Country Policy Monitoring

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Main Food-related Policy Measures


(From 1 Jan 2008 to 11 Oct 2011)
   5 May 2011  Import tariff on durum wheat, in force since 2010, is suspended for an indefinite period.
   12 Jan 2011  Retail prices of sugar fixed at DZD 90 (USD 1.18) per kilogram and those of cooking oil at DZD 600 (USD 7,9) for 5 lts.
   9 Jan 2011  Duties and value added tax (VAT) suspended on imports of