La question devrait plutôt axer sur l'application du Droit dans les pays de centralisation et d'absence de stratégie de développement local décentralisé. 
La sécurité alimentaire est un facteur systémique, mais conséquence des facteurs actifs suivants: 
- Absence de stratégie de développement régional et local.. dont essentiellement les choix de l'aménagement du territoire (relation ville/campagne) protection des Ressources naturelles.. valorisation des RN.. 
- Absence de coordination des programmes de développement et domination des approches sectorielles (l'agriculture ne peut se développer sans vision de valorisation du patrimoine..). Ce facteur est aussi une des causes de l'échec des institutions de développement qui financent des projets sectoriels. 
- Absence de dynamique communautaire organisée et structurée mais aussi plurielle (on ne peut seulement parler aux agriculteurs.. il faut les femmes, les jeunes, les initiatives innovantes pour que les choix ou stratégies des régions soient appropriées par tous.. 
- faible culture et conscience écologique... 

L'absence d'un Etat de proximité, devrait logiquement laisser place à un processus de développent local... et induire les réformes pour une décentralisation 

  1. Quels sont les enjeux ? (Par exemple, causes et conséquences économiques, dimensions politiques, problèmes de logistique, ressources limitées)

La pauvreté est un facteur "conséquence" et non un facteur actif. 
il est impératif que les processus de choix et décisions stratégiques impliquent TOUTES Les parties prenantes..

Quels enseignements pouvons-nous tirer des bonnes et des mauvaises pratiques ? (Par exemple, amélioration sur le plan de la coordination, de l'intégration et de l'harmonisation des approches: dans l'immédiat et à long terme; aide humanitaire/secours, développement et droits humains; justice transitionnelle et responsabilité; etc

Stopper les projets sectoriels... et ancrer le développement dans la dimension de la vision des territoires... 
Mais aussi dégager et promouvoir la VISION des communautés pour leur développement.
Placer l'école rurale, les centres culturels dans le cœur de la vision.  

La malnutrition est la fatalité des communautés marginalisées et non organisées.. Aider oui... dans l'accompagnement des processus d'organisation.. pour que le territoire soit au centre des innovations: Développement économique/Culture et patrimoine/ citoyenneté.. 
Seuls les citoyens conscients et fiers de leur richesse matérielle et immatérielle, organisés et solidaires... peuvent développer durablement leur territoire. L'Etat doit soutenir ce qui permet la réalisation des objectifs des communautés.

  1. How can we apply Right-based approaches in areas with weak or no central government control?

The question should rather be centered on the application of the Law in centralized countries without a decentralized local development strategy.  
Food security is a systemic factor, but a consequence of the following contributing factors: 
- Lack of regional and local development strategy covering essentially the choices for land management (relation town/country), protection of natural resources, enhancement of natural resources. 
- Lack of coordination of development programs and domination by sectorial approaches (agriculture cannot develop without a view to the upgrading of the assets…). This factor is also one of the causes of the failure of development institutions which fund sectorial projects. 
- Lack of organized and structured but also pluralist community involvement (one can not only talk of farmers, there are also women, young people, innovative initiatives so that regional choices or strategies are embraced by everyone... 
- Weak ecological awareness and culture... 

The absence of direct State intervention, should logically leave room for a local development process and encourage reforms towards decentralization.

  1. What are the challenges? (e.g. economic causes and consequences, political dimensions, logistics, resource constraints)

Poverty is a “resulting” factor and not a causative factor.
It is imperative that the strategic choice and decision processes involve ALL stakeholders...

  1. What are the lessons from good and bad practices? (e.g. improvement of coordination, integration and harmonization of approaches: immediate and long term; humanitarian/relief, development and human rights; transitional justice and accountability; etc.)

Stop sectorial projects... and anchor development in the concept of a vision for the lands ... 
But also unblock and promote the communities’ VISION for their development.
Put the rural school, the cultural centers at the heart of the vision.  

Malnutrition is the fate of marginalized and non-organized communities... Aid is necessary... but accompanied by processes of organization ... so that the land is at the heart of the innovations: economic development/culture and heritage/citizenship... 
Only citizens who are conscious and proud of their material and immaterial wealth, organized and united... can sustainably develop their land. The State should support that which allows the communities to achieve their objectives.

