قاعدة بيانات الجنسين والحقوق في الأراضي التابعة لمنظمة الأغذية والزراعة

Pakistan

Traditional authorities and customary institutions

- There are a number of customary institutions which are mainly responsible for the reconciliation and arbitration of community disputes. Women have a limited role or no role at all in traditional forums (19).

- Jirga is the tribal assembly of elders which takes decisions by consensus, among the Pashtun but also in other ethnic groups near them. In a jirga, all the tribes are given equal representation through their elders, called maliks, tribal chieftains, and the decisions are always made by a majority vote. Tribes still elect the maliks as their representatives for the National Assembly and senate with a limited right to vote (19).

- Within the agrarian Sindhi society, the landlords and tribal chieftains have the ultimate authority and make decisions on behalf of their followers. Selected heads of the tribes take part in the kachery or Goth Kath, village assembly which are responsible for settling disputes. The decision-making part of the kachery is also known as jirga in Sindh (19).

- In Punjab, representatives from communities take part in the Punchayat, a form of collective decision-making with a mandate of reconciliation (19).

- In Northern Pakistan, the Zaitu system is a community-based management system of local issues (19).

المصادر: الأرقام في أقواس (*) تشير إلى مصادر عرض في ثبت المراجع.