Contibutions for 10 Year Anniversary of the Right to Food Guidelines

Alliance Contre la Faim et la Malnutrition Senegal
16.05.2014

L'Alliance du Sénégal a le grand plaisir de participer à cette discussion en ligne.

L'avenir du droit à l'alimentation a un bel avenir.Ces résultats dans certains pays latino américains ,Asiatiques et Africains commencent à impressionner les détenteurs d'obligations.

Des pays comme le nôtre ont intégré le processus qui commencent à prendre forme grâce à l'Alliance du Sénégal. Les autorités locales prêtent une oreille attentive à la société civile qui avait pris l'engagement de porter le plaidoyer auprès des autorités administratives à L'atelier de Dakar.

L'Organisation des rencontres sur la problématique du droit à l'alimentation est un indice à promouvoir au sein des pays et auprès du grand publique. Il faut appuyer sur le levier de la communication et renforcer les Alliances par la formation et les moyens financiers. A ce niveau la démarche semble timide et freine les initiative locales.

Par ailleurs les conflits sont un grand frein aux efforts déployés par le PAM et la FAO en matière de sécurité alimentaire. L'absence de paix est facteur de malnutrition. Les déplacements des populations en guerre précarisent le droit à l'alimentation. l'accessibilité et la disponibilités ne peuvent plus être garantie.Les secours sont détournés ou les convoyeurs assassinés. Malgré les impacts positifs depuis 1996 ,1999 et 2004, il convient de booster la communication pour relever le niveau de l'information autour du droit à l'alimentation surtout dans les pays au Sud du Sahara. 

Le Coordonnateur

Jacques DIOUF.

Betzy Perez INTECAP, Guatemala
13.05.2014

Aqui en Guatemala iniciaron con Congresos de Escuelas Saludables, el Director de una escuela pública de Escuintla, pidio ayuda para crear un Proyecto para concursar, se le diseño y asesoró por medio del INTECAP, el cual consistió en un programa de BPM para la tienda escolar y la cocina escolar que en conjunto con un programa de comidas aportaba las vitaminas, minerales y nutrientes para ayudar al sistema inmunológico del niño y evitar enfermedades e ingerir las vitaminas necesarias por medio de los alimentos que se les proporcionaban.

Primero aseguramos la inocuidad alimentaria y luego la nutrición, la escuela fué ganadora en el Politicas Públicas Saludables en el ámbito Escolar.

Actualmente la Institución en conjunto con el Alcalde Municipal esta promoviendo este programa en todas las escuelas capacitandoles en forma gratuita en BPM y Refacciones nutritivas, para convertir este Programa en Red Municipal de Escuelas Saludables de Escuintla, y aún, estamos enlazando con otros municipios de otros departamentos el compartir la experiencia exitosa y dando estos cursos, para realizar un efecto multiplicador en sus Departamentos.

Estamos realizando de nuevo un proyecto en esa misma escuela acerca de Seguridad Alimentaria, la tienda escolar deja de funcionar unos días para que los niños de Sexto Primaria preparen refacciones nutritivas a partir de los conocimientos adquiridos en los seminarios.

Esperamos así contribuir con SESAN y el PACTO HAMBRE CERO que esta siendo implementado en Guatemala.

Aruna Sharma Government of Madhya Pradesh, India
12.05.2014

Here are my comments on the achievements, shortcomings and also way forward cutting across the three themes

The biggest achievement has been to put debate on ‘hunger’ in the rights perspective i.e. an issue of ensuring availability of basic need of food-nutrition as a rights agenda. The perspective has been to operate by maintaining the dignity of the beneficiary.

The second achievement is ‘the world as single entity’ do not have deficiency of basic food production, thus the challenge is more of equitable distribution and mechanisms to reach the needy.

The third achievement has been excellent empirical evidence of success of the execution of the concept of food security

The forth is the ‘food security’ being understood as a holistic terms in terms of health, sanitation, nutrition and caloric intake.

The shortcoming has been in term of

  1. Still groping with mechanism of converging the efforts of health, sanitation, and nutrition and food intake. Each of the intervention is still working in a silo. The need is to have a holistic strategy of execution.

  2. Thus, there is now a need to document the mechanism to bring out the convergence in the life-cycle of an individual.

  3. It may be a good initiative to draft guidelines for bringing out the convergence so that each country can formulate their policy, programs and implementation and monitoring parameters in conjuction to the convergent strategy.

I would like to offer my services to draft a 'Convergence Strategy in Policy Making, Program Design and Execution'. I am also attaching a chapter from my recently published report by UNDP, on 'Mainstreaming of Resource Convergence in Policymaking, Programme Design and Execution' released in December 2013.

The url for the book is http://www.in.undp.org/content/india/en/home/library/democratic_governance/mainstreaming-of-resource-convergence-in-policy-making--programm/

Regards

Dr Aruna Sharma

Alianza por la Soberanía, Autonomía y Seguridad Alimentaria Nutricional
12.05.2014

Tema 1: Derecho a una Alimentación Adecuada: pasado y presente

¿Cuáles han sido algunos de los logros más importantes y algunas de las principales carencias en la lucha por el derecho a una alimentación adecuada durante las últimas décadas a nivel mundial, regional y local?

