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Base de Datos Género y Derecho a la Tierra

Pakistan

Tenencia de la tierra- formas predominantes

- Land is either owned or rented. Seventy-eight percent of the holdings are owned, 14 percent are rented and the remaining ones are under more than one form of tenure. The Government owns about 0.15 percent of the total land area (20).
Fifty percent of farmers are owner-operators and 26 percent are pure tenants (4).

- Tenancy contracts guarantee tenants with land, credit, access to irrigation networks and agricultural input in exchange for their labour on the farms owned by a landlord. The most frequent system of tenancy is sharecropping - batai - in which the produce is shared by the landlord and the tenant, usually at a 50 percent rate.

- Leases are mostly without contracts, for one year or one season only; often they might be prolonged for a longer period but without security for the tenant (21).

- In Punjab, where nearly 65 percent of the cropped area is, tenancies are split evenly between share and fixed rent contracts. Sharecropping is the predominant form of tenancy in Sindh, where more than one third of the land is tenanted and about two-thirds of land is under sharecropping (10).


- The main  categories of land holders are:
i. Landlords who own more than 150 acres of irrigated land or 300 acres of non-irrigated land.

ii. Small landlords who own 25 to 150 acres of irrigated land or the equivalent amount of barani land, dryland areas not served by canal irrigation.

iii. Family owner-cultivators who possess 7.5 to 25 acres of irrigated land or a corresponding area of non-irrigated land.

iv. Marginal owner-cultivators who own less than 7.5 acres of irrigated land, and some of whom rent areas to enlarge their holdings. This group consists mostly of subsistence farmers who have an average farm size of 2.2 acres. In addition, many of these small peasants work as agricultural labourers in order to earn a living, and farm their own land only a side/part-time occupation.

v. Tenants who have some acres of their own, in addition to their rented land. Some of them are tenants of government land.

vi. Tenants-at-will who are landless and enter in tenancy contracts with landlords.

vii. Landless rural labour: people who provide their labour to landowners against a share of the produce (21).

Fuentes: los números entre paréntesis (*) se refieren a las fuentes que están en la sección de Bibliografía