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Could you share examples/activities in your work where biodiversity is contributing in achieving food security and improved nutrition? And the overuse of biodiversity compromise food security and nutrition?
One of the most popular tools for marine biodiversity has been marine protected areas (MPAs). However, much debate surrounds MPAs and their impacts on social issues such as food security. I recently read a paper that discusses this issue at length. Kamat and Kinshella (2018) investigated the effects of MPAs on food security by highlighting various cases. They showed that in some cases food security improved but in others decreased. Then the authors introduced their own case from Tanzania. They concluded that food security is such a multifaceted issue and varies from location to location. Thus, MPAs should be considered on a case by case basis when trying to both conserve biodiversity and increase food security. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29601211)
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Could you share examples/activities in your work where a (sustainable) production system played a key role for the conservation of the biodiversity surrounding it? Please provide detailed information you may have or know of and identify the agricultural sector.
I think a great example of a sustainable production system advocating for the conservation of its surrounding biodiversity could be pearl farming. Pearl farming is a practice dependent on pristine environmental conditions. Thus, many pearl farms work very hard to protect their surrounding waters through green energy initiatives, zero pollutant discharge, and strong enforcement. There is some evidence to suggest that pearl farms have actually increased fish abundance in French Polynesia. (https://www.pubfacts.com/detail/24341945/The-influence-of-pearl-oyster-f...)
Additionally, another example that comes to mind is the culture of rare species for both economic and conservation purposes. For example, the sahar (Tor putitora) is a valuable indigenous fish of Nepal that is now on the endangered species list. Currently, experiments are occurring to breed sahar in ponds with some successes reported. With more research, hatcheries could be established for sahar which would promote a new industry in Nepal as well as restore local populations. (http://aquafishcrsp.oregonstate.edu/sites/aquafishcrsp.oregonstate.edu/f...)
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Good governance, enabling frameworks, and stewardship initiatives are needed to facilitate mainstreaming of biodiversity within and across agricultural sectors. Do you have any examples of such enabling factors and initiatives or the lack of it?
An excellent example of good governance for mainstreaming biodiversity is the system used to organize Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in Madagascar. This system involves a local set of laws known as dina being determined by various villages that are party to the LMMA. Then, an elected body made up of community members are responsible for the enforcement of the dina. All permanent residents of villages within the LMMA are "de jure" members, with the right to participate in the association and benefit from its actions. Additionally, each village elects representatives that will sit on an assembly which meets frequently to stay up-to-date with the dina and discuss other happenings in the LMMA. This political set-up has allowed for consistent management and communication and consequently led to a successful LMMA with multiple uses such as: the banning of destructive fishing methods, no-take zones, mangrove and seagrass protected areas, aquaculture zones, and tourism areas. (https://tropicalconservationscience.mongabay.com/content/v3/10-12-20_447...)