I am working with Agriculture engineers at the University of Cordoba, Department of Cordoba, Colombia. The University of Cordoba agriculture engineers have world class community outreach efforts in which each agriculture engineer is assigned to train extremely poor campesinos in one to four municipios within the Department of Cordoba. In order to help the extremely poor campesinos I have suggested the following procedure.
Identify the methods that poverty stricken campesinos feel they can best get out of poverty by monitoring the applications for agriculture micro loans to different micro loan organizations such as Kiva
Provide You Tube vocational training videos so that the extreme poor have training material on tropical lowland agriculture and small animal raising. The Government of Colombia has provided excellent You Tube training videos on how to grow papaya in the Department of Cordoba
Periodically have a student or professor come to the community to teach classes and answer questions. The Department of Cordoba agriculture engineers currently teach classes on the growing of papya, yucca, and white yams.
My suggestions for the FAO are the following
Provide YouTube training videos that are appropriate for different tropical and arid lands areas. The You Tube videos should be classified by Koppen climatic zones and altitude if they are to be used in tropical regions
Focus on making suggestions that are appropriate for raising small animals given the supplies that are available within the region that is being targeted. There is nothing more frustrating than hearing an expert recommend ideas such as micro irrigation when the supplies are not available with the region he/she is targeting.
Provide experts who know principles of Business Process ReEngineering so that the FAO can provide best business practices to their recommendations
Here are two reasons that some technical solutions that promote economic development for women in poverty do not succeed.
1) People in extreme poverty need to make money immediately.
2) People in extreme poverty do not have a large amount of investment funds.
The microloan industry has identified how women in extreme poverty hope to increase their income. AEAS needs to develop ideas that will help these women. For example, I particularly like the idea of AEAS preparing YouTube videos that provide vocational training for rural women living in poverty.
Here are examples of YouTube vocational training videos that might be needed by people who want to increase the income of extremely poor women who raise pigs in a tropical lowland or arid land environment.
What do successful pig farmers do differently that other farmers should do?
What is the best way for extremely poor women in a tropical lowland or arid land environment to provide food security and nutrition for pigs and chickens?
What is the best way to build a pigsty in an arid or lowland tropical environment?
Given commonly available food, what should extremely poor women be feeding their pigs so that they thrive?
Given common diseases of pigs in an arid lowland tropical environment, what preventive measures should be extremely poor women be taking for pigs?
Here are examples of YouTube vocational training videos that might be needed by a person who wants to increase the income of extremely poor women who raise chickens in a tropical lowland or arid land environment.
Note that these videos show rural women in the process of increasing their income and providing better nutrition. The video scripts can be heard in a variety of languages. In particular, the videos are produced with poor women in mind. Without information of this type workers in the field will not have access to the technical knowledge they need to help extremely poor women.
The U.S gave political asylum status to thousands of Afghans in the 1980’s. One Afghan Center was in California on the Union City / Fremont border not far from what became 'Little Kabul'. The people in the Afghan Center were very interested in helping their Afghan countrymen combat poverty and were excellent at determining what ideas might work. Their primary focus was lobbying organizations to help Afghanistan.
In the case of poultry, it was important to get as many Afghan people familiar with modern poultry production and modern small business practices as possible. The UN FAO Poultry Development Service in Rome Italy did an excellent job in this regard. If I remember correctly, UN FAO personnel conducted 1 hour courses every week on poultry production and small business development in many parts of Afghanistan. It took 6 months for an Afghan woman to complete their course.
The UN FAO personnel in Rome should answer the detailed questions that you posted since they were in charge of the technical direction of the FAO poultry program in Afghanistan. I believe that Afghan women will become major producers of poultry. I also believe that Afghan women will become excellent businesswomen. You may want to read the FAO report “Poultry Projects enhance lives of afghan women” and USAID report “Case Study of Poultry and Grape/Raisin Subsectors in Afghanistan” for more information on present status of poultry production in Afghanistan. It takes time for new ideas to be implemented. The Afghan government personnel may need more technical and business development help (and perhaps very limited policy help?).