​En Sudamérica, en la mayoría de sus países, la toma de conciencia del flagelo que causa el hambre  ha sido primero asumido por las organizaciones de la sociedad civil, movimientos sociales, agricultores y consumidores, pero también por los gobiernos (unos más que otros) para iniciar una serie de medidas tendientes a disminuir la pobreza atendiendo a los sectores más vulnerables de la sociedad en la que vivimos, como a los niños, mujeres, ancianos y productores de alimentos en pequeña escala, entre otros.

Se comprobó que el diálogo entre la sociedad civil y los estados coadyuvaron los efectos que hicieron posible más inversión, políticas públicas inclusivas con apertura hacia la sociedad, muy amplias, y normativas, a favor de estos sectores vulnerables con efectos en la sociedad en su conjunto que se convenció que el alimento no es una mercancía, es un derecho humano  fundamental que los Gobiernos estàn obligaods obligados a Respetar, Proteger y Garantizar.

Así, la toma de conciencia y acciones en la pretensión de ejercer el derecho humano a la alimentación adecuada en los países, regiones y el globo, en la actualidad está ayudando para reducir la pobreza el hambre y la desnutrición en porcentajes importantes, como señales de compromisos políticos para avanzar hacia la desaparición de las desigualdades y la erradicación del hambre en esta generación, donde aun se sabe según la FAO, que  todavía hay 47 millones de hambrientos latinoamericanos y caribeños donde paralelamente todavía se instala la obesidad y los hábitos no saludables.

Las políticas públicas de gran impacto, con mecanismos de protección social hacia las poblaciones más vulnerables han  sido especialmente las dirigidas a los niños con la alimentación en sus escuelas, las madres y sus recién nacidos, y los adultos mayores, los/as  que gozan de transferencias condicionadas, y también los agricultores de pequeña escala  que reciben en algunos casos subsidios., agua para su consumo y riego.

Medidas vinculadas a las de la dotación de servicios públicos básicos que mejoran las condiciones de vida de las personas pobres y acercan a todos al buen vivir ejerciendo en derecho a la alimentación adecuada en respeto a la naturaleza;  un paradigma de desarrollo que está comenzando a ponerse en práctica en el que todos deben tener lo suficiente para vivir dignamente. 

Tema 2: Las Directrices sobre el Derecho a la Alimentación

¿Cómo han contribuido las Directrices sobre el Derecho a la Alimentación a la promoción y protección del derecho a una alimentación adecuada en los últimos diez años? ¿Cuáles son algunos de logros fundamentales y las principales limitaciones de las Directrices y su implementación?

​Las Directrices voluntarias en apoyo de la realización progresiva del derecho a una alimentación adecuada en el contexto de la seguridad alimentaria, que proporciona orientación práctica sobre la forma de aplicar el derecho a una alimentación adecuada en una amplia gama de políticas y áreas del programa. Estas Directrices ya dieron como efecto sucesivo, importante, otras directrices: la de las  Directrices voluntarias sobre la gobernanza responsable de la tenencia de la tierra, la pesca y los bosques en el contexto de la seguridad alimentaria nacional. Las directrices del DHAA también hicieron también posible que en los países y la región sudamericana se analice y reflexione conceptualmente sobre la soberanía alimentaria, todo para que el hombre ejerza su derecho pleno de nunca sufrir de hambre.

Las directrices son 19, vinculadas forman un entorno propicio, favorable, para ejercer el derecho a la alimentación adecuada, que junto a las medidas y apoyos internacionales deben hacer posible este ejercicio.

En los paìses el análisis respecto a estas 19 directrices, condujeron a la elaboración de informes anuales sobre el ejercicio del DHAA, casi siempre elaborados por la sociedad civil, que sirvieron a los gobiernos para que trabajen en garantizar hasta donde les es posible la construcción del entorno favorable para el ejercicio del DHAA.

La elaboración anual de estos informes sirvió, sirve, para anotar progresivamente, sucesivamente, el avance o retroceso de las garantías que necesita el DHAA para que sea ejercido de manera regular y permanente. Muchas veces por falta de recursos económicos la elaboración de estos informes no es posible realizarlos.

Tema 3: El futuro

¿Cuáles son los principales desafíos y caminos a seguir para la plena realización del derecho a una alimentación adecuada a nivel local, nacional, regional y mundial? 

​Se puede afirmar que en general, el cumplimiento del derecho a la alimentación es cada vez más una prioridad en las agendas locales, nacionales e internacionales, aunque con diversos énfasis e importancias. Para esto es importante que siga  trabajando la progresividad positiva de las directrices voluntarias del DHAA, como de las  Directrices voluntarias sobre la gobernanza responsable de la tenencia de la tierra, la pesca y los bosques en el contexto de la seguridad alimentaria, involucrando cada vez a mas gente en este cometido, en constante diálogo.​

INTERNATIONAL FOOD SECURITY NETWORK (IFSN)

IFSN i.e. International Food Security Network - a partnership of 1100+ civil society organizations (CSOs) from 31 countries across continents – strives to strengthen its regional food security networks to ensure food and nutritional security in southern countries.  The network promotes south-south dialogues and knowledge dissemination and aims at influencing policies and programmes for increased food security at national, regional and international level. Six regional networks and twenty six national networks spanning across the globe form the core of IFSN with ActionAid International in the lead. The network - since its inception in 2004 - has been co-funded by the European Commission.

