Gender and Land Rights Database


Policies/Institutional mechanisms enforcing or preventing women’s land rights

- The Ministry of Equal Opportunities was established in 1996. The range of tasks delegated to the Ministry for Equal Opportunities by decree of the President of the Council of Ministers, on 14 February 2002, broadens the scope of the Ministry’s activities beyond gender equality and gives the Minister a driving and coordinating role in national policies in particularly sensitive areas (26).


- Law No. 215 of 1992 envisages affirmative action in favour of women entrepreneurs. It promotes the start-up and development of individual enterprises managed by women, cooperatives and unlimited responsibility companies in which 60 percent of the partners are women and limited responsibility companies where two-thirds of the capital quotas are held by women and two-thirds of the managers are women, as per Articles 1 and 2.

Article 2 specifies that the law covers the agricultural sector among others.

A National Fund for the Development of Women’s Entrepreneurship is established to provide for tax credits and subsidized credit. Ministerial Decree 31 February 2002 approved the funding of projects under Law 215 (11).


- The Observatory for female enterpreneruship and labour in agriculture – Osservatorio per l'imprenditoria ed il lavoro femminile in agricoltura – is the body of the Ministry for Agricultural Food and Forest Policies which supports women engaged in agriculture. It was set up in 1997 in response to the request of women’s agricultural organizations.

The Observatory collaborates with the main public and private stakeholders involved in agricultural and rural development to promote synergies in the field of women’s agricultural employment.

The Observatory collects and processes data, analyses the legislation on female employment and equal opportunities, examines the European Union and central and regional governments’ policies to promote initiatives in female entrepreneurship, creates links between sources and means of information and research and promotes, in cooperation with the regions and autonomous provinces, pilot initiatives in the field of entrepreneurship for women. The Observatory is headed by the Minister of Agricultural and Forest Policies and has 30 members (27).


- Since 1982, the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has played a key role in rural development. Since the establishment of the European Community (EC), CAP has supported agriculture and rural development in member countries.
CAP’s main goals are to help European farmers be competitive and promote development in rural areas, particularly in the least-favoured regions.

The financing available to farmers has changed over the years, increasingly focusing on environmental protection and on the quality, rather than the quantity, of production. The EU also has made a greater commitment to rural development through a single financial instrument which promotes agriculture, forestry and all types of rural activity (28).


EU Rural Development Policy 2007–2013:
- In the strategic priorities for rural development, Priority No. 3 addresses improving the quality of life in rural areas and encouraging diversification of the rural economy. It states that key actions also include encouraging the entry of women into the labour market by creating child care infrastructure (28).

Sources: numbers in brackets (*) refer to sources displayed in the Bibliography