Gender and Land Rights Database


Sistemas prevalecentes de posse da terra

- Private land ownership, managed by agricultural entrepreneurs and agricultural companies, is the most common form of land tenure.

- In 2000, out of a total of 2 590 674 holdings, 86 percent were owned, 2.3 percent were rented, 1.3 percent were under other single forms of tenure and 9.6 percent were under more than one form of tenure (30).

- Some lands are considered public domain, the so-called terreni demaniali, and belong to public entities.

- Although there is no official and universal definition of farm business, the publications of the National Statistics Institute (ISTAT) define a farm as an economic-technical unit with land – even in non-contiguous plots – equipment and machinery for farming, forestry and livestock. The enterprise is run by a farmer, a company or a body assuming the corporate risk. The category also includes farms exclusively engaged in raising livestock without farmland (31).

Instituições nacionais e locais que executam as disposições sobre a terra

- The policies of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry (MiPAAF) set out and coordinate the guidelines of agriculture, forestry and food policies at the national, European and international levels (32).

MiPAAF is composed of the following:
i. the Department for European and International Policies;
ii. the Department for Economic and Rural Development Policies;
iii. the General Inspectorate for food quality control (ICQ);
iv. the national Forestry Corps;
v. the Authority for agricultural and food policies of the Carabinieri Corps;
vi. the Fisheries Department of the Coast Guard;
vii. the National Council for Agriculture (CNA) .


- Several agencies support MiPAAF in implementing its tasks. Among them: the Agency for Disbursement in Agriculture (AGEA); the Buonitalia agency; the Agricultural Research and Experimentation Council (CRA); the National Institute of Agricultural Economics (INEA); the Institute for Studies, Research and Information on the Agricultural Food Market  (ISMEA); the National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition (INRAN); the Agri-food Development Institute (ISA) (32).

Instituições de administração da terra e quotas de participação da mulher nelas.

- The country is made up of 20 regions, including five autonomous regions.
Law No. 3 of 2001 amended Article 117 of the Constitution in order to give more powers to the regions. The law was implemented by Law No. 131 of 2003.

The regions now have broad normative and administrative powers in the agricultural sector regarding direct incentives and coordination of the territorial authority. Each region has its own agricultural department within the regional government (32).

Disposições de financiamento que dão garantias à mulher às transações de terras

- Several projects have been funded under Law 215 of 1992 on female entrepreneurship. However, funding remains limited and procedures are complex and costly. Only 17 percent of the applications under Law 215 obtain access to funds (11).

Outros fatores sociais, econômicos e políticos que influem nos direitos à terra diferenciada por gênero

- The country, especially in the south, has a large informal economy compared with other developed countries (11).
The informal economy is estimated to account for €10 million, about 40 percent of the agricultural GDP. Most of the workers who are employed in the informal economy are women, many of whom are immigrants (29).

- Women who work full-time as agricultural family labourers but whose contribution is not formally recognized do not have access to social security, pensions and other welfare measures (33).

- The transformations of rural society over the last decades have disrupted and loosened the traditional family and neighbourhood support network, taking women away from their families and creating a demand for external help. The number of immigrant women who have taken on the role of caregiver to children and elderly people has risen considerably. It is estimated that 24 000 women, mostly from eastern European countries, are supporting families in rural areas (33).

- Due to the lack of public transportation services and child care facilities in rural areas, women, who increasingly are moving farther away to look for jobs and have to commute daily, have a difficult time balancing private and work life (33).

- In female-run farms, some products – such as wine grapes, olives, high intensity horticulture and flowers – are predominant because of the need for income integration. These products offer more integration opportunities with other activities such as processing, agrotourism and production of handicrafts. Four percent of female-run farms diversify their income in such ways (10).

Sources: numbers in brackets (*) refer to sources displayed in the Bibliography