ASASAN, Alianza por la Soberanía, Autonomía y Seguridad Alimentaria Nutricional is the regional network in South America, and includes Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru.

Carol Bartle New Zealand
09.05.2014

The New Zealand College of Midwives

In response to the Ten Year Anniversary of the Right to Food Guidelines and the three themes provided as a vehicle for commentary, Theme 1: Right to Adequate Food - Past and Present; Theme 2: The Right to Food Guidelines; Theme 3: The Future, the New Zealand College of Midwives would like to submit the following as a contribution to this global consultation.

The New Zealand College of Midwives (The College) is the professional organisation of midwifery in New Zealand.  The midwifery model of care focus is woman centred and as midwives work with women from early pregnancy and up to six weeks following the birth of their babies they are in a unique position to comment on  food security and the right to food guidelines, specifically related to maternal and infant nutrition, health and well-being.

The College would like to reinforce the importance of protection against all aspects of discrimination for pregnant, birthing and breastfeeding women. To treat women differently or to create conditions that discriminate against them because of pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding is unacceptable. Pregnancy and childbirth are significant events in the lives of women, and their families and represent a time of great vulnerability. As midwives working in partnership with women, the College recognise the importance of gender equity and the work to protect women’s rights in pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Addressing issues of gender inequality and working towards improving the socioeconomic status of women are both key aspects in the work to improve health and access to breastfeeding and healthy, nutritious, culturally and socially acceptable food.

The College recognises that mother and baby health and well-being are innately linked and cannot be viewed in isolation from each other. The well-being of children is closely linked to the well-being of their mothers. Policies which support parents to be primary caregivers for their young children, such as flexible maternity protection, support for birthing women and breastfeeding, are recognized internationally as effective mechanisms to reduce the vulnerability of children but they are also linked to aspects of food security for infants and young children. Supporting women to breastfeed is a sound, evidence-based investment in infant and child health and food security. Practices that occur during pregnancy and around birth may have negative impacts on the initiation and establishment of breastfeeding and issues such as enabling women to have skin-to-skin contact with their infants immediately after birth and supporting an early start to breastfeeding are essential and need to be recognised in any policies or guidelines related to food security and nutrition. We note the absence of breastfeeding in many international and national documents concerned with poverty, nutrition and food security and recommend that this be given some urgent priority.  One exception is a document published by the Pan American Health Organisation (2013). [1]  This document emphasises how critical skin to skin care and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding are.  The four pillars of food security are availability, stability of supply, access and utilisation and these pillars are all upheld when mothers and infants are not separated, mothers are supported to breastfeed early and often, and where donor human milk is also available to be used when appropriate. The College recommends that adequate nutrition for pregnant and lactating women needs to be treated as a priority in all global food and nutrition security programmes.

The College recognises that food insecurity is an escalating problem in households with children. [2] Bidwell reports that there are links between lower rates of initiation and continuing breastfeeding in food-insecure households and that the relationship between food insecurity and poor health status is well documented.[3] Bidwell also notes that “food insecurity is strongly linked to maternal depression which in turn has a flow on effect on mother-child interaction, attachment, neglect and abuse” (p. 5).  This is also likely to have a negative impact on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. Women make an enormous contribution in terms of their breastfeeding and child care endeavours and the Asian Development Bank highlighted how critical it is to recognise women’s unpaid work, including care work, as there is a “modest almost invisible reference to the immense contribution of care to the market economy” (p. 3).  

As the World Health Organisation highlighted in 2013 [4] more than two million children under five years of age die due to under-nutrition and many of these deaths are associated with inappropriate feeding practices. This highlights the ongoing issue of inappropriate marketing of formula and complementary foods for infants and young children. In a 2011 report the World Health Organisation [5] made a statement about the potential of breastfeeding to prevent about 800,000 deaths among children under five years of age, if all infants and young children between birth and twenty-three months were optimally breastfed. It was also noted in the same report that less than half of newly born infants are put to the breast within an hour of birth.

Further points related to the three themes; Theme 1: Right to Adequate Food - Past and Present; Theme 2: The Right to Food Guidelines; Theme 3: The Future.

Theme 1: Right to Adequate Food - Past and Present

  • The College supports this document, and any future revised versions of this document, being situated within a framework of human rights with recognition of the importance of elimination of discrimination of any kind including discrimination related to race, colour, sex, gender, age, health status, and income. 
  • The special needs of women in relation to pregnancy, birth, breastfeeding and infant feeding support, and the postnatal period, need to be embedded within any documents related to health, well-being, nutrition, poverty, and food security.
  • In situations where there are humanitarian disasters, as a result of war, natural disaster or catastrophic events due to climate change, any operational guidance policies, or documents related to infant and young child feeding in emergencies, need to include the importance of supporting women to initiate and continue breastfeeding, protecting them and their families from misinformation and avoiding the distribution of donated supplies of breast-milk substitutes. The College has developed a consensus statement on infant feeding in natural disasters [6] and recommend that all organisations working with pregnant women, mothers, infants and young children consider developing similar statements. Feeding the mother so she is enabled to breastfeed her baby is to be recommended wherever possible.  

