Avances en la nutrición, la educación y la concienciación en la realización progresiva del derecho a una alimentación adecuada

hasta el 19.08.2014

En el año 2014 se cumple el 10º aniversario de las Directrices voluntarias en apoyo de la realización progresiva del derecho a una alimentación adecuada en el contexto de la seguridad alimentaria nacional (Directrices sobre el Derecho a la Alimentación). En su 41º período de sesiones -del 13 al 17 de octubre de 2014- el Comité de Seguridad Alimentaria Mundial (CSA) realizará una retrospectiva de los progresos realizados en la implementación de las Directrices sobre el Derecho a la Alimentación (RtFG, por sus siglas en inglés). La FAO ha elaborado una serie de estudios preliminares que abarcan diferentes aspectos de estas Directrices como contribución a la retrospectiva, y varios de estos estudios serán debatidos en el Foro del Derecho a la Alimentación. Los avances en la nutrición, la educación y la concienciación son el tema de esta segunda discusión en línea.

Como base para esta discusión, los estudios preliminares pertinentes están disponibles en este aquí. Analizan los avances y desafíos relacionados con las Directrices sobre el Derecho a la Alimentación 10 y 11 y sostienen que:

  1. El logro de un bienestar nutricional y aceptado culturalmente forma parte integral de la plena realización del derecho a una alimentación adecuada. Las consideraciones nutricionales deben incluirse en todos los debates sobre sistemas alimentarios, y hay que adoptar medidas en relación a la protección, cumplimiento y respeto de este derecho;
  2. La educación y la sensibilización dan a las personas los conocimientos necesarios que les ayudan a desarrollar habilidades para elegir las opciones alimentarias adecuadas, y a desarrollar su confianza en la reivindicación de sus derechos a través de un amplio abanico de herramientas y medios, incluidos la educación en derechos humanos y nutricional.

El estudio preliminar llega a la conclusión de que las dietas nutritivas, el acceso a la educación y el aumento de la concienciación sobre el derecho a la alimentación no son sólo instrumentales, sino de vital importancia para alcanzar el desarrollo humano, el potencial y la salud física y cognitiva plena de las personas, conceptos que son interdependientes, indivisibles e interrelacionados en relación con el derecho a la alimentación. Esta discusión tiene por objeto reunir más evidencias de los últimos 10 años sobre las Directrices 10 y 11. Agradeceríamos especialmente las contribuciones en torno a las siguientes preguntas de enfoque:

  • ¿Existen algunos ejemplos o historias específicos de países que ilustran cómo una intervención nutricional dada (como en la agricultura que tiene en cuenta la nutrición, la educación nutricional, las prácticas de lactancia materna adecuadas, agua potable y saneamiento adecuado, etc) contribuyeron a la realización progresiva del derecho a la alimentación (por ej. aumentando el conocimiento y la capacidad de los responsables de las decisiones; ayudando a los beneficiarios en la toma de decisiones informadas en asuntos que tienen en cuenta la nutrición, etc?
  • ¿>Existen algunos ejemplos o historias específicos de países que ilustran cómo una o intervención particular de educación o de concienciación (por ejemplo, en materia de derechos humanos, nutrición, salud, inocuidad alimentaria, alfabetización y otra capacitación en habilidades para el desarrollo sostenible; educación primaria, secundaria y superior, compartir educación; programas escolares y universitarios) han contribuido a la realización progresiva del derecho a la alimentaciónpor ejemplo, mediante el apoyo a la inversión en la nutrición, la formación en derechos humanos o inocuidad alimentaria, o la ampliación de la educación primaria para las niñas y las mujeres y otros grupos vulnerables, el fortalecimiento de los conocimientos técnicos y la educación a nivel superior en materia de derechos humanos, la nutrición y el derecho a la alimentación, etc)?

¡Le rogamos se una al debate sobre la nutrición, la educación, la concienciación y el derecho a la alimentación!

¡Le doy las gracias de antemano por sus ideas y comentarios!>

Serena Pepino, Equipo del Derecho a la Alimentación de la FAO (ESA)

Deje su comentario

Claudio Schuftan Viet Nam

Dear friends,

You are asking for inputs for this e-consultation.

