Font size:

Contact us:

Topic: Country Case Studies

Download resource

Food Losses and Waste in Europe and Central Asia

The paper discusses the issues and policy options for reduction of food losses and waste in Europe and Central Asia, focusing primarily on middle and low income countries of the region.

Food losses and waste (FLW) depend on specific conditions and the local situation in a given country. In broad terms, food losses and waste are influenced by production and processing choices, patterns and technologies, internal infrastructure and capacity, marketing chains and channels for distribution, consumer purchasing and food use practices. To a large extent, FLW are rational from a private perspective as they are the result of the optimizing behaviour of agents. However, in certain countries there are serious limitations due to ineffective food chains, and a lack of capacity to preserve or process foods, or limited markets. From a societal perspective, FLW are claimed to generate socioeconomic and environmental problems.

Development context has high importance on the level, structure and causes of FLW. In developed countries of the region consumer preferences and practices are the main reason for FLW. As a consequence, all steps of the supply chain have to adjust their production, processing, or distribution to these preferences. In middle and low income countries the most frequently mentioned causes of food losses are inadequate infrastructure and technology, inefficient market and demand for supply as well as the lack of education and skills, in particular at the farm level.

Targeted investments to reduce FLW at any significant scale could be primarily done by the private sector. Equally importantly, by promoting effective policy and enabling environment in support of sustainable agricultural production, and value chain approaches the public sector can contribute to a minimisation of FLW. The scope of the public policies should be to create an enabling environment for private sector to introduce practices having potential to reduce FLW whereby contributing to increase the overall efficiency of food supply chains. 


Download resource

FAO in the Caribbean

A overview on FAO's work in the Caribbean region

Download resource

Geographic determinants of rice self-sufficiency in Southeast Asia

Rice self-sufficiency is a key objective of most Asian governments, yet attaining that objective has been elusive for several countries over extended periods of time; long-term status as an exporter or importer is relatively constant, and is altered only by revolutionary events (i.e., major changes in policy or technologies). Traditional rice importers tend to eat less rice (and more wheat) than traditional exporters, so the determining factors behind rice self-sufficiency must lie on the supply side. This paper finds that the main determinant of (per capita) rice production is not rice yield per hectare, but rather the amount of per capita rice area harvested, which in turn is determined largely by the proportion of land that is well-suited for growing rice. Thus, countries with ample (per capita) supplies of water and flat land (i.e. those with dominant river deltas on the mainland) are self-sufficient in rice, and countries with more varied landscapes are not.

David Dawe


Download resource

Carbon Incentive for Physical activity: Conceptualizing clean development mechanism for food energy

The basic fact is that intense practitioners of yoga consume food only once a day while moderate practitioners of yoga consume food twice a day. With the normal consumption being around three times on a given day, the economic benefit or the reduction in food consumption due to yoga practice is two meals per person per day for intense practitioner and the same would be one meal per person per day for moderate practitioner. In addition, the economic benefit includes increase in wellbeing & consciousness, and decrease in cost of non-communicable diseases.
The paper analyses the food and water consumption, excessive consumption, food consumption taxes like fat tax and brings out the business behaviour of tickling food consumption. In addition to taxing and regulating the excessive consumption & the tickling behaviour, it explores the preventive best practices that reinforce natural human ability of self-control over food consumption. It identifies the practices where there is purposeful or consequential reduction in food consumption i.e. weight loss treatment and yoga, proposes clean practice, suggests accounting for savings & carbon incentive, and discusses the finance and policy options in developed and developing countries. Yoga also meets some of the objectives of health, education, environment, culture & sports, food and finance, and therefore seeks finance allocation from corresponding ministries to support the carbon incentive work. As an alternative, the human capability developed can be measured under capability approach for creation of human development incentive. With the efforts to increase physical activity by subsidy proving to be less effective and with the taxes preventing consumption but not reducing temptation in short run, the paper considers embedding the best practice in the education to bring the habit of physical activity. Evaluating the practice for optimizing food consumption may operationalize a wellbeing practice, stimulate economic growth, and may lead to completeness in conserving all forms of energy and to completeness in charging of food consumption taxes