Natural resources governance and the right to adequate food

25.08.2014 - 15.09.2014

2014 marks the 10th anniversary of the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security (Right to Food Guidelines). At its 41st Session from 13-17 October 2014 the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) will undertake a retrospective of the progress made in the implementation of the Right to Food Guidelines (RtFG). FAO prepared a number of working studies on different aspects of the Right to Food Guidelines as a contribution to the retrospective, and a number of these will be discussed in the Right to Food Forum. Natural Resources Governance is the subject of this online discussion.

As a basis for this discussion, the relevant working study is available here. It explores advances and challenges related to the Right to Food Guideline 8 and argues that:

  1. Natural resources are crucial for achieving food security and nutrition and the responsible governance of tenure is key for the realization of the right to food.
  2. After 10 years of the adoption of the Right to Food Guidelines, it is possible to identify positive developments in that a human rights based approach has been applied in a series of international initiatives within the global agenda.
  3. A decade later, achievements have also been made at country level through policies and legal frameworks which recognize vulnerable people ́s rights to access, use and management of natural resources. There is a growing recognition of customary rights in statutory legislation and gender is considered in legal reforms to improve women’s access to natural resources.
  4. Despite important policy changes at international and national level, reforms have not kept up with commercial pressures on natural resources and future efforts to address the increasing pressures on ecosystems and the threat to sustainable production and access to adequate food are still required.

The working study concludes that the governance of natural resources remains one of the most important areas for food security and human rights standards are crucial to consolidate an enabling environment for the realization of the right to food.

This discussion aims at gathering more evidence from the past 10 years on Guideline 8 in particular. We would welcome contributions around the following focus questions:

A. Are there specific country examples or stories that illustrate how natural resources are governed (by i.e. policy and legal frameworks related to water, land, fisheries, forestry, etc) towards the progressive realization of the right to food?

B. Are there specific country examples of mechanisms related to the governance of natural resources that contribute to enhance accountability?

Please join the debate on natural resources governance and the right to food.

Thank you in advance for your thoughts and comments!

Luisa Cruz and Margret Vidar

FAO Development Law Branch (LEGN) - Right to Food Team (ESA)

Leave your contribution

Luisa Cruz and Margret Vidar Facilitators of the discussion, Italy
19.09.2014

Dear Right to Food Forum Members,

Many thanks for all the valuable contributions received during the past weeks. We are very pleased to have facilitated an exchange of so many interesting developments related to the governance of natural resources and its contribution towards the realization of the right to food.

Your comments approached this topic from a wide variety of angles. Some of them showed the importance of natural resources legislation and the direct linkages with food security laws that are being adopted in different countries. There is a need for keeping a consistent approach in both legal areas in order to achieve effective results. The Peru example showed how the food security and nutrition law adopts an approach that considers sustainability and family farming as major objectives to be attained trough the governance of natural resources. Also, in this example the participation of civil society was flagged as an important ingredient for ownership and effective implementation of legislation. Other countries that shared legal experiences were Bolivia and India. Participation and inclusive processes were underlined as a cornerstone for a good governance of natural resources as well as for the realization of the right to food. The example of a participatory process for the development of fisheries legislation in Mali was mentioned by one of the participants.

Another aspect that was dealt with in the discussion was the importance of traditional practices as a basis for sustainability and biodiversity. We received some relevant contributions from Nepal, Costa Rica, and Kenya. Beyond tradition, innovative strategies were flagged in the Philippines, bringing to the discussion urban agriculture as a strategy for food production.

Beyond the positive developments achieved so far, key challenges are still to be addressed. Climate change and the scarcity of natural resources such as forests and water is one of those key issues mentioned in the discussion. The contribution from Malawi illustrates how erratic rainfall is affecting the availability of water for food production. It also highlighted how women are particularly affected since they need to walk longer distances for the collection of the resources needed for their households. The same is happening with firewood for cooking that is becoming scarce as a consequence of deforestation. This example shows that strong regulation and enforcement mechanisms are needed to ensure a sustainable management of natural resources. Climate change and weak governance can seriously affect food production and nutrition.