Theme 2: The Right to Food Guidelines

  • The College supports point 4.4 in that States should provide adequate protection to consumers against fraudulent marketing practices and misinformation. This includes ensuring the nutritional adequacy and safety of all foods marketed as being suitable for infants and young children and putting into place rigorous safety mechanisms. Regulation in regards to the International Code of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes and subsequent, relevant World Health Assembly resolutions needs to be strengthened in most if not all countries and this includes a commitment to education about the Code, monitoring, reporting and the provision of meaningful sanctions for industry violations of the Code.
  • The College supports point 7.4 in that States should strengthen domestic laws and policies to acknowledge the importance of recognising the contribution of women to poverty reduction and nutrition security. This includes maternity protection regulations and policies along with the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding.
  • The College would also like to emphasise the importance of point 8.3 – the specific access problems of women and of vulnerable, marginalised and traditionally disadvantaged groups, including all persons affected by HIV/AIDS. The highest rates of illness and premature death are generally experienced by those who are worst off financially.[7] In New Zealand, Māori and Pacific households are disproportionally represented in the two lowest income quintiles. Māori and Pacific women are also reported to have the lowest breastfeeding rates in New Zealand. The importance of access to not only sufficient nutritious, culturally and socially acceptable food, but also to good, consistent, accessible, and timely support for breastfeeding women is critical. New Zealand has high initiation rates of exclusive breastfeeding but the New Zealand Breastfeeding Authority reports that continued breastfeeding rates in the community have shown little, or no improvement,[8] and for Māori and Pacific peoples rates have remained consistently lower. The Plunket Society data on infants around six months of age suggests exclusive breastfeeding rates of 9% for Maori and 12% for Pacific as opposed to 19% for ‘other’. [9]
  • The College suggests that point 10.6 is in need of strengthening, in that we consider States have an obligation to disseminate evidence based and up to date information on the feeding of infants and young children that is consistent and in line with current scientific knowledge and internationally accepted practices, and to take steps to counteract misinformation on infant feeding.

Theme 3: The Future

The College would like to recommend the following:

  1. That the calls for action from the 1990 and 2005 Innocenti Declarations should be recognised and revitalised and that urgent attention needs to be paid to these recommendations, for example:  
  • Establish or strengthen national infant and young child feeding and breastfeeding authorities, coordinating committees and oversight groups that are free from commercial influence and other conflicts of interest.
  • Revitalise the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), maintaining the Global Criteria as theminimum requirement for all facilities, expanding the Initiative’s application to include maternity, neonatal and child health services and community based support for lactating women and caregivers of young children.
  • Implement all provisions of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions in their entirety as a minimumrequirement and establish sustainable enforcement mechanisms to prevent and/or address non-compliance.
  • Adopt maternity protection legislation and other measures that facilitate six months of exclusive breastfeeding for women employed in all sectors, with urgent attention to the non-formal sector.
  • Identify and allocate sufficient resources to fully implement actions called for in the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding.
  • Recognise that optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding are essential to achieving the long-term physical, intellectual and emotional health of all populations and therefore the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals and other development initiatives and that inappropriate feeding practices and their consequences are major obstacles to poverty reduction and sustainable socioeconomic development.
  1. Issues related to the sustainability of global food systems and reduction of the negative effects of monocultures and dairy expansion on the global environment should be taken into account along with the goals of any rights to food and reduction of food insecurity initiatives.  Alongside the aim of provision of sufficient nutritious, culturally and socially acceptable food to support the health and well-being of all populations should be the urgent need to care for the planet, and protect its water supplies from pollution and exploitation. Breastfeeding represents the only sustainable means of providing nutrition and protecting and developing robust immune systems in infants and young children, and therefore the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding women and the implementation of the International Code of Marketing Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent, relevant, WHA resolutions are urgent priorities.

Thank you for the opportunity to participate in the global on-line discussion and consultation.

 

 

[1] Pan American Health Organisation. (2013). Beyond Survival: Integrated delivery care practices for long-term maternal and infant nutrition, health and development. 2nd edition, Washington DC, PAHO.

[2] Rush, E. (2009). Food security for Pacific Peoples in New Zealand: A report for the Obesity Action Coalition. Obesity Action Coalition, Wellington, NZ.

[3] Bidwell, S. (2009) Food Security: A review and synthesis of themes from the literature. Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch, NZ.

[4] World Health Organisation. (2013). First meeting of the WHO Scientific and Technical Advisory Group in inappropriate promotion of foods for infants and young children. Geneva, WHO.

[5] World Health Organisation. (2011). Country implementation of the International Code of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes: Status report 2011. Geneva, WHO.

[6] New Zealand College of Midwives. (2012). Infant Feeding in Natural Disasters. Consensus statement ratified at the 2012 NZCOM AGM. Access - http://www.midwife.org.nz/quality-practice/practice-guidance/nzcom-conse...

[7] Stevenson, S. (2013). Edible Impact: Food security Policy Literature Review. Whakatane, NZ, Toi Te Ora, Public Health Service, Bay of Plenty District Health Board, NZ.