I know in the 1980s that Bell Telephone Labs did a major internal study on why it took 15 years on average for new inventions to become commercial products. Many of the problems that the Bell System encountered in converting research to development and operation are exactly the problems that the FAO encountered. In particular, you need to train development and operation personnel in the new technology and finance the costs of starting development and operation facilities. Bell Labs management felt that researching a new idea costs 10% of the budget while developing the idea cost 90% of the budget. I fear that international development personnel may not have the necessary business experience to convert a new idea from research to development to operations. For example does the FAO have an expert who can increase exports to Afghanistan of the following supplies: basic home canning kits (consisting of a water bath canner, (6) 1-pint mason jars, (6) lids, canning guide, jar lifter, lid wand, canning funnel, bubble freerTM ), additional mason jars and lids, pressure canner/cookers, portable food storage facilities, greenhouse equipment, garden hand tools, garden fencing, garden equipment suitable for preparing large gardens for schools, small trucks for transporting supplies, garden seeds, nursery stock, and horticulture information?
I feel that Mojamma Jafar Emal has done an excellent job although I do not know him. He deserves the full support of the UN FAO, World Bank, USAID and the NGOs.
In 2003 I worked with the Afghan Project personnel in Freemont California to develop ways on increasing thw income of women in Afghanistan. Our discussions centered around my paper on poultry production. See "Doubling the Income of Africa's Poorest Farmers" at my website at https://sites.google.com/site/PaulRigterink / We also discussed the use of home canning. See "A Plan for Improving Food Security in Afghanistan" at my website
Subsequent to our discussions the Afghan Project personnel were able to help convince the FAO Poultry Development Service, USAID, the World Bank etc to start a major number of backyard poultry projects (0-50 chickens) in Afghanistan. Unfortunetly, they were not able to convince these agencies to develop followup plans so that the women could fully take advantage of modern poultry technology. Followup plans would include descriptions of how to raise 50-500 chickens (family farm size) and how to raise 500-10,000 chickens (commercial farm size) (the technology is slightly different as described in my poultry paper above. Policy personnel need to establish a policy that Afghan women raising poultry should be introduced to the technologies for raising 200 and 1000 chickens. The differences in the stages of establishing a commercial poultry farm need to be fully explained to Afghan women. Afghan women raising 1000 chickens will have a lot more control of their lives because they will have much more control of the purse strings of their family.
You may find the ECHO Tropical Video Series (Part 2 of 6) - Grafting Tropical Fruit Trees and Avocados to be useful. It can be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BbSjTVEDCc, click on the > in the far right hand column of the uploads area to get to the video. You can also do a search using keywords Colombia, youtube, papaya, Cordoba
For a success story see article "Colombia launches new project to boost papaya exports", Campesinos de Cordoba exportan papayas a Canada"
I am working with the agriculture engineers at the University of Cordoba in Monteria Colombia to start a video training program called “Success in Cordoba and Uraba”. In this program we will make videos of extremely poor Colombian citizens who have made a successful first step out of poverty using better agricultural procedures. It is expected that international development personnel will help write the video scripts. Examples of the videos we will make include videos of people who have doubled their income using better cassava planting procedures developed at the University of Cordoba, videos of people who have successfully overcome the technological hurdle of producing 3-10 chickens to producing 50-1000 chickens, and videos of people who have successfully overcome the technological hurdle of producing 1-5 pigs to producing 15-50 pigs. These videos will be distributed to 20 municipios in Cordoba (there are 30 but the 10 agriculture engineers only work in 20) so that other campesinos can do use the same ideas. In these You Tube vocational videos we expect to capture experiences about women’s roles in agriculture and agribusiness value chains in order to shape policies and interventions to recognize and support women’s contribution to livelihood security.
Women and young farmers will need access to seeds, root stock, animal stock, fertilizer, animal feed, pest and disease control chemicals, veterinary supplies, farm insurance, irrigation equipment, fencing, feed stock, packaging, and transport to have a successful farm. If some of these supplies are not available when needed the farm will most likely fail. The Gates Foundation AGRA, PASS, and SEED programs are helping to supply some of this material in Africa. Food Tank needs to verify that "all" the materials needed by women and young farmers are available in areas where they work in Africa by reviewing what is available at agro-dealer shops and suggesting what else needs to be supplied to the FAO and NGOs. In addition Food Bank should review the poultry training that the FAO supplied in Afghanistan. Perhaps Food Bank can suggest improvements to FAO poultry training and suggest other countries where this training would be beneficial. Food Bank should also review why the Caja Agraria in Colombia was not successful. See my papers at https://sites.google.com/site/paulrigterink/ for additional information.
>>РУССКАЯ ВЕРСИЯ НИЖЕ
I fully support this idea. Here are some other suggestions.
What would be the first steps governments should take to create a regional agricultural trade mechanism that ensures food supplies including during periods of market shocks?