Despite those challenges, regional efforts in the African continent show illustrative examples towards improved governance of natural resources. We noted how the East African Partner States made commitments to address food insecurity in the region by adopting the East African Community Climate Change Policy and the East African Community Food Security Action Plan. These regional policy frameworks are tangible efforts towards sustainable development in the EAC region through harmonized and coordinated regional strategies, programs and actions to respond to climate change and food insecurity. This example shows also the important role that plays civil society in assessing the implementation of such policy frameworks. The EA SusWatch Network -a network of NGOs from Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania- developed a sustainable Development Score Card related to key commitments on fisheries, nutrition and food security in those three countries. At the regional level, we also gathered relevant contributions showing how accountability mechanisms such as regional courts in ECOWAS are addressing environmental damages from a right to food approach, by recognizing the responsibilities of the private sector towards this human right and the obligations of Governments to protect and adopt measures to fulfill the right to food.

We want to thank all of you again for these inputs that will certainly contribute for an enriching discussion during the retrospective review that will take place during the next CFS in October. The Right to Food Guideline 8 contains recommendations for a good governance of natural resources that are still valid today taking into consideration major challenges such as climate change, scarcity of natural resources and a commercial pressure on natural resources that affect the realization of the right to food, particularly of the most vulnerable groups. The RTF Guidelines remain highly relevant and are now also complemented by others, such as the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People and the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security.

With best regards,

Luisa Cruz and Margret Vidar FAO
Legal Officers/Facilitators of the current discussion 
FAO Development Law Branch (LEGN) - Right to Food Team (ESA)

15.09.2014

In East Africa, there are a mix of achievements and challenges related to the governance of natural resources towards the progress realization of the right to food. As the East African Sustainability Watch Network, we have been assessing level of implementation of the East African Community in implementing the East African Community (EAC) Climate Change Policy since 2012 (based on 3 livelihood areas - rural energy supply, water supply and sanitation; and recently food security and nutrition).

This year we have added on another level in terms of developing a 'Sustainable Development Score card related to key commitments on fisheries, nutrition and food security in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania (May 2014)'. This was based on the East African Food Security Action Plan (2010 – 2015) where the East African Partner States made commitments to address food insecurity in the region,  as the initial step of implementing the provisions of the EAC Treaty as set out in Chapter 18 Articles 105 -110

For example, from this Scorecard (0 to 3 with 3 being the highest), East Africa is not fairing well in terms of establishment ans strengthening food mkt infrastructre; supporting development of fisheries infrastructure; improve manageemnt of natural resources for sustainable production; emergency food aid liked to long-term development of food supply system; promotion of compliance to agreed mgmt decisions among others.

In relation to a commitement to improve management of natural resoruces (land, water, fisheries and forest) in order to ensure sustainable production in all the 3 countries poor coordination  / fragmentation of roles amongst impementing agencies dealing with natural resources ranks high (1)

Please find more about the East African Sustainability Watch's  'Sustainable Development Score Card related to key commitments on fisheries, Nutrition and food secueity in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya (May 2014)

15.09.2014

Agriculture, the mainstay of Malawi’s economy, is heavily dependent on weather especially natural rainfall, which is now being affected by effects of climate change. There is a direct linkage between climate change and health, especially linked to infant malnutrition. Almost in every season, Malawi experiences dry spells which affect overall agricultural production. Low yields lead to household food insecurity. Household food insecurity affect under 5 children, breast feeding mothers and expectant women. Children, under 5 years old need adequate and nutritious food since they are fast growing; breast feeding mother need enough food for her maintenance and  milk production and expectant women also need adequate and nutritious food for their body maintenance and the growing foetus.

In Malawi, there is wanton cutting down of trees for various uses and for charcoal production and these have led to deforestation. Forest officials all the time confisticate truck loads of charcoal bags at road blocks but traders seem not to stop. The problem is that we do not a clear policy that prohibits production of charcoal.

