Gender and Land Rights Database


Rights entrenched in the Constitution

Constitution, 1946:
- Article 11: “The people shall not be prevented from enjoying any of the fundamental human rights. These fundamental human rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be conferred upon the people of this and future generations as eternal and inviolate rights”.

- Article 12: The freedoms and rights guaranteed to the people by the Constitution shall be maintained by “the constant endeavour of the people, who shall refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights and shall always be responsible for utilizing them for the public welfare”.

- Article 13: All people shall be respected as individuals. Their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness shall be the supreme consideration in legislation and in other governmental affairs, to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare.

- Article 14: All people are equal under the law and “there shall be no discrimination in political, economic or social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status or family origin”.

- Article 19: Freedom of thought and conscience shall not be violated.

- Article 20: Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all. No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State, nor exercise any political authority.

- Article 24: Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.

- Article 24 [2]: With regard to choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domicile, divorce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the family, laws shall be enacted from the standpoint of individual dignity and the essential equality of the sexes.

- Article 27: All people shall have the right and the obligation to work.

- Article 27[2]: Standards for wages, hours, rest and other working conditions shall be fixed by law.

- Article 27 [3]: Children shall not be exploited.

- Article 29: The right to own or to hold property is inviolable.

- Article 29 [2]: Property rights shall be defined by law, in conformity with the public welfare.

- Article 29 [3]: Private property may be taken for public use upon just compensation.

- Article 89: No public money or other property shall be expended or appropriated for the use, benefit or maintenance of any religious institution or association, or for any charitable, educational or benevolent enterprises not under the control of public authority (16).