Gender and Land Rights Database


Outros fatores sociais, econômicos e políticos que influem nos direitos à terra diferenciada por gênero

- After independence, women faced the loss of employment within the formal sector and access to social services. This was a consequence of the dismantling of the former state collective farms, on which many rural women were formally employed and which offered them an infrastructure of support services (10).
Therefore, while women have, in principle, retained equality in all fields through their constitutional rights, in reality they are losing much of their economic and personal autonomy. At the same time, women are dealing with the reassertion of traditional male authority within the household (3).

- Unofficial marriages, including early marriages, result in a decrease of women’s share of property (19).

- Under the land privatization process, although each family member was allotted a plot of land, many women left their allotment in the parental family upon marriage and did not gain a lot in the new family (19).

- Although the State Commission on Land Reform asserts that 90 percent of titles have been issued, many household farmers have not received their land titles. This problem is because distribution is through local authorities, who often delay the distribution of titles to farmers (21).

- In order to implement free transfer of public property, all citizens were issued a share in privatized public property, which was called a privatization voucher. A 2005 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) survey showed that 72.5 percent of women and 67.5 percent of men in the survey sample simply sold their privatization “shares”; 2.7 percent of women and 4.2 percent of men invested their vouchers as actual shares in privatized property; 22.2 percent of women and 26.4 percent of men did not know how to use vouchers they received.
The survey also showed that about 52 percent of women after divorce left their privatization coupons to their former husbands and about the same percentage of women entering into marriage left their coupons to their parents. These women were deprived of economic rights to own a share in the national property (19).

- Most women’s non-governmental organizations (NGOs) operate on a very limited budget and are only able to undertake activities with the support of volunteers. Lack of financial and human resources has limited the extent to which many of these organizations have been able to plan and implement broader-based training and capacity-building programmes (10).

Sources: numbers in brackets (*) refer to sources displayed in the Bibliography