Careless cutting down of trees has made firewood to be scarce and this has heavily affected women and girls since they have to travel long distances to fetch for firewood; it was not so few years ago. Climate change has also brought the problem of erratic rainfall, lowering the water table. Women have to travel long distance in search for water.

The Right to adequate food has been hindered by the following 2 issues

·         Low agricultural production: since natural resources have been depleted, rains are not reliable, leading to low agricultural production, which further lead to household food insecurity. With this scenario, access to food is not realised by household individuals and their Right to Adequate food is not achieved. Depletion of natural resources means that firewood for cooking become scarce and found far away; this will make women to travel low distances in search for firewood. Introduction of low fuel saving technologies will help to lessen the time women spend on fetching of firewood and water and adequate time will be allocated to crop and livestock production. Policies that will help to increase the rate of adoption of fuel saving technologies

·         Overburdening of women (multiple roles): almost 70% of agricultural production in Malawi is done by women, yet, they are also involved in other productive and reproductive roles in the society. This has heavily affected agricultural production in Malawi. Again low production leads to household food insecurity, and at the end of it all, the Right to Adequate food is not achieved. The same here, introduction and strengthening the use of low fuel saving technologies will help to lessen the time women spend in fetching for firewood. An example is the use of fireless cookers and clay stoves.

Another natural resource which has been affected is the land and its consistituents. Due to cutting down of trees and other vegetation, the land has been left bare and it is vulnerable to soil erosion; leading to loss of soil fertility. Loss of soil fertility is affecting agricultural production. Conservation Agriculture (CA) has proven to be a very important practice that has helped some farmers, especially early adopters to have bumper harvest. To those who practice it, their right to food is achieved despite dry spells. There is low CA adoption by smallholder farmers in Malawi as evidenced by research findings. Increasing the awareness on CA which has proved to be a good mitigation measure to climate change effects on agriculture will help people to realise their right to adequate food. This has to be in the country’s legal framework.

José María Medina Rey PROSALUS, Spain
12.09.2014

Estimadas/os amigas/os,

En archivo adjunto [y a continuación, Ed.], aporto algunos comentarios y reflexiones sobre este tema de la gobernanza de los recursos naturales a raíz del proceso de elaboración de una ley de seguridad alimentaria en Perú, al que he venido dando seguimiento en los últimos años.

Creo que la gran implicación que ha habido por parte de organizaciones de sociedad civil en este proceso ha sido un ingrediente importante para el resultado conseguido y deberá seguir siéndolo en el proceso de aplicación y desarrollo de la ley.

Un cordial saludo

Entre 2011 y 2012 se pusieron en marcha varias iniciativas legislativas relacionadas con este tema en diversas comisiones parlamentarias del Congreso, varias de las cuales fueron aglutinadas en 2013 en un solo proyecto de ley de seguridad y soberanía alimentaria residenciado en la Comisión Agraria.

Después del proceso de tramitación y de los debates realizados en la Comisión Agraria, el 19 de diciembre de 2013 se votó el proyecto de ley y se aprobó provisionalmente, pendiente de algunos ajustes. EN junio de 2014 el proyecto de ley ha sido aprobado por el Congreso peruano y ha pasado a la consideración de la Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros para los pasos finales antes de su entrada en vigor.

Un primer aspecto a señalar es que, a pesar de que el título es “Ley de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional”, el texto identifica como objetivo de la ley “reconocer y garantizar el derecho de los peruanos a una alimentación adecuada y saludable, con énfasis en la población más pobre y vulnerable” y reconoce la obligación del Estado de “garantizar, respetar, proteger, promover, desarrollar y monitorear las diversas acciones encaminadas al pleno goce del derecho a una alimentación adecuada sin discriminación alguna y empleando el máximo posible de sus recursos”, para lo cual tiene que favorecer y crear condiciones para el progreso social y económico y tomar medidas específicas inmediatas encaminadas a erradicar la desnutrición y la inseguridad alimentaria y nutricional, revalorizar los conocimientos locales, mejorar la disponibilidad y el acceso a alimentos, priorizar a los colectivos más vulnerables, actuando para ello en todos los ámbitos de gobierno.

