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  Burkina Faso

Reference Date: 27-July-2020

FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT

  1. Favourable moisture conditions allow timely planting of 2020 crops

  2. Above‑average harvest gathered in 2019, except in conflict‑affected zones

  3. Prices of coarse grains generally stable, but rising in conflict‑affected areas

  4. About 2.1 million people estimated to be severely food insecure

Favourable moisture conditions allow timely planting of 2020 crops

In southern and western parts of the country (Banfora, Bobo Dioulasso, Gaoua), abundant rains since early May benefited planting activities as well as germination and establishment of crops. In other parts of the country, planting of sorghum and millet, to be harvested from October, is ongoing under favourable moisture conditions. The latest weather forecast by the Forum of the Agro‑Hydro‑Climatic Seasonal Forecast in Sudano‑Sahelian Africa (PRESASS) points to average and above‑average precipitation amounts between June and September 2020, with likely positive impacts on yields and availability of pasture and water for livestock. Across the planted areas, crops are at sprouting, seedling and tillering stages, and weeding activities are regularly underway. Despite the favourable weather conditions expected during the season, some localized production shortfalls are likely to occur in the Sahel and North Central regions due to the persisting conflict that limits agricultural activities.

Seasonal rains increased water and pasture availability in July 2020, improving livestock body conditions and enhancing animal market value in most parts of the country. The animal health situation is overall stable, with only seasonal outbreaks of epizootic diseases as the Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats and the Foot‑and‑Mouth (FMD) in cattle.In conflict‑affected areas, pasture conditions are affected by armed and community conflicts, theft and banditry, which are increasing livestock concentration in the accessible areas with ensuing rapid degradation of fodder and water resource.

Above‑average harvest gathered in 2019, except in conflict‑affected zones

Favourable rainfall in 2019 benefitted crop development in most parts of the country. The national cereal production in 2019 is estimated at 5 million tonnes, 12 percent above the average of the last five years. However, several areas experienced production shortfalls due to the late onset of the rains, pockets of drought in September, the extended rainfall through end of October that caused excessive moisture conditions for grains to dry and some attacks by birds on crops in the Eastern and Western regions.

Despite the above‑average 2019 cereal production, import requirements for the 2019/20 marketing year (November/October), mainly imported rice and wheat flour, are set at an above‑average level of 750 000 tonnes due to the strong demand by traders aiming at replenishing their stocks.

Prices of coarse grains generally stable, but rising in conflict‑affected areas

Adequate domestic availabilities and the gradual lifting of restrictive measures implemented to contain the pandemic kept prices of coarse grains generally stable in June. By contrast, in the conflict‑affected areas of the provinces of Soum, Sanmatenga, Yagha, Gnagna and Komandjoari, persisting civil insecurity continued to hamper market activities and kept food prices at relatively high levels. In these areas, the terms of trade for livestock/cereals are generally unfavourable to pastoralists as cereal prices have increased while livestock prices declined due to low local demand.

About 2.1 million people estimated to be severely food insecure

According to the March 2020 “Cadre Harmonisé” analysis, about 2.1 million people are estimated to need external food assistance during the June to August 2020 period, well above the 687 000 food insecure people that were estimated for the same period in 2019. Prior to the COVID‑19 outbreak, the increase in the number of food insecure population was mainly due to the effects of adverse climate events (drought and excessive moisture), birds’ attacks on crops and persisting insecurity. The situation was exacerbated by a reduced food availability due to travel restrictions for security reasons, localized production shortfalls, limited households’ coping mechanisms and low levels of food assistance. It is very likely that the food security situation will further deteriorate as livelihood activities have been affected by the expansion of the COVID‑19 pandemic and the Government’s containment measures. These measures have negatively affected households’ incomes, particularly in urban and peri‑urban areas, where most people rely on daily work, casual labour, petty trade and food vending activities.

As of July 2020, the CONASUR1 identified 978 744 people that have been displaced in Burkina Faso with 50 percent of them living in Centre Nord Region In addition, about 21 000 refugees, mostly from Mali, are still residing in the Sahel region. Most displaced households are heavily dependent on humanitarian assistance to satisfy their basic needs. According to the Humanitarian Needs Overview, 2.9 million people need humanitarian assistance.

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1 Conseil National de Secours d’Urgence et de Réhabilitation, a Government body in charge of IDPs.

Disclaimer: The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.