[9] Royal New Zealand Plunket Society. (2010). Breastfeeding data: Analysis of 2004-2009 data. Access http://www.plunket.org.nz/assets/News--research/Plunket-Breastfeeding-Da...

 

See the attachment: 
New Zealand College of Midwives
Flavio Valente FIAN International - Co-facilitator of the discussion
09.05.2014
Thank you very much to everyone who took the time to contribute such valuable input. It is incredibly important to the process to have as many viewpoints represented as possible. For the sake of furthering the discussion, I’d like to respond directly to some of the comments. 
 
1. A few contributors to this forum have highlighted the need to strengthen the important connection between infant/young child feeding and food security, through the articulation of protections for mothers and children in international treaties, as well as local and national level legislation. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, while achieving some successes, should indeed be supplemented by further monitoring and regulation. The Code has allowed civil society to hold corporations accountable for the (mis)marketing of infant food products, but has been weaker as a tool by which governments can hold corporations accountable. 
 
States should fully implement the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding, to position breastfeeding as a norm, to respect and promote community-based food sovereignty approaches to complementary feeding, and to address the unwelcomed incursion of medicalized, processed, and globalized ready-to-use commercial foods into young child feeding, thus protecting children’s and their mothers’ rights to adequate food and nutrition. 
 
2. Many respondents have made further reference to malnutrition, a core element of the human right to adequate food and corresponding state obligations to respect, protect and fulfill this right. The upcoming Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) provides an opportunity for civil society to ensure that the final political outcome document is explicitly based on human rights, and recognizes that many of the causes of malnutrition are often a result of human rights violations, including violations of women’s rights, child rights, and people’s access to natural resources. 
 
People are at the heart of food systems and smallholder farmers - despite producing most of the food consumed by humans - are also among those most affected by malnutrition. People, in particular smallholder farmers (including fisherfolk and livestock farmers) and other small-scale food producers, as well as other groups affected by malnutrition, must be placed at the center of international and national efforts aimed at reshaping food systems - as beneficiaries as well as designers and implementers of such systems. States must reorient their policies and decisively support sustainable agricultural and food systems that are fully grounded in respect for human rights. 
 
3. Another shortcoming addressed here, which has also come up in other discussions, is the view that the voluntary nature of the Guidelines renders them ineffectual. I would tend to disagree with this characterization. The Guidelines outline what governments could do in order to comply with their obligations under the ICESCR, which is itself binding. It is not the use of the word “voluntary” that is at issue here. It is rather due to the fact that governments do not feel compelled to meet their obligations, as there is no accountability. 
 
What we need to do is strengthen the demand from civil society, so that these governments can be held accountable. We may do so by using the Guidelines to monitor governments, and present monitoring reports to the relevant treaty bodies and demand accountability and compliance. We must increase people’s awareness about the importance of human rights, and at the same time support the struggle of those who are being excluded, exploited, and discriminated against. 
 
These are the people that are the sources of human rights in the world. The states will only regulate power if we pressure them; this pressure comes from the struggles on the ground. Real transformation involves strengthening the entire human rights system as a whole, and requires much more than a name change. 
 
I am looking forward to the upcoming weeks of discussion and invite you to keep sharing your comments and experiences.
 
Best regards,
 
Flavio
Fatimatou Hima Niger
08.05.2014

Thème 1: Le Droit à une alimentation adéquate-le passé et le présent

Quelles ont été les réalisations et les lacunes les plus importantes dans le combat en faveur du droit à l'alimentation adéquate au cours des dernières décennies à l'échelon mondial, régional et local ?

Les producteurs, les consommateurs ne sont pas associés ni dans l’élaboration des plans et programmes relatifs au droit à l’alimentation ni dans les foras où se discute ce volet

Thème 2: Les Directives sur le droit à l'alimentation

En quoi les directives sur le droit à l'alimentation ont-elles contribué à la promotion et à la protection du droit à une alimentation adéquate au cours des dix dernières années ? Quelles ont été les principales réalisations et les principales contraintes des directives et de leur mise en œuvre ?

Les directives recommandent la promotion de la bonne gouvernance comme facteur essentielle pour parvenir à une croissance économique soutenue, à un développement durable, à l’éradication de la pauvreté de la faim ainsi que pour réaliser tous les droits humains y compris la réalisation progressive au droit à l’alimentation

Principale réalisation ; élaboration de bonnes politiques agricoles

Contraintes ; politiques très ambitieuses pour des moyens limités pour les pays sous développés ; manque d’observatoire de suivi de ces directives par la société civile au niveau local, régional et mondial

Thème 3: L’avenir

Quels sont les principaux défis et les voies à suivre pour assurer la pleine réalisation du droit à une alimentation adéquate à l'échelon local, national, régional et mondial ?