Aunque esta ley no habla de forma explícita sobre la gobernanza de los recursos naturales, me parecen interesantes algunos aspectos que, de una u otra forma, incidirán en dicha gobernanza cuando la ley llegue a su desarrollo y aplicación:

·         Por un lado, la ley hace una apuesta clara por la sostenibilidad en la gestión de los recursos naturales. Así, entre los objetivos de la política de seguridad alimentaria y nutricional, se alude a algunos que guardan relación con esta dimensión, como por ejemplo, “fomentar de manera especial la producción orgánica y ecológica de forma sostenible y diversificada, defendiendo la biodiversidad y el ambiente” y “garantizar la investigación científica, tecnológica y productiva para conocer y revalorar los recursos naturales que aseguren la alimentación, la resistencia al cambio climático, la accesibilidad socio cultural, su acceso económico y aporte nutricional”. De esta forma, ya se está marcando unos parámetros interesantes para la gobernanza de los recursos naturales, en clave de sostenibilidad.

·         Por otro lado, la ley da prioridad de forma explícita a la agricultura familiar y campesina, señalando que señala que el Estado valora y protege los conocimientos y buenas prácticas de los pequeños y medianos productores agrarios, respetando sus culturas, modos de producción y manejo de la biodiversidad bajo el enfoque de interculturalidad. Entre los objetivos de la política de seguridad alimentaria y nutricional, se alude a algunos que guardan relación con este modelo de agricultura, como por ejemplo, “propiciar condiciones favorables para los pequeños y medianos productores del país orientada a la reducción de la dependencia alimentaria”, “promover la generación del valor agregado y los encadenamientos productivos aprovechando los recursos naturales y las ventajas competitivas del país” y “promover la participación activa y coordinada de los productores, comercializadores y consumidores para la vigilancia del cumplimiento de la normatividad sobre seguridad alimentaria y nutricional”. 

Además, al definir los objetivos técnicos y sectoriales, se señala, entre otras cosas que, de cara a garantizar la disponibilidad de alimentos, se dará prioridad a los productos alimentarios provenientes de la pequeña producción agropecuaria y de pescadores artesanales, así como al desarrollo de apropiados canales de comercialización y abastecimiento. Esta apuesta por la agricultura familiar demandará una determinada gobernanza de los recursos naturales en cuyos esquemas de política tenga un lugar preferente garantizar el acceso a recursos de los pequeños productores.

See the attachment: 
Comentarios JM Medina - PROSALUS
Malou Ibita Philippines
12.09.2014

Dear Right to Food Team,

Thanks for all your hard work. Here is an example from the Philippines. Here is the link: Making farming work in the big city

I hope this helps!

Wishing you the best in all your endeavors.

God bless,

Malou Ibita

Luisa Cruz and Margret Vidar Facilitators of the discussion, Italy
11.09.2014

Dear Right to Food Forum Members,

Thank you very much for the rich and diverse contributions received so far. We have gathered concrete experiences from different countries and regions showing efforts towards the realization of the right to food through a better governance of natural resources.

Some of the inputs of the discussion have underlined the major role of traditional practices that moved from subsistence towards commercial focus. This is the case of Riverbed Farming as mentioned by one of our participants from Nepal. This point was also brought to the discussion by emphasizing that a solid knowledge of traditional land use and an impact assessment of future legislation is key in order to ensure effective implementation of legal frameworks. It was pointed out that claims made by traditional communities and their livelihoods should be protected though dispute resolution mechanisms that are suitable for the context of traditional communities. The importance of traditional practices and ensuring access to indigenous seeds was highlighted by the participant from Kenya who showed also the significance this has for food diversity, which is one of the conditions for food to be adequate.

