База данных по гендерной проблематике и правам на землю

Egypt

Меры в области политики/правовые механизмы, реализующие или препятствующие реализации земельных прав женщин

Women’s Department of the Ministry of Social Affairs:
- Established in 1977. It develops policies and programmes for the advancement of women, monitors reports of women’s activities in the local news, gathers information on issues relating to women and their advancement in all fields, promotes positive and essential changes in prevailing attitudes and engages in international cooperation in that regard, and studies the recommendations of international and regional conferences on women. The Department has also established a documentation centre for women’s issues (17).
- A Coordination Unit for women’s agricultural activities was set up by Ministry of Agriculture. Its activities include the dissemination of agricultural information, the improvement of livestock, the provision of loans and the promotion of child-nutrition programmes with a view to raising health standards in rural communities (17).
National Committee for Women:
- Established in 1978 as a national planning and coordination mechanism. It brought together representatives of all relevant ministries, agencies and non-governmental women’s organizations and was responsible for monitoring the implementation of national programmes and plans for the advancement of women, proposing measures to promote the participation of women in all aspects of life and elaborating and following up the necessary programmes. Following a February 1994 decision of the Prime Minister, the Council was reorganized in order to consolidate and expand its work and affirm its national role (17).



National Council for Women:
- Established pursuant to Republican Decree No. 90 of 2000, issued on 8 February 2000, took the place of the National Women’s Committee.
The Council is an independent national body responsible for promoting the advancement of women and designing the necessary policies and programmes. It is also responsible for developing appropriate solutions to the obstacles that women continue to face, particularly in rural areas (17).
- The Third National Conference of Egyptian Women, entitled “Advancement of Rural Women”, was held in 1998, and discussed the promotion of literacy, education, health, education about reproductive health, the advancement of rural women, the development of micro-enterprises and the promotion of rural women’s awareness of their political, social and legal rights. All the agencies concerned with women, particularly the National Council for Women, are engaged in studying the Conference’s recommendations (17).
- “The Strategy of Agricultural Development until the Year 2017”, issued in May 2003, has among its main objectives the better involvement of rural women in the development process (3).
- Family courts have been instituted under the provisions of  Law No. 10/2004 to provide a one-stop shop for family disputes, facilitate settlement of personal status cases and avoid normal delays in the Egyptian legal system. 
These specialized courts, located in New Cairo, with other jurisdictions throughout the country being served by summary, juz`i, courts, also provide counselling and other services to families (18).
- Law No. 84 of 2002, known as “the NGO law”, requires all non governmental organizations (NGOs) to register with the Ministry of Insurance and Social Affairs. Many Egyptian NGOs view this requirement as a curtailment of their expression and association rights as well as a transparent attempt by the government to approve some NGOs and deem others illegal (18).



The Ombudsman’s Office for Gender Equality:
- Was established in 2001 under the auspices of the National Council for Women, to provide women over the age of 18 with an alternative option through which to address situations of gender discrimination when traditional and formal channels have been unsuccessful. It receives, processed and addressed the complaints of women in a systematic manner, dealing with a multitude of complaints brought forward by women from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Based in the Council’s headquarters in Cairo, the Ombudsman Office opened a sub-office in Aswan Governorate in 2003 to serve the Aswani women.
The Ombudsman Office also supports and engages with organizations and institutions that share its vision and complement its activities. It also possesses the authority to seek amendments of laws that discriminate against women, and to work with competent authorities to remove obstacles that block the application of laws and judgments (22).

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