Défis : assurer une alimentation adaptée au milieu de vie, suffisante et équilibrée à tous ; permettre à chaque individu de se procurer sa nature telle qu’il la conçoit ; interdire la production d’agro carburent au détriment d’aliment de base ; plaider pour que la souveraineté alimentaire devienne un droit universel des peuples

Les voies à suivre : il faut adopter l’agro écologie comme système agricole ; inscrire la souveraineté alimentaire comme droit universel

Mme HIMA Fatimatou

Adolfo Hurtado Nicaragua
07.05.2014

Soy Adolfo Hurtado, Sociólogo. De Centroamérica.Llevo varios años entorno de discusiones de estrategias nacionales y territoriales, así como en marcos normativos, de Seguridad Alimentaria y nutricional primero y derecho alimentación adecuada, según entendí después. Las preguntas las intento responder a la largo de la reflexión.

La promoción del Derecho a la Alimentación Adecuada sin duda ha permitido una discusión más amplia e institucional de lo que se había conseguido anteriormente en los esfuerzos de seguridad alimentaria y nutricional. Se expresa en la calidad y la cantidad de instrumentos que se han desarrollado en Centroamérica del 2007 a la fecha. Y la continuación de la promoción seguirá abriendo el debate y la participación ciudadana, según pareciera ser por lo creciente de los procesos. Este esfuerzo no estará exento de tensiones políticas, como es de esperar.

Quiero hacer mi reflexión sin embargo sobre cuatro debilidades, de tipo epistemológicas, que percibo a partir de mi experiencias. Estas fallas las reconozco en el proceso de focalización  hacia las poblaciones más vulneradas como de las vulnerabilidades nacionales que se enfrentan, debilidades que se expresan tanto en las estrategias nacionales como en los marcos legales. No he podido encontrar respuesta en los debates en torno de la observación general 12 del PIDESC ni de las directrices. Aprovechando este espacio comparto mis notas (en los vínculos están la reflexión más en extenso de lo señalado).

El primer problema que me enfrenté fue la delimitación de las responsabilidades de las instituciones nacionales (párrafo 25 OG12, junto con su comprensión contextual (prf 07/13 y 26)) relacionados a las materias que son responsables:

  • Esto impide una clara definición de instituciones responsables directas y las de apoyo y se generan tensiones institucionales. Esto ha provocado tensiones por décadas entre el sector de salud y agricultura, y entre estos y los otros, en las formulaciones de políticas en Centroamérica. O entre estas y los otros sectores. Tensiones que uno encuentra análogamente en las instituciones del sistema de naciones unidas. Esto en toda Centroamérica ha debilitado procesos de formulaciones, consultas negociaciones de políticas. En las directrices, esta información se encuentra dispersa a lo largo de las directrices, sin unidades temáticas
  • Esta falta de  definición de estas responsabilidades ha provocado la ausencia de economía, finanzas y misterio de trabajo en las discusiones de política. Siendo que en América Latina el acceso es la causa principal de violación del DAA, por salarios mínimos y precios de los alimentos impide el diseño de estrategias estructurales que permitan la promoción y protección del DAA. Tema igualmente ausente en las Directrices

El segundo tema, es la ausencia de instrumentos o enfoque que permitan la articulación adecuada de los instrumentos de políticas públicas. Yo he ocupado el señalamiento de aproximarme por ciclo de vida,:

  • Esto provoca acciones poco o nada integrales, haciéndose más cara la intervención con resultados aislados. De ahí que los sistemas de información entre los distintos sectores no se encuentran realmente. Y el punto anterior hace aún más difícil esto. La OG 12 en su prf 9 le da una gran centralidad al ciclo de vida en la adecuación del régimen alimentario. Esto no está en las directrices. Cómo se va a entender que el Bono Productivo, instrumento tan común en el combate al hambre y la promoción del DAA, debe de priorizar familias jóvenes, en período de reproducción, en general a las que tiende a no llegar. Cómo va a encontrarlos el sector de agricultores si el dato de esas familias está en salud. Ellos tienen datos de propiedad de tierras. Generalmente ya familias mayores.

El tercer tema es un problema doble, y tiene que ver con la falta de comprensión de la naturaleza de lo que se atiende: i) la diferencia entre el Estado de la SAN y sus determinantes (es decir separar la expresión última de haber o no DAA/SAN  (prf 6 OG12) y las condiciones o determinantes que llevan a ese resultado), y ; ii) la pobre o nula dificultad de entender SA, SN y SAN, así como la naturaleza de lo que se ocupan los principales indicadores del estado de la SAN. Las directrices voluntarias no dan los elementos para resolver este problema de focalización de las estrategias nacionales:

  • Esto trae como consecuencia una mala selección de instrumentos. Centroamérica tiene un serio problema de desnutrición crónica resultado de una pobre cultura alimentaria y una alta vulnerabilidad estacional de interrupción de ingreso por economía o ambiente debido a las condiciones de bajo salarios, falta de acceso a tierra y falta de protección social. A excepción de Honduras que incluye el último elemento, todos los demás son instrumentos en las Estrategias Nacionales de SAN
  • Otra consecuencias es la mala focalización, es que todos los indicadores referente a lo que denomino el Estado de la SAN se encuentran mezclados con sus determinantes. Por ej. Bajo peso al nacer está identificado con dos tipos de poblaciones: pobre rural y urbano con bajo salario, mercado laboral temporal, sin acceso a tierra ni protección social. En este sentido el BP es consecuencia de esto, no un indicador más. Como se señaló con anterioridad, en las Estrategias nacionales estos elementos están parcial o totalmente fuera