The contributions from Bolivia bring concrete evidence on how legislation is being adopted in the country in order to provide a framework for improving governance of natural resources as a basis for the realization of the right to food. We noted that the Bolivian Constitution protects the right to food and the right to water in article16, and we learned about the adoption of the Framework law on “Mother Earth and Integral Development for Well Being” among the creation of several programs such as the one addressing adaptation of food security and food sovereignty to climate change. Another interesting example from Latin America is the contribution from Costa Rica showing current efforts and proposals for adopting sustainable production policies in the country.

Finally, the experiences from Africa show the importance of taking a participatory approach to the process of lawmaking as well as an ecosystem based approach applied particularly to the fisheries sector where the role of women is key. Another contribution noted the need for further institutional strengthening and capacity development for government and civil society. In terms of accountability we received a very interesting contribution referring to a recent case of the ECOWAS Court of justice illustrating how a regional body can intervene to hold both governments (that should ensure appropriate regulation) and private sector companies accountable for environmental damage and therefore for the violation of the right to an adequate standard of living including the right to food.

The discussion is still running and we will be more than pleased to receive further contributions till the 15th of September.

Thanks again and best regards,
Luisa Cruz and Margret Vidar Facilitators Luisa Cruz and Margret Vidar FAO Development Law Branch (LEGN) - Right to Food Team (ESA)

Muhammad Ariful Haque Kamfisht Universe Engineering, Bangladesh
11.09.2014

I have found interest about soil made zeer pot project for natural freezing of food by Practical Action (www.practicalaction.org). I think if we make a case with multiple soil made zeer pot and rapped with jute fibre or any suitable materials which will save the soil made zeer pot as well as its function of natural freezing will unchanged, then food glossaries will use it to sale food instead of using Formalin & other chemicals.
Banks and other financial institutes should finance more on family farming for to fight against using Formalin & other chemicals in food.

If government owned unused canals, ponds & almost dead rivers are utilized on Public Private Partnership (PPP) basis for Floating agriculture, Floating Cage Fish farming & crop processing, then it will able add more fresh food & money for us. Presently, local banks are financing this type of projects to the marginal people against BDT10 saving bank account as a part of Green Banking and this scope should utilize accurately.

Multiple bypass highways connectivity with Trans Global Highway can ensure Regional Balanced Development'. I believe by “trans global Highway” food price will go down due to this smooth communication system as well as tons of food will be saved from unexpected rotten having more market place availability . If possible, in Bangladesh, BIWTC can launch Speed boat service from district level terminals to Thana level terminals and even if possible village level terminals. It will save cost of traveling, time, and safe waterways from grabbers. “Food Air transportation Authority” can be formed to ensure cheap & faster transportation of food.

Sufficient Environment friendly low cost food reservoirs could be set up with the funding of banks and these storages should not be used to increase food price rather than public interest. We can set up Digital Multipurpose Water Overhead Open Tank(DMWOOT) with the help of ICT & renewable energy companies, banks and others to enhance using natural resources by low cost. Controlled Biological pest control system need to be implemented to avoid chemicals. Bio-fertilizers needed more to avoid chemical fertilizers.

I think earthquake preventive Rural Multi-storeyed Building project in Delta region can save our agricultural lands and unplanned urbanization. This will help us a lot to achieve 'Water-Soil Ratio Balanced (WSBR)' in our Bangladesh. Real-time GIS Spatial Data are needed for setup Rural Multi-storeyed Building.
I think, we can Extract Seabed Soil with the help of GIS for land level rising to save from going under sea due to climate change. If we failed to reduce global warming or unable rise our land level, then we bound to loss our agricultural lands & habitats.

11.09.2014

The Institute of Hunger Studies has recently carried out (commissioned by FAO) a Right to Food assessment in the ECOWAS region. The assessment includes the analysis of the status and trends of the food and nutrition security situation, the legal environment of the RtF focusing on legislative provisions that have relevance for the protection and realisation of the RtF, the regional policies and programmes and their contribution to the RtF, and the identification of regional institutions and civil society organizations and their mandates and activities related to the RtF.

