Base de Datos Género y Derecho a la Tierra

Egypt

Instituciones nacionales y locales que ejecutan las disposiciones jurídicas sobre la tierra

- Several government entities control and manage land. These fall into two main classification categories, depending on the land they have jurisdiction upon: lands that are located within the zimam and desert lands outside zimam. Ziman refers to the limits of the perimeter that comprises urban lands within city or village cordons, as well as cultivated and uncultivated agricultural lands that have been surveyed by the Egyptian Survey Authority (ESA) and included in the register of agricultural lands and real estate — kashf al mokalafat — maintained by the Real Estate Tax Department (RETD) (29).
i. Lands within the Zimam:
- The Governorate controls public urban lands, desert lands adjacent to municipal boundaries within two kilometres of the zimam, if surrounded by agricultural lands, or the cordon, if adjacent to desert lands.
- The Ministry of Defence controls lands that have been earmarked for other purposes such as national security.
- The General Authority for Reconstruction Projects and Agricultural Reclamation (GARPAR), under the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR) controls land reclamation projects, agricultural and uncultivated lands within the arable perimeter, inside the zimam, that are not privately owned (29).
ii. Desert Lands outside the Zimam:
- MALR determines areas to be earmarked for agricultural land reclamation projects. GARPAR is considered the main governmental body for managing, developing and disposing land for agricultural and reclamation purposes whether through direct selling or leasing the land for individual beneficiaries according to its various national programs or to investors in agricultural sector (29).



- The Policy and Coordination Unit for Women in Agriculture (PCUWA), established in the MOALR in 1992, aims to increase women’s access to agricultural services and resources, improve their socio-economic status, and increase agricultural productivity and production. It works with the various departments and institutes of the Ministry to integrate issues of concern to women into the mainstream of MOALR’s programmes and policies (10).

Fuentes: los números entre paréntesis (*) se refieren a las fuentes que están en la sección de Bibliografía