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Gender and Land Rights Database

Mozambique

Civil society and indigenous people’s organizations advocating for equality of land rights

The Association of Mozambican Professional and Business Women (ACTIVA) is a national association established in 1990 to support women’s role in the country’s economic development. With a large membership, ACTIVA has a number of working groups involved in promoting gender-sensitive legislation regarding female entrepreneurs (13).

The Mozambican Association for Urban Development, Associoção Moçambicana para o Desinvoltimento Urbano, (AMDU) is a non-governmental, non-profit association of 30 professionals. It was founded in 1992 to promote peace and to support the development of human settlements during the post-conflict period. Although the Association is not explicitly gender-sensitive, its main goals, such as establishing schools, health institutions, maternity facilities and specific rural programmes in 40 villages, have a significant impact on the lives of women regarding their role as mothers and wives and their participation in agricultural activities (13).

The Mozambican National Association for Rural Women and Development (AMRU) operates in the three southern provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane. AMRU deals with small-scale rural activities, such as the rehabilitation of agricultural training centres, reforestation and the construction of schools, with the aim to improve and secure the livelihoods of women and men in these areas (13). 

Forum Mulher is an umbrella organization based in Maputo which functions as a resource and communication network to improve the efficiency of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) already involved in gender mainstreaming. Forum Mulher, played a very active and decisive role in the development of a more gender-sensitive Family Law, which was recently amended and released in 2004. Forum Mulher is also a member of LINK, which operates as an all-inclusive network of national and international NGOs around the world (4) (http://www.forumulher.org.mz/). 

The Association for the Promotion of the Socio-economic and Sociocultural Development of Women (MBEU) is a non-governmental organization aimed at ameliorating the livelihoods of women within society. Officially registered in 1993, MBEU is primarily involved in establishing income-generating activities based on the skills of local communities. However, the lack of adequate resources often limits the extent to which the organization actually impacts the lives of women in the community (13).

Women, Law and Development (MULEIDE), founded in 1990, is an organization operating in Maputo, Pemba and Beira. MULEIDE is involved in research and trains women in the informal sector on health and HIV/AIDS prevention and legal awareness. MULEIDE was involved in the 1996 campaign against violence against women (13).

Organicaçao da Mulher Moçambicana (OMM) was set up in 1973. The organization is active at the national secretariat, provincial, district and village levels. Its main goal is to promote the active participation of women within the political, economic, social and cultural aspects of Mozambican society. It trains women as mothers, wives, teachers and workers, while ensuring that the basic principles of equality are regarded. The bulk of OMM’s work is directed towards young children, solitary women and girls who are not able to continue formal education (14).


Local decision-making organizations and women’s representation in them

  • Women’s participation in administrative and managerial posts is low; they represent only 11 percent of the total (14).
  • There are no women in the function of Provincial Governors (11).
  • Within the municipal assemblies, women account for 31 percent of the members in the southern region and 29 percent in the central and northern regions (11).

Legal Information and capacity development on land rights

The state provides legal information and training through the Instituto de Patrocínio e Assistência Jurídica (IPAJ) which functions under the supervision of the Ministry of Justice. The Institution is mainly faced with cases brought by women concerning maintenance and inheritance. Although the IPAJ is active in several provinces, it is most predominant in Maputo (11).

The Legal Research Directorate (DIL) of the Ministry of Justice has the objective to “promote, educate and divulge laws and programmes with a legal character to all citizens.” It disseminates information through radio programmes in national languages and through newspapers and comic strips (11).

The Centre for Judicial Studies and Training, Centro de Formacao Juridica e Juriciaria (CFJJ), has been established in order to increase the capacity and efficiency of the justice sector in disseminating legal information. Its main goal is to train legal personnel, judges, prosecutors and legal defenders. It also promotes the distribution of legal texts to the provinces (11).

The Human Rights League, Associação Mulher, Lei e Desenvovimento (Muleide), Women and Law in Southern Africa (WLSA) Mozambique and the Association of Women in Legal Careers all provide legal counsel to women in difficulty concerning awareness of rights and access to justice facilities (14).

The new Land Law sensitization campaigns have been integrated into literacy programmes in which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that were involved with disseminating the Land Bill specifically targeted women whose rights had been violated, in order to inform them of their legal rights and restore those rights (18).

The University of Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) and the Centros dos Estudos Africanos (CEA) also play a role in gender mainstreaming. They are a useful source of documentation and information concerning existing gender inequalities (4).


Sources: numbers in brackets (*) refer to sources displayed in the Bibliography