Although the assessment does not focus on natural resources, there are some interesting experiences related to the protection of the environment. In particular I would like to share with you a case that illustrates the role of the ECOWAS Community Court of Justice in relation to the violation of the human rights.

Although the ECOWAS Court is still a young institution, its role is already relevant in human rights rulings and it has already made significant decisions on matters related to the RtF. One of the most recent examples of the action of the ECOWAS Court on the realisation of the RtF is the case presented by a civil society organization against 6 oil companies and the federal government on human rights violations in the Niger Delta. In this case, the CSO alleged "violations of the right to an adequate standard of living, including the right to food, work, health, water, life and human dignity, to a clean and healthy environment, and to economic and social development".

The ECOWAS Court unanimously declared that the Nigerian Government was responsible for the violation of the people’s RtF, among other rights, in the Niger Delta committed by the oil companies. According to the ECOWAS Court, the right to a generally satisfactory environment favourable to development was violated through the deterioration of living conditions in the Niger Delta that occurred because of the government’s failure to regulate the companies that had despoiled the area.

The ECOWAS Court ordered the Federal Republic of Nigeria to take all effective measures to ensure restoration of the Niger Delta environment; to prevent the occurrence of damage to the environment; and to hold the perpetrators of the environmental damage accountable. 

Gianluca Ragusa International Independent consultant - Fisheries and...
09.09.2014

DEar Mrs Cruz and Vidar,

thank you for your kind invitation to contribute (sustainable fisheries development is often forgotten in funding and initiatives worlwide) and renewed consideration.

According my past experiences, in the fisheries and aquaculture sector, governance at regional, national and local level has to be strengthened (notably in Africa) and more funding, institutional strengthening (human resources and means) and capacity building for Administrations and civil society will be welcomed.

Co-management  (several examples in FAO repoistory documents, kindly see some examples attached) and participation and civil society consultations and inclusion (I have had the pleasure to experience it in drafting the national fisheriy policy of the lovely Mali with consultations and validations at national and regional level) with responsible management duties sharing) as well as an ecosystem based approach (considering too the socio-economic aspects versus the environmental one of the policies and strategies) are in my view good examples of accountability as well as Administrations and civil society ownerships.  

A more integrated approach in wise use of natural resources (as suggested by the Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat as well as by the Convention on wetlands) could be an useful solution for land and water acess conflicts resolution and a good example of new model of governance.

According to FAO data (kindly find the reference attached, section 1.1.1 Employment in fisheries: the official statistics), "more than 180 million people worldwide worked full-time or part-time in capture fisheries and aquaculture in 2008, including production and secondary activities such as post-harvest processing and marketing, boat construction and maintenance, making and repairing nets, fishing gear and processing equipment, and ice production and supply. Nearly half were women, mainly concentrated in post-harvest work and marketing, but 12 percent of the 44.9 million fishers and fish farmers (typically considered a male domain) were women", so in the relevant section please don not forget to include the role of the women in the fisheries sectoir, too, .

Finally, I would like to stress the need of capacity building in production (post harvest losses reduction that increase the pressure on the resources without any or low poisitive impact on the livelihood of the concerned populations and groups) and value chains strenghtening and building.

Hope it is useful

I look forward

Sincerely

Gianluca

Patricia Ana Villarpando Vargas Fundacion Agua Tuya, Bolivia ...
03.09.2014

>> English translation below <<

A. Dentro la Constitución política del Estado de Bolivia, reconoce el derecho fundamental a la alimentación y al agua (el art.16), el derecho a la salud (art.18) y reconoce la responsabilidad del estado en dotar a los ciudadanos de los servicios básicos (art. 20). El deber del Estado y de la población conservar, proteger y aprovechar de manera sustentable los recursos naturales y la biodiversidad, así como mantener el equilibrio del medio ambiente (Art. 343).  La población tiene derecho a la participación en la gestión ambiental, a ser consultado e informado previamente sobre decisiones que pudieran afectar a la calidad del medio ambiente. A su vez reconoce el derecho de los pueblos originarios, indígenas campesinos, reconoce su identidad, su libre determinación y territorialidad (art.30).