Here are some salient points for me that I would like to contribute:
Most of my comments pertain more closely to Guideline 11.
For me, HR learning is by far the most urgent priority with the Panther Principles right in the middle.

Nothing will take off in our struggle for the RTF unless we massively engage on overall HR learning. I append two short papers on this to make clear what I mean.

The background document you have posted keeps repeating worn concepts that have lost their meaning over the years:

intersectoral/multisectoral, comprehensive approach, holistic, and worse of all, multi-stakeholder (p.17 + p.18) [How can you put out a RTF background document avoiding the use of rights holders and duty bearers?]. Are we not ourselves guilty?
We cannot continue using non-HR language....and that is why massive HR learning is necessary....even among us. The concepts listed have no place in HR talk.

You also say/imply that the SUN initiative is HR-based. Well, It isn't. (So also said the special rapporteur...).

In HR parlance, we also do not talk about targeting; we focus most of our efforts on those made most vulnerable by an unfair system.

But your document is mixed.
-It does say that with the introduction of the HRBA we are facing a question of a fundamental approach to development. (p.13).
-Asking people WHY HR are not realized can be a powerful tool (I'd say is, not can). (p.13)
-We need to sharpen the focus on people's rights and need awareness rising on HR (p.14 + p.17).
-We need to take into account the root causes of food insecurity (I'd say of the lack of food sovereignty) (p.14).
-HR education (I'd say learning) is particularly crucial and should be prioritized (I'd say must) and receives little coverage (Indeed!!) (p.14).
-The challenge is the adoption of the HRBA (p.14)
-Adopting the HRBA will strengthen nutrition by addressing the rights of populations (p.17).

Well, all these point to the unpostponable need of engaging in massive HR learning --and one of the things that need to be covered is that, at this point, it is not about strengthening governance (as you call for on p.18). The governance we have is oblivious to HR. We thus have to find ways to oppose counterpower to power if things are to change; and these are things that need to be brought up in HR learning.
In short, the HR framework will only take center stage in serving the RTF if and when the pressure is generated from below. History is witness. And for that we have a long way to go to reach the threshold for a tipping point to occur. Massive HR learning is the #1 challenge for post 2015.

Here are the short papers where I go deeper into all this.


We cannot continue with a popular education that is mostly reactive.

1. Popular education is a central part of the agenda of the human rights (HR) movement and must be oriented towards redefining development policies, as well as redefining the concept of social, ethical and environmental responsibility in the different sectors of our respective societies.

2. In this thrust, the biggest challenge we face may not be the introduction of new concepts and of ‘possible futures’, but actually to rise to the challenge of eradicating the old concepts and the oversold, rather ‘hopeless futures’.

3. Therefore, human rights learning (HRL) is THE challenge to address in building this new sense of community in our societies.

4. HRL has to come-in to address the so called ‘modern-age-conditions’, to place concrete demands and to foster concrete actions that confront face-on the unfair elements of this ‘condition’.

5. This, we consider carries a number of risks we have to be prepared to deal with, because such actions:
• Will require establishing new social contracts in which the respect for HR is placed at the center and in which solidarity links among organizations are set-up as-soon-as-possible as a response to the flagrant conflicts brought about by this modern-age-condition.*
*: The call here is for going beyond the increasingly popular nutrition-literacy movement and instead go into a more all-encompassing HRL movement (that does have fostering better nutrition as one of its components --but just as one among other equally important components).
• Will require developing a greater sense of social and political responsibility when addressing the inequalities of the risk society, primarily the social exclusion and the environmental deterioration it perpetuates.
• Will require embarking in a process of politicizing HRL, i.e., carrying out education in the public sphere with a political orientation.

6. In short, HRL has to become proactive when facing the challenges of the risk society. Every step of the way, we will have to clearly justify why we are going beyond ‘standard’ and intellectualized concepts, myths and academic jargon.

7. Through a moral and political learning process, we have to draw new organizational maps and new ways of ‘getting-to-know-reality’ (we see what we look for…) that can generate levels of social and political solidarity among civil society never before seen.

8. What we are talking about here is of multiplying exchange dialogues between the facilitators’ and the learners’ different realities and world visions, all through the lens of the HR framework.

9. This approach clearly leads HRL facilitators to act as mobilizers of marginalized social groups so the latter begin proactively opposing exclusion, discrimination and the violation of their inalienable HR.