The government and FAO should investigate if there is enough farm equipment, fencing, seeds, nursery stock, fertilizer, pest control, disease control, weed control, fungicides, packaging, marketing expertise, transport, storage, and farm insurance to ensure food supplies (including during periods of market shocks). In Afghanistan, the FAO spent a lot of effort to train women to raise poultry. These Afghan women should be raising at least 300 chickens each now in my opinion. If this is not the case, the FAO should investigate what additional measures are needed to increase the poultry supply in Afghanistan. Similar comments could be made about grain production, produce production, fruit production, raising goats (including are all the needed veterinary supplies available?), etc. Obviously, farmers may have all the water they need and all their crops could still die of disease. An integrated agriculture approach is needed if one wants to ensure the food supply. If the agricultural supply chain is dependable, more people will invest in food supply development.
Perhaps the land and water development people could show how they are working with other types of agriculture experts to solve the food supply development problem.
Я полностью поддерживаю эту идею. Вот еще некоторые предложения.
Какие первые шаги должны быть предприняты правительствами, чтобы создать механизм региональной торговли сельскохозяйственной продукцией, обеспечивающий поставки продовольствия, в том числе в периоды рыночных потрясений?
Правительству и ФАО следует изучить, достаточно ли имеется сельхозтехники, ограждений, семян, саженцев, удобрений, средств для защиты от вредителей, борьбы с болезнями и сорняками, фунгицидов, упаковочных материалов, опыта в маркетинге, транспорта, помещений для хранения, а также возможностей страхования фермы для обеспечения поставок продовольствия (в том числе в периоды рыночных потрясений). В Афганистане ФАО задействовала много усилий для подготовки женщин по вопросам разведения птицы. По моему мнению, эти афганские женщины на настоящий момент должны выращивать, по меньшей мере, 300 кур каждая. Если это не так, то ФАО следует изучить, какие дополнительные меры необходимо предпринять для увеличения поставок птицы в Афганистане. Подобные замечания можно сделать в отношении производства зерна, производства продукции, производства фруктов, выращивания коз (включая вопрос наличия всех необходимых ветеринарных принадлежностей) и т.д. Очевидно, что даже при наличии у фермеров доступа к необходимой воде, сельхозкультуры могут погибнуть еще и от болезни. При желании обеспечить бесперебойные поставки продовольствия необходим комплексный подход к сельскому хозяйству. Если сельскохозяйственная цепочка поставок является надежной, все больше людей будут инвестировать в развитие продовольственного снабжения.
Возможно, люди, занимающиеся освоением земель и водных ресурсов, могли бы продемонстрировать, как они сотрудничают с экспертами по сельскому хозяйству в других областях в отношении решения проблемы развития продовольственного снабжения.
1. If you had made an intervention at the side event on rural women at the 8th session of the Open Working Group in New York, what would have been its key message?
The FAO needs to create "demonstration farms" in various rural regions and climatic zones that will accelerate sustainable development for rural women. For example, suppose the FAO started a “demonstration farm” on one hectare of tropical/arid land to show poor rural women, who in the past earned $2/day, how to make a better living. How much money would the FAO spend on the following:
- Cost of borrowing money
- Land rental
- Land clearing
- Land tillage
- Farm equipment
- Water use
- Irrigation equipment
- Seeds and nursery stock
- Pest control
- Disease control
- Packaging the products
- Marketing theproducts
- Farm insurance
Given the list above, what investments would the FAO expect a rural woman, who earned $2/day in the past, to invest in her farm? What investments made by the FAO "demonstration farm" would not be made by a poor woman farmer? How does the FAO make their “demonstration farm” more realistic to the needs of a poor rural woman farmer? Based on FAO estimates and pactical experience in different regions, how much of a microloan would rural women need in order to substantially achieve food and nutrition security in the future?
1. Are all relevant issues and areas related to fostering responsible agricultural investments adequately addressed in the Zero Draft? If not, what should be changed?
Farmers living on a small plot of land need better information and access to supplies.
Does an agriculture investment organization supply information on the right type of fertilizer, pesticide, herbacide, and seeds to use for a particular type of crop?
Does an agriculture investment organization insure that the appropriate supplies needed by a small farmer are available including tools, nursery stock, veterinary supplies, fencing, irrigation equipment, packaging, transport, marketing information, crop insurance, fertilizer, pesticides, herbacides, etc.
Without all the proper supplies and better information, small farmers will not be able to increase their cash crops and small animal production; Often they will not be able to pay back their investment if there is unusual weather. An agriculture investment organization needs to insure that all the supplies and information are available so that their investments are appropriate. This is currently not being accomplished.