Mohamed Hakesh The National University of Farming Sector, Morocco

>> English version below<<

ان الجامعة الوطنية للقطاع الفلاحي باعتبارها النقابة الاساسية للعمال الزراعيين والفلاحين الكادحين بالمغرب والمهتمة باحقاق السيادة الغذائة  تعتبر ان هذه المبادرة بوابة مهمة للتنسيق مع كل الطاقات  والفعاليات والتنظيمات المغاربية والعربية والعالمية المؤمنة بحق الشعوب في تقرير مصير غذائها والمشاركة في وضع السياسات الفلاحية والزراعية

Being the main union of agricultural workers and farmers in Morocco, the National University of Farming Sector is concerned with fulfilling food sovereignty. It deems that such an initiative is a significant gate to coordinate all Moroccan, Arab and world events and organizations that believe in the right of peoples in self-determination of their food and participation in developing farming and agricultural policies.

Joseph Schechla HIC-HLRN, Egypt

The “human rights based approach” (HRBA) is—or should be—more than just lofty philosophical notions conveyed in convoluted legal language. Indeed, one of the most challenging aspects of the HRBA to food security in protracted crises is in “operationalizing” the rights. For Human Rights advocates, this means also a challenge to translate abstractions into actionable choices in the field, or otherwise on the job, while also simplifying legal texts. Human Rights are synonymous with human needs that all organs of states bear a corresponding obligation to respect (by avoiding violation), to protect (by regulating third parties) and to fulfill (through positive steps and measures). In Human Rights law, states and their constituent parts bear these obligations severally and collectively, domestically and extraterritorially. UN Charter-based organizations share this framework, as Human Rights form one the three inter-related purposes of the United Nations (with peace and security, and forward development).

When a food-security crisis becomes prolonged, fulfilling a Human Right and human need to nutritious food requires longer-term considerations consistent with development approaches. Human Rights principles necessarily guide such approaches by reminding those in the field and the bureaus how food is related to other Human Rights such as adequate housing, information, physical security, livelihoods and participation. As the Human Rights Covenants provide, “in no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.” Serial displacement without consent of the subject population is, or land and water deprivation, for example, are violations of a bundle of Human Rights.

Among the most important guiding Human Rights principles to consider in such situations are “self-determination,” “progressive realization” and “international cooperation” in implementing obligations. That means that governments and international agencies must ensure local consent, guarantees of no retrogression in access to adequate and nutritious food and no deterioration of existing economic activity in any case of a relocation.

Some of our background materials for this e-discussion report how serial evictions and lack of access to land and water have left IDP women to resort to exchanging sex for food money. In other cases, states’ failure to  implementing their self-executing obligations to correct illegal land confiscations under occupation have left farmers destitute and entire communities more dependent on emergency food aid. distributed and determined by external agents over long years, leaving people without self-determination and their own means of subsistence.

While these cases have moral implications, neglecting to apply the legal imperatives that correspond with them may exacerbate suffering, perpetuate open-ended, “band-aid” solutions and lead us to fail as an international community to uphold the elements (needs) of a civilized world proposed in the UN Charter (one of peace and security, forward development and Human Rights). For these reasons, the HRBA to food insecurity in protracted crises is indispensable if we are to resolve crises, rather than just manage them with ineffectual short-term responses that may, at once, omit to remedy them.

Gaici Nah Bachir REMMSO, Western Sahara

Las condiciones de vida en los campamentos de refugiados saharauis son cada vez más duras. La mayoría de la población vive en tiendas de campaña, sin agua corriente, y depende casi totalmente de la ayuda internacional externa para subsistir, que ha ido decreciendo en estos años de crisis. Los distintos organismos internacionales estiman que dos tercios de las mujeres sufren de anemia, y un tercio de los niños sufre de desnutrición crónica.

Ante esta situación porque los refugiados saharauis que viven una crisis que se prolonga a casi 38 años de exilio y refugio de no puedan beneficiarse de sus recursos naturales. ?  Y Porque siguen viviendo gracias a la ayuda humanitaria cada vez más deficiente?  

¿Por qué no exigimos el derribo del muro militar que parte al pueblo y territorio en dos, y para que los habitantes autóctonos puedan tener más posibilidades de mejoría de vida y búsqueda de trabajo en todo el territorio?

¿Por qué no actuamos acorde al derecho humanitario internacional, amortiguando en lo que se pueda sufrimientos e inseguridad alimentaria de los más afectados?

Martin Fowler Agricultural economist, Uganda

You ask "What are the challenges".  The principal challenge I find with this approach is that many people, myself included, find it a very difficult concept to understand and to see how it might be applied in practice.  After several years of reading about the "rights-based" approach to agriculture/food/food security, I still find the concept so abstract and the discussions to be so replete with jargon or confusing text, that I fail to understand it and its importance/relevance.

I realise that this may appear to be a slightly heretical viewpoint, but wonder if I am alone?  If I am, forget about this post and I will just have to keep reading more and discussing with 'converts' until I see the light.  If not, perhaps more fundamental education/extension work is needed by its proponents.

Don't get me wrong, I am keen to understand it and its relevance to my own work and that of others involved with agriculture and food security policy development and practise.