10. By getting on with such actions the goal is to enable people to start working together to demand the un-postponable needed structural changes are made. HRL is thus to become the expression of a public morality based on HR. To get there, HRL has to build confidence in people so as to mobilize them while still respecting diversity.

11. Do not get this wrong now: HRL is to be a process in which individuals and groups of people get involved voluntarily as HRL is ultimately geared towards potentiating their social capabilities, those that allow them to become competent, autonomous, independent, and good managers of their own development.

12. All this requires HRL to bring-in and instill a good dose of reasoning and of argumentation-to-explain-and make-sense of what, in times past, has been taken as a given or a fait-accompli. This is what, in our experience, HRL does best; and this is the new educational pragmatism we have to adopt, i.e., a pragmatism that adheres to solidarity movements, that strengthens praxis, that goes back to ask about the sense of ‘what-is-considered-to-be-common’, and that asks about what HR-as-a-universal-value is all about.

13. No doubt, what we have in front of us is the daunting task of working towards making these HRL processes flourish and grow, as well as the no less challenging task to analyze the practical experiences that are already slowly opening new inroads in popular education. For that, we have to multiply our efforts and do much more work for and through HRL groups the world over. These groups have to impart an education that responds to the ubiquitous HR violations and challenges using totally new learning contents and methods, as well as opening new HR learning opportunities and venues.

14. In endless contexts worldwide, it is no longer conceivable not to speak publicly and politically about HR, about democracy, about dignity, and about marginalization. So we cannot leave these discussions aside; we absolutely have to address these issues openly. HRL is the vehicle.

15. In sum, we can say that all this is about global action for a new popular democracy.

16. The take-home message from all of this is that HRL is here to combat ambiguity and procrastination, because both are conducive either to non-action: “no matter what I do, it is wrong or will not change things”-- or conducive to too little action based on a faulty interpretation of reality that is biased towards an unacceptable status-quo: “not doing anything is alright; it will all sort itself out --eventually”. We forcefully contest and fight against these attitudes!

17. And remember: At the end of the day, we should be teaching for human rights, not teaching about human rights!

Claudio Schuftan, Ho Chi Minh City



1. Human rights learning (HRL) is necessary, precisely because knowledge in traditional capacity building in development work has been much fragmented to the disciplinary realm. Conversely, HRL is about how we conceive and carry out a critical and transformative learning experience for HRL participants. The question then is: Which would these key critical and transformative capacities that graduates will have at the end of their learning be? A critical education for us means providing the tools to change a society that is organized around relations of oppression and that keeps generating inequality.

2. HRL aims at participants taking home competencies that bring about their active participation, their making a commitment and their taking responsibility as dynamic and energetic social actors. Their acquisition of not only knowledge, but of human rights (HR) values is today an imperative.

3. HRL thus promotes the political alignment of participants with their respective environments in a clearly oriented way that results in social, organizational and communication practices that have the potential to build a strong social movement that is both critical and transformative. In essence, HRL promotes an alliance between participants and the already existing social movement(s) in the area where they come from.*
*: We will have done our job as facilitators of HRL when world movements begin to take human rights as their flag.

4. As proponents of the changes towards a new HR paradigm, many of us strongly feel the need for a big-time expansion of HRL, in part because we feel we are indebted to our respective societies. Why? Because many of us have a research or an intellectual production vocation to bring about the needed paradigmatic break; but we have (had) little to show-for as relates to activism at the grassroots level. This is certainly my case.

5. What we need HRL participants to embark-in is a renewal movement that brings about the needed paradigmatic break with the aging, selfish, anthropocentric, neoliberal paradigm now in crisis. And this is an eminently political shift that must be not only joined, but actually protagonized by civil society together with labor, political, educational, scientific and academic institutions: indeed a challenge that requires the bravery of not fearing modern day inquisitors.**
**: Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds. (A. Einstein)

6. It is our having failed our social, political, cultural and environmental surroundings that points towards our indebtedness, towards a call not heeded, towards a promise so far not fulfilled. The information people we live-among talk about what-is-really-going-on; but this is being manipulated presenting us with just fragments of the reality that surrounds us (if not with outright lies). There is no, or not nearly enough, scrutiny of such half truths coming from our ethical and a HR bottom-up perspective. Or, our relevant questioning about the HR implications of such half truths is 'deactivated' with clever ploys and deceptions. HRL addresses this issue.