Las directrices nacionales en torno a la problemática de recursos naturales (aunque se establece en un entorno mas productivo), la seguridad alimentaria y cambio climático, se encuentran regidas por el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo, la Revolución Rural, Agraria y Forestal, la Política de seguridad Alimentaria y el Programa Sectorial de Adaptación de la Seguridad y Soberanía Alimentaria al Cambio Climático que han establecido algunas políticas y acciones importantes. La mayoria de las politicas se estan desarrollando mediante el Ministerio de Medio ambiente y Agua y el Ministerio de desarrollo rural y tierras. Algunos programas importantes son: Programa Nacional de riego, Programa desnutricion Cero, Programa Nacional de frutas, etc.

Respecto a la legislacion ambiental, la normativa vigente es la Ley de medio ambiente (No 1333), Ley forestal (No1700), decretos de vida silvestre,parques nacionales, caza y pesca (No 12301), entre otros.  En este ultimo periodo se han desarrollado la Ley de la Madre tierra, el decreto de mineria (No29117), algunos proyectos de  ley importantes en esta tematica son: la Ley de tierras, Ley de Bosques y  la ley de Biodiversidad.

Las politicas y programas que se han estado desarrollando tienen una vision productiva sobre todo, con apoyo de tierra y proyectos para el sector campesino-originario, sin embargo, se debe trabajar por incluir la vision de los pueblos de tierras bajas en cuanto al manejo y proteccion de sus territorios y recursos naturales y su inclusion en la realizacion de politicas y programas que les afecte directamente o indirectamente.

B. Tras la promulgacion de la Ley de la Madre tierra, se viene encarando el desarrollo de tres mecanismos muy importantes para el pais: El mecanismo de adaptacion, el mecanismos de mitigacion y el Mecanismo conjunto de Bosques. la importancia de los mismos, recaera en su integralidad y su trasnversalidad en cuanto a recursos hidricos, recursos naturales, seguridad alimentaria, tierra, salud y educacion.

A. The Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia recognizes the fundamental right to food and water (Art.16), the right to health (Art.18) and the responsibility of the State to provide basic services to the citizens (Art. 20). It also acknowledges the duty of the State and the population to conserve, protect and sustainably exploit natural resources and biodiversity, and maintain the environmental balance (Art. 343). People have the right to participate in the environmental management, and to be consulted and previously informed about decisions that can affect the environmental quality. At the same time it recognizes the rights of indigenous peoples and farmers, their identity, self-determination and territoriality (Art.30).

National guidelines regarding the natural resources issues (although established in a more productive environment), food security and climate change, are governed by the National Development Plan, the Rural, Agricultural and Forestry Revolution, the Food Security Policy and the Sector Adjustment Programme of Food Security and Sovereignty to Climate Change. All of these have established several important policies and actions. Most policies are being developed by the Ministry of Environment and Water and the Ministry of Rural Development and Land. Some major programs are: National Irrigation Program, Zero Malnutrition Programme, Fruits National Programme, etc.

Regarding environmental legislation, the current regulations are the Environmental Act (No. 1333), the Forest Act (No.1700) or the Wildlife, National Parks, Hunting and Fisheries decrees (No. 12301) among others. In this recent period, the Law on Mother Earth and the Mining Decree (No. 29117) have been developed. Some important draft laws on this matter are: the Land Act, the Forest Act and the Biodiversity Act. Policies and programs developed so far have a primarily productive approach. Land support and projects are provided to the farmer sector. However, work should be undertaken to incorporate the views of lowland populations on the management and protection of their territories and natural resources and include them in the formulation of policies and programmes affecting them directly or indirectly.

B. After the promulgation of the Law on Mother Earth, the development of three very important mechanisms for the country is being addressed: the adaptation mechanism, the mitigation mechanism and the joint forests mechanism. The importance of these mechanisms will depend in their integrality and transversality regarding water resources, natural resources, food security, land, health and education.