Many thanks for giving us the platform so that we can hear from practitioners on this and other important topics.



Demetrio Miguel Castillo Universidad UTESA, Dominican Republic

>> English version below<<

1.- Simplemente aportando ideas de la misma comunidad en cuestión sobre su propia realidad, los conocimientos ancestrales siempre han logrado reolber toda una serie de conflictos que nosotros los vemos muy grandes y las comunidades con su sapiencia lo ven con simplicidad, especialmente en cuanto a derechos fundamentales de los seres humanos. Los enfoques de grandes problematicas las comunidades los ven basados en la simpleza, si a esto añadimos la realidad de los conceptos de producción simple y la comunidad recibe los apoyos necesarios los conflictos serían vistos a nivel macros como más simples de lo que los ven los demás.

2.- Los desafios están en saber colocar en manos adecuadas la solución a problemas qiue desde la optica política, económica y social vemos muy exorbitantes y exagerados para solucioanr la situación real rradica en la simplicidad, si arrojaramos al vacios las grandes soluciones y entregaramos de manera seria a las comunidades las socluciones nos sorprenderíamos de la relaidad para optar por pequeñas soluciones a grandes problemas, por ejemplo entreguemos semillas adecuadas apersonas adecuadas y veremos en tres meses soluciones pragmaticas a grandes desafios alimenticios. Los recursos son la base fundamental para la solución de grandes desafios miemtras no hagamos lo pragmatico por lo político estaremso enfrentando serios problemas de soluciones a coyunturas mediaticas que los tiempos tecnológicos nos quieren imponer, en realidad estas crisis alimenticias no son más que criss economicas de grandes grupos económicos no de pequeñso grupso necesitados que saben en donde están las soluciones a esas problemáticas económicas creadas superficialmente para no degradar los sectores pòderosos economicamente.

3.-El problema más serios que afrontan los gobiernos está allí precisamente en la rendición de cuentas de manera pública, sencilla y objetiva, cuando los gobiernos se decidan a darse cuenta de que los aspectos sociales no son complicados a la hora de busqueda de soluciones encontrarán la realidad propia de sus visiones equivocadas sobre situaciones públcias de manejos simples, de derechos que es lo unico que se pid een diferentes coyunturas, cuando los gobiernos se decidan a bajar un poco los estamentos de información y decir de manera clara y precisa su relaidad entenderán cuan cerca estarán de solucionar problemas de facil solcuioón contando con las mayorías necesarias para emnfrentar crisis.

1.-Simply providing ideas about the reality of the community involved, ancestral knowledge has always solved diverse conflicts that, for us, are apparently substantial, but are regarded by communities as simple, especially with respect to the basic rights of human beings. Communities address the major issues with an approach based on simplicity. Taken together with the reality of simple production concepts and the necessary support to be provided to communities, the perception of the conflicts at macro level would be simplified.

2.-The challenges consist in entrusting the solution of problems regarded as highly exorbitant and exaggerated from the political, economic and social perspective to the appropriate people. The real situation is based in simplicity. If major solutions were discarded and problem solving was adequately entrusted to communities, we would be surprised by their tendency to adopt small solutions for serious issues. For example, if we give appropriate seeds to the right people, in three months we will realize there are pragmatic solutions to major food challenges. Resources are the fundamental basis for addressing major challenges.  Until we adopt a pragmatic and non-political approach, we will be facing intractable problems related to the media that the technological times aim to impose. Actually, these food crises are mere economic crises of major economic groups. These crises do not correspond to small needy groups that know how to solve these economic problems, superficially created to prevent the degradation of the economically powerful sectors.

3.-The most serious problem that governments are facing lies precisely in the public, simple and objective accountability. When governments become aware that social aspects are not complicated when it comes to finding solutions, they will face the reality of their mistaken approaches about simple management public situations, often only related to the granting of rights. When governments clearly and accurately report about their reality, they will understand how close they are to solving easy problems, taking into consideration the majorities required to address the crises.

KV Peter World Noni Research Foundation, India

Parliament of India passed a Food Security Act(FSA)-2013 which ensures 5kg food grains to 820 million people at Rs 3/ kg average. This  is a right based approach rather than a welfare measure by the Government. There is enough food grains in the warehouses(620-650 million tons) enough to mange till 2015.Indias commitment to WTO as per Agreement on Agriculture is fully met by export of special quality rice like Basmathi, spices, rubber, tea and coffee. Even Cadbury, cashew, Arecanut and several value added agricultural products are exported. The matter which has not received attention is quality of food and purchasing power of people. Employment guarantee is a pre-requisite. Investment  has to come for .gainful employment. Issues of women empowerment need to be taken up.

(K V Peter)