7. Are our mindless every-day sins of omission and commission not associated with the unacceptable increases in poverty and malnutrition we read about, with the flagrant degradation of our environment, with overall violence in our societies and with disturbances in our communal living? The slow move towards a HR-respecting society is thus not necessarily due to what we do, but also due to what we are not doing. Is there such a thing as progress based on receding? Maybe. But any receding must be part of a well thought-out plan to ultimately advance. (we call that tactical retreat).***
***: Taking us forward includes critiquing; sometimes vehemently. Critiquing is not going backwards!

8. We can thus be accused of being ‘pan-pragmatic’, I contend, i.e., of getting caught in doing utilitarian, immediate everyday things. In light of the current global crises, we talk more than what we do about the need of changing people’s mentality so they ultimately accept and assume the tenets of HR and of the human condition overall. The theme of such a change of consciousness has, more and more, come to mean acquiring greater political consciousness --and this is where HRL comes in. What this means is that we do not just follow our humanitarian, solidarity and ecological impulses if they do not lead us to gain tactical and strategic advantages, i.e., gaining greater power.

9. Fact: We are not yet exerting sufficient ethical and political muscle to bring us out of the actually multiple crises the world is facing. We are talking here about greater militancy to make justice, dignity, human rights, personal enrichment and harmony with nature a reality. For instance, there will be no nutrition-for-all without addressing the social determinants of nutrition, without addressing the burning global political issues perpetuating inequality (since these are part and parcel of the crises).

10. We are not naif. We are not trying to change the political discourse by the scientific discourse; we are not trying to impose new gurus or fly-by-night opinion leaders. What it is all about is to progressively build-unity-in-diversity among all those that aim at attaining the fulfillment of all HR. The evolution towards this is actually a revolution in which many more need to be involved --beyond slogans and rituals. It involves adding, adding and adding individual changes in political consciousness and gearing this new growing social and political consciousness towards social and political change; it also involves building lasting social networks that engage in new forms of 'doing politics' to address the local, national and global roots of the current crises. The People’s Health Movement is doing precisely this. (www.phmovement.org)

11. All this, calls not always for just 'doing'; often it calls for actually 'liberating'; first liberating oureselves from 'certainties' imposed on us, from old habits and defense mechanisms so as to enable us to engage in new avenues of struggle.

12. Perplexity immobilizes people when they actually need to get involved .**** This is the ultimate challenge HRL has to overcome if it is to contribute to breaking the ruling paradigm that has castrated human development for so long. There is a passive hope here, but it is a hope quickly becoming active through increased levels of participation worldwide --and HRL definitely plays a role in this growth. That is why we call for its exponential expansion.
****: In perplexity, people do not complain, challenge and/or confront; they get comfortable with keeping silent and accommodating.

13. In the times of these mega-crises, HRL is not only a human rights need, but also a need of human development, of greater direct democracy; a need also to crush authoritarianism and patriarchy in our social and political life, in our institutions. The urgency with which we need to emphasize this cannot be overstated since the preceding are key constraints and a brutal threat people face in their struggle to get ahead with their lives and the lives of their family and community.

14. A change of mentality, an opening of many people' minds is needed. The change we call-for presupposes a new collective sense, a truly internalized sense of social responsibility.

Claudio Schuftan, Ho Chi Minh City

Kenia Páramo UNAN Managua, Nicaragua

Como parte del Derecho humano a la alimentacion y principalmente que sea adecuada culturalmente, Nicaragua junto con organismos internacionales contribuyen al cumplimiento de este derecho, un ejemplo es la participacion del gobierno en la merienda escolar que se le brinda a los niños y niñas de toda Nicaragua como el arroz, frijoles, maiz, aceite, azucar y el inicio de la elaboracion de huertos escolares como un medio de enseñanza aprendizaje para que los niños/as aprendan de la importancia del cultivo de las frutas y vegetales y que estas formen parte de su merienda escolar. Cada dia se unen esfuerzos por la lucha contra el hambre, es un deber de cada uno de nosotros apoyar, educar y compartir las experiencias y conocimientos basados en la Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional.