Les transferts monétaires sont aujourd’hui largement utilisés dans les réponses aux crises alimentaires et nutritionnelles du Sahel. Au-delà des situations d’urgence, les instruments de type « transferts monétaires » sont également de plus en plus considérés par les gouvernements et les bailleurs de fonds dans les plans nationaux de lutte contre la pauvreté, souvent au sein de stratégies et politiques nationales de protection sociale. Il apparaît opportun de s’interroger sur une possible amélioration des liens entre programmes de transferts monétaires d’urgence et programmes nationaux de transferts sociaux (monétaires) en vue du renforcement de la résilience des populations au Sahel. C’est dans ce cadre que le CaLP, l’UNICEF et la Commission européenne se sont associés pour organiser, avec le soutien financier de l’OFDA, un atelier d’échange régional sur le sujet. Faisant écho à unerécente étude de cas commissionnée par le CaLP sur les possibilités d’utiliser les programmes nationaux de transferts sociaux pour répondre à une crise humanitaire, la question centrale de l’atelier était la suivante :
Dans quelle mesure est-il possible et souhaitable d’utiliser les programmes nationaux de transferts sociaux pour fournir une assistance humanitaire aux populations du Sahel ?
Les objectifs principaux de cette initiative étaient doubles, à savoir :
Le présent rapport se veut aussi fidèle que possible aux opinions exprimées par les participants au cours de l’atelier et au travers des fiches d’évaluation de l’atelier.4 Le programme de l’atelier, la liste des participants, ainsi que l’évaluation de l’atelier par les participants sont présentés dans les annexes. L’ensemble des documents et présentations partagés au cours de l’atelier peut être téléchargé depuis la page « Afrique de l’Ouest » du site du CaLP.
The agricultural economics literature provides various estimates of the number of farms and small farms in the world. This paper is an effort to provide a more complete and up to date as well as carefully documented estimate of the total number of farms in the world, as well as by region and level of income.
It uses data from numerous rounds of the World Census of Agriculture, the only dataset available which allows the user to gain a complete picture of the total number of farms globally and at the country level. The paper provides estimates of the number of family farms, the number of farms by size as well as the distribution of farmland by farm size.
These estimates find that: there are at least 570 million farms worldwide, of which more than 500 million can be considered family farms. Most of the world’s farms are very small, with more than 475 million farms being less than 2 hectares in size. Although the vast majority of the world’s farms are smaller than 2 hectares, they operate only a small share of the world’s farmland. Farmland distribution would seem quite unequal at the global level, but it is less so in low- and lower-middle-income countries as well as in some regional groups.
These estimates have serious limitations and the collection of more up-to-date agricultural census data, including data on farmland distribution is essential to our having a more representative picture of the number of farms, the number of family farms and farm size as well as farmland distribution worldwide.
The paper discusses the issues and policy options for reduction of food losses and waste in Europe and Central Asia, focusing primarily on middle and low income countries of the region.
Food losses and waste (FLW) depend on specific conditions and the local situation in a given country. In broad terms, food losses and waste are influenced by production and processing choices, patterns and technologies, internal infrastructure and capacity, marketing chains and channels for distribution, consumer purchasing and food use practices. To a large extent, FLW are rational from a private perspective as they are the result of the optimizing behaviour of agents. However, in certain countries there are serious limitations due to ineffective food chains, and a lack of capacity to preserve or process foods, or limited markets. From a societal perspective, FLW are claimed to generate socioeconomic and environmental problems.
Development context has high importance on the level, structure and causes of FLW. In developed countries of the region consumer preferences and practices are the main reason for FLW. As a consequence, all steps of the supply chain have to adjust their production, processing, or distribution to these preferences. In middle and low income countries the most frequently mentioned causes of food losses are inadequate infrastructure and technology, inefficient market and demand for supply as well as the lack of education and skills, in particular at the farm level.