Y el Cuarto y último elemento es la pobreza de la comprensión de la importancia que tiene la Cultura Alimentaria en la promoción y protección del DAA. En la observación general 12 la Cultura Alimentaria pareciera permear toda la comprensión de adecuación y le dan responsabilidades en la sostenibilidad, pero es inexistente en los párrafos de las responsabilidades de las instituciones nacionales (prf 21 a 28) y en las directrices esto no aparece:

  • Esto provocó que en las crisis 2008 – 2011 en las variaciones de disponibilidad y de acceso,  las personas más vulnerables en Centroamérica comieron menos cantidad y menor diversidad;
  • Cuando los profesionales del DAA en la región propusieron la re introducción de alimentos que se habían dejado de consumir, el Nuevo Diario (un Periódico de Nicaragua) sacó un titular que decía literalmente “Experto recomiendan que comamos como miserables” e inhibieron las prácticas alimentarias de adecuación en la crisis del 2009
  • Si las definiciones de SN son correctas y esta se define a través del indicador talla / edad (desnutrición crónica), esta tiene en su fundamento debilidades en la cultura alimentaria lo que implicaría que Centroamérica no tiene ningún instrumento que permita una promoción estructural de DAA, solo coyunturales con los suplementos alimentarios, y restringido a la población que participa en los programas e 1000 días.

El resultado de todo esto ha sido que los alcances que se han tenido en la región en materia de promoción del DAA se deben a instrumentos coyunturales (como complemento nutricionales en salud y educación nutricional con atención en la primera infancia, y los bonos productivos), pero ningún elemento estructural (salario mínimo, acceso a tierra y seguridad social). De ahí que ninguno de los resultados alcanzados a la fecha pareciera ser sostenible verdaderamente y podría tener como implicación la regresión de los resultados alcanzados a la fecha en una eventual contracción presupuestaria.

Un último comentario. El abordaje de la Cultura alimentaria en la promoción del DAA debería entenderse que es tan central como todos los esfuerzos en los Sistemas Alimentarios. Porque si bien este últimos constituye la oferta alimentaria, el primero constituye la formación de la demanda. Y es de este último que podemos esperar una adecuación desde la biota alimentaria local al sistema alimentario global, reduciendo las tensiones globales e incrementando la biodiversidad alimentaria disponible del sistema alimentario global.

Un último comentario. Creo que conceptualmente las Directrices Voluntarias debieran de entenderse como el Digesto del Derecho a la Alimentación, desarrollado a partir de los Instrumentos Internacionales existentes. Pero epistemológicamente mejor organizados. Y de pasada tal vez ayudan a resolver la Focalización hacia las poblaciones vulnerables para que la orientación del prf 21 de la OG 12, “Los medios más adecuados para aplicar el derecho a una alimentación adecuada variarán inevitablemente y de modo considerable de un Estado Parte a otro. Cada Estado tendrá un margen de elección para decidir sus propios enfoques, pero el Pacto especifica claramente que cada Estado Parte adoptará las medidas que sean necesarias para garantizar que todas las personas queden libres del hambre y que puedan disfrutar lo más pronto posible del derecho a una alimentación adecuada”

Saludos cordiales

Adolfo Hurtado

A Ercelan Pakistan
07.05.2014

Land for Food Sovereignty in Pakistan

Introduction Our story is simple -- enormous imbalance in economic hence political power sustains intense and widespread oppression of children, their mothers and fathers across not merely Pakistan but all of Southasia.

To be threatened by deprivation of minimal food and shelter is a form of violence, that requires redistribution of economic power in favour of the desperately but unfairly impoverished. Wealth redistribution is essential, which calls for agrarian restructuring as a primary instrument in realising universal rights. Differentiated access to natural resources is nothing but a lethal, even if legal, inequitable future for tens of millions -- beginning with land and then expanding to associated water, and state subsidies.

For tens of millions of landless and near landless subsisting in rural Pakistan, the ceiling set by Zulfiqar Bhutto at 100 acres per owner is way, way too high. Of doubtful relevance is the current award of 16 acres for a few fortunate landless families. A modest transfer can provide the push towards cooperative farming, emphasizing collective responsibility for ecologically conservative use of land.

Committed to a decent life for all, members of the ILO ‘call’ for serious implementation of universal social protection. Our note should then be seen as evoking urgent public action in South Asia, reaffirming our past emphasis upon universalising social security through redistribution of farm land and restructured access to fisheries.

The impetus for this brief comes from the recent release of a much delayed Agriculture Census. We argue for more dedication in implementation than observed for the past land reforms of (Field Marshall) Ayub Khan and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Living in Karachi, we focus this note on Sindh.

See the attachment: 
Land Reform
A Ercelan Pakistan
07.05.2014

Summary Response from the Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum

Globally, as well as in Southasia and in Pakistan, mass hunger and malnutrition have come to be recognized as unacceptable in a democratic world, and there is acknowledgement by states and international organizations that such impoverishment and deprivation has made untenable a world without violent conflict.

This is an important achievement for promoting and protecting all human rights for all – a perspective that emphasizes chronic malnourishment as itself revealing the persistent violation of economic, social and cultural rights which lead to hunger, as well as underscoring that hunger excludes people from any real opportunity to achieve remaining rights.

