Base de Datos Género y Derecho a la Tierra

Japan

Medidas políticas/mecanismos institucionales que refuerzan o limitan el derecho de la mujer a la tierra

- In 1994, the Government established the Headquarters for the Promotion of Gender Equality within the Cabinet to promote measures aimed at realizing a gender equal society (22).

- The Basic Law for a Gender Equal Society was enacted and came into effect in June 1999, based on the final report compiled by the Council for Gender Equality, an advisory panel to the prime minister (22).

Basic Law for a Gender-equal Society, 1999:
- Under Article 8, the State is responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies related to promotion of a Gender-equal Society.
- Article 9: Local governments are responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies corresponding to national measures, and other policies in accordance with the nature of the areas of local governments.
- Article 10: Citizens shall make efforts to contribute to the formation of a gender-equal society in all areas of society, including workplaces, schools, the local community and the home.
- In 2000, the Government approved the Basic Plan for Gender Equality, the first plan based on the Basic Law for a Gender-equal Society (22).

- Article 26 of the 1999 Basic Law on Food, Agriculture and Rural Areas states that: “in consideration of the importance of securing opportunities for both men and women to participate in all kinds of social activities as equal members of society, the State shall promote the creation of an environment in which women’s roles in farming operations are fairly assessed and women can be provided with opportunities to become involved in farm management and other relevant activities on a voluntary basis” (23).

- The Family Management Agreement, introduced in 1995, is a written form of treaty, which establishes the internal rules governing farming operations and family activities, assigning responsibilities among the family members.
The agreement covers the following matters: i. accord on payment for work done; ii. distribution of farm revenue; iii. working conditions, including working hours, days off, division of labour; iv. succession of farm, including inheritance, but also support to retired parents (24).

- In February 1996, the Legislative Council, an advisory body to the Minister of Justice, submitted a report on revision of the Civil Code that made proposals on:
i. setting of the legal age for marriage at 18 years for both males and females;
ii. choice of surname at time of marriage between the woman’s maiden name and her spouse’s name;
iii. automatic granting of divorce upon request after five years of separation;
iv. equal inheritance for both legitimate and illegitimate children;
v. and shortening of the period in which women are prohibited from getting remarried from six months to 100 days (22).

Fuentes: los números entre paréntesis (*) se refieren a las fuentes que están en la sección de Bibliografía