Targeted investments to reduce FLW at any significant scale could be primarily done by the private sector. Equally importantly, by promoting effective policy and enabling environment in support of sustainable agricultural production, and value chain approaches the public sector can contribute to a minimisation of FLW. The scope of the public policies should be to create an enabling environment for private sector to introduce practices having potential to reduce FLW whereby contributing to increase the overall efficiency of food supply chains.
The Food Security Information Network (FSIN)* supports the development and harmonization of methods and tools for food and nutrition security analysis. A technical working group composed of renowned experts was constituted to lead the development of a common analytical framework and technical guidelines for resilience measurement.
This paper is an initial step toward the development of resilience measurement design for use by stakeholders (e.g. programme staff, monitoring and evaluation, policy makers). It outlines:
Url to the publication: http://www.fsincop.net/resource-centre/detail/en/c/213177/
MAFAP’s Synthesis Report presents key findings from an unprecedented effort to systematically monitor and analyse the effects of food and agricultural policies in ten developing countries across Africa: Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda.
Key findings from the report include the following and much more:
Current evidence underlines the importance of the nutritional status of women as a crucial factor in the survival, healthy growth and development of her children. Although it is the subject of less global attention, maternal nutrition is also crucial for women’s own ability to live a healthy life.
The EC demonstrated its strong commitment to 'enhance maternal and child nutrition in external assistance' by adopting a nutrition policy in March 2013. Specifically in the humanitarian context, the Commission’s support is aimed at treating, preventing and alleviating maternal and child undernutrition, to reduce or avoid excess mortality and morbidity, in emergencies. For maternal nutrition in emergencies, the DG ECHO is concerned that there are a number of gaps at policy and practice levels and limited guidance is available, in order to efficiently and effectively address the needs for maternal nutrition.
A one-day technical roundtable on “Maternal Nutrition in Emergencies” was held in Brussels in November 2013, convened by DG ECHO. The meeting brought together key DG ECHO technical staff and partners, agency nutrition focal points, donors and technical experts. The aim of the round table was to discuss the evidence, current practice and issues related to maternal nutrition in emergencies and to suggest priority actions and initiatives required to address these gaps and challenges.
We would like to share with you the report of this event, prepared and facilitated by Emily Mates and Tanya Khara (ENN), composed of 2 parts. (1) The technical background paper, identified a number of gaps in the area of maternal nutrition in emergencies and formed the basis for discussions at the technical roundtable meeting. The review summarised the available literature relating to: women’s particular nutritional vulnerabilities, what the implications of these are for women and their infants, current international guidance on maternal nutrition and what is currently being done in emergency programming. A series of key gaps were highlighted as a result. (2) The meeting report provides an overview of the discussions held at the roundtable of the main issues, gaps and recommendations.
Key recommendations have been made during the technical roundtable, which will require follow-up. We would like to raise some of the issues and recommendations in future events and meetings, and will appreciate the support of our partners in carrying this issue forward.
DG ECHO Policy Officer – Nutrition
From 22 October 2013 to 20 November 2013, the Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum) hosted the fourth e-discussion of the Community of Practice on Food Insecurity on Protracted Crises. This e-discussion focused on “rights-based approaches to food security in protracted crises,” soliciting the participation of the worldwide FSN Forum community of experts and practitioners. The outcomes will feed into the drafting process of an Agenda for Action for Addressing Food Insecurity in Protracted Crises.
A practical guide for setting up family gardens for the production of nutritious, safe food crops, that would contribute to the diets of populations affected by food insecurity
This Maximising the Quality of Scaling Up Nutrition Programme (MQSUN) Briefing describes lessons learnt and implications from a MQSUN assignment which main objective was to analyze the research and policy challenges for improving nutrition governance in a context of state fragility.
Efforts to strengthen government commitment to reduce under nutrition in Fragile and Conflict Affected States (FCAS) face a number of context specific challenges:
This briefing offers practical recommendations and policy advice to address nutrition governance challenges in a context of fragility.