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Gender and Land Rights Database

Egypt

Civil society and indigenous people’s organizations advocating for equality of land rights

- The Land Centre for Human Rights (LCHR) is a non-governmental, non-profit organisation created to advocate for human rights in rural Egypt; it aims to address the disrespect and lack of protection of the rights of farmers and the agricultural sector in Egypt, influence the direction of the land market and prices, and study the effects of Council on farmers’ lives and the agrarian economy (30). http://www.lchr-eg.org/eindex.htm

- The Centre of Egyptian Women Legal Assistance (CEWLA) is a leading Egyptian women’s lawyers group, founded in 1995 to advance women’s rights through the law. The Centre provides legal aid, mainly to impoverished women, and advocate against female genital mutilation (FGM), honour crimes, and discriminatory divorce laws (25). http://www.cewla.org/

- Centre for Egyptian Family Development promotes and monitors civil and legal women right’s and prevents violations of their civil and legal rights, abuse of power. It address injustices and draws attention to errors in legal and administration processes concerning women inside Family courts (25).

- The Association for the Development and Enhancement of Women (ADEW) started in the mid-1980s as a micro-credit organization. ADEW was specifically launched to work with females head of households, at the time an emerging and unrecognized household type. ADEW’s mandate was to empower these women economically through micro-credit (25). http://www.adew.org/adew/

Local decision-making organizations and women’s representation in them

- In the 1990s, agricultural/rural organizations included: i. multi-purpose local cooperative agricultural societies, offering agricultural and social services and loans, with almost exclusively male members and officers; ii. agrarian reform societies under the supervision of the General Authority for Agrarian Reform in the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MOALR), offering services and production facilities, with exclusively male members and officers; iii. land reclamation societies under the supervision of the General Authority for Rehabilitation, with no women members (10).
- An appraisal of several irrigation and Water Users Associations (WUAs) schemes has revealed that WUAs tend to marginalize women in rural decision-making structures. All members of the water associations are men (12).

Legal Information and capacity development on land rights

- The National Council for Women (NCW) in collaboration with UNDP, established the Women’s Legal Rights Project that aims to provide a service to retrieve legal information electronically through a database. The information is presented in a simple format, using simple Arabic language, in a question-answer format. It is offered on CD-ROMs, videotapes and on the Internet. The purpose is to provide information and answers to women’s queries on personal status issues, such as alimony, divorce, and child custody, with the ultimate goal of simplifying litigation procedures. Access to this service is provided at women’s centres and women’s clubs in various ministries throughout the governorates, and through non governmental organizations (NGOs) active in the field of women’s rights (31).
- The Centre for Egyptian Women’s Legal Assistance (CEWLA) informs women about their legal rights and organises educational courses and seminars to help redress women’s unawareness of their rights. In 15 of Egypt’s 26 governorates, CEWLA trains leading women in the communities in women’s rights, as well as related international human rights law and treaties. To its training courses, CEWLA recently added a special session on inheritance rights and laws (4).
- The Egyptian Centre for Women’s Rights (ECWR) was established in 1996 with the goal of providing all forms of legal assistance to women and with a focus on legal and political rights. The ECWR is implementing the Access to Basic Services Program with the World Bank and the British Council. It focuses on raising awareness and advocating for changes in the law, as well as campaigning and training. ECWR carries out programs and projects at the grassroots level that cover all areas of Egypt, urban and rural. http://www.ecwronline.org/

Sources: numbers in brackets (*) refer to sources displayed in the Bibliography