Any targeting runs the danger of denying universal citizen rights. However, when the goal is recognized to be universal outcomes, then attention to the right to food has correctly helped to refocus on differential public action for children, women, and the aged since their needs – for food specially but generally for a decent life -- can be very different from those of young, adult males.

            Major shortcomings must obviously begin from the global failure to eradicate mass hunger, e.g. in the time span of the MDGs. It is a glaring failure of state and society, and certainly not for lack of social resources – e.g. Pakistan has long had national income per capita that well exceeds any credible estimate of income required to eliminate hunger, and annual foreign aid is enormous. This extreme inequity overwhelms the considerable progress made in other indicators of human well-being; it suggests a weak civil society and one that gets easily distracted in advancing entitlements of the well-fed. Some good initiatives – such as the employment guarantee in India – have not even been attempted in other countries of Southasia and elsewhere that are blighted by significant incidence and intensity of chronic malnourishment.

            Important contributors to failure include global militarization, with impacts that extend beyond the diversion of substantial resources to armaments. When, for example, violent conflicts exclude many from attaining even subsistence livelihoods, then even the right to food is not realizable. However well-stocked the market may be, food grains cannot be consumed by those who are excluded from income.

            Neoliberal macroeconomics ill-advised, aggressively peddled by donors, and greedily adopted by hunger-plagued states remain a major constraint to eradicating hunger. Illustrations of policies that subvert the right to food include reducing subsidies on food for the hungry rather than levying taxes on wealthy tax evaders and avoiders. State attachment to sharp inequality of income and wealth has led to ‘jobless growth,’ such as maintaining high unemployment to keep real wages low.

Export obsessions exacerbate the policy of cheap labour, perversely acclaimed as an advantage in trade. The same donors who push for human rights, and specially the right to food, also tempt countries to increase exports that obviously undermine efforts to increase the provision of food to the hungry. When it is not blatant as export of food it conceals the diversion of land and water away from food production as e.g. sugar, Basmati rice, and water-guzzling textiles and garments. Ironically, by extending GSP-plus to Pakistan and retaining it for Bangladesh, the EU contradicts its call for compliance with core human rights.

Even those committed to the right to food often proclaim that the zero-hunger goal requires boosting supplies by existing production techniques. This is a tragedy since the integrity of nature has been destroyed by supposedly modern and innovative methods.

            The Right to Food Guidelines should have helped states to prepare a comprehensive plan of action, and one that is time bound. This has not happened.

The central fault lies in these guidelines being voluntary, and hence without accountability of states for failing to take action. There are also other problems in statement and interpretation that have resulted in action but wholly contrary to fulfillment of the right to food. These include exports of ‘high-value’ items that in fact compete with land and water in growing food, and are ecologically destructive. Imports of ‘cheap’ food have often meant further impoverishment of producers, again both economically and ecologically.

            Invited to improve labour productivity, states have perversely used this to build infrastructure that in fact reduces the ability of poor people to access food affordably and permanently. Power projects that use freshwater and return degraded water into water bodies is obviously bad. But even irrigation infrastructure can be deleterious, and not just to fisheries. Income inequality and hence vulnerability to hunger are accentuated because state water projects invite ‘hijacking’ by large landowners.

            While land reforms are mentioned in the guidelines, but weakly. Hence no food insecure country has considered serious land reform. Small-scale producers are mentioned favourably, but the guidelines do not stress that they are the only solution to equitable production and hence distribution of food. As remarked by some, prior counter-distribution of wealth is required rather than reliance on post redistribution of income.

            The Guidelines state the central objective “to strengthen people’s access to and utilization of resources and means to ensure their livelihood.” In assessing the impact, one needs to ask if the Guidelines lays enough stress. There is also no binding follow up of state action for pursuing “inclusive, non-discriminatory and sound economic, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, land-use, and, as appropriate, land-reform policies, all of which will permit farmers, fishers, foresters and other food producers, particularly women, to earn a fair return from their labour, capital and management, and encourage conservation and sustainable management of natural resources.”

The biggest challenges to achieving the universal right to food lie in enabling a multiple transformation in the structures of production and consumption. Access to natural resources must be democratized, in ways that increase autonomy of small producers in ways to reduce vulnerability to state power and market greed. Use of natural resources has to promote ecological sustainability. Production and distribution of energy must shift away from the wasteful to needy, which implies all expansion through decentralized solar and wind systems.

            The global community must stop all aid that denies the right to food, of which coal and nuclear plants are an example; drilling in water bodies is frightening; fracking represents enormous danger to the ecological contributions of water. So is the import of fossil fuels, including LNG, which require export revenues from sources that diminish food production and expand economic inequality.

            It is usual for national constitutions to acknowledge state obligations to citizens based upon the right to life, which surely requires the right to food, made possible by a decent livelihood. The task for public action at all levels is to ensure that these remain the priority. Extensive agrarian reforms to benefit the landless are required. For the remaining rural citizens, and all urban citizens, the state must implement guaranteed employment at a decent wage. This would enable a dignified existence, denied to recipients in charity handouts of food.