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Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)

Estahbanat Rainfed Fig Orchards Heritage System

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Summary

A fig is a high calorie fruit, and is used in various forms such as fresh, dry, moist, compote, jams, marmalade, syrup, sweet, crocheted, Masghati, and so on; and its consumption improves health. Figs orchards of Estahbanat account for 54% of the area of rainfed figs orchards in Fars Province and 5.3% of the world's figs area. The area of figs orchards is 23,174 in Estahbanat County, producing 18384 tons of dry figs. Figs orchards are the main source of livelihood for 5500 farmers. On average, each orcharder has 4.68 hectares of figs trees. The minimum and maximum area of figs orchard is 0.5 and 100 hectares, respectively. The ownership of rainfed figs orchards is mostly private and lands owned by farmers in the region. The most important areas of figs orchards are located in the plains of Estahbanat, Khaneh Ket, Roniz and Ich of Estahbanat County. Most orchards are placed on hillsides, and in parts of land that can store relatively high humidity. As Estahbanat rainfed figs orchards are established on steep slopes and harsh heights, the hard work of the previous genera+ons since 250 years ago have provided for creation and maintenance of such figs orchards as a national capital, which is appreciated by the public. This demonstrates hard efforts, striving, and deep interest required to plant a figs tree and its maintenance on poor lands and rocks through terracing and contour trenching.

The production of figs in Estahbanat is mostly done in family farming. In the past 20 years, ground preparation operations have also been carried out on a semimechanized basis due to the growing number of figs trees and an increase in cultivated area.

The county characterizes with experience and creativity of its orcharders in the field of planting, growing and harvesting rainfed figs, along with preserving the biodiversity of the region, and the packaging industry and active formations. Figs has a special place in the culture of Iranian people, particularly Estahbanat, so that it is considered as a cultural element in the poems of famous Iranian poets, gypsum motifs, Iranian orchard, ritual ceremonies and folklore of Estahbanat people. In regard with landscape, figs orchards of cover major area of Estahbanat City, and stretch along the plain of Estahbanat, like green strip. This provides the city with beautiful attractions. These orchards are unique in each season. There are 10 industrial factories with a capacity of 29,000 tons in the field of packaging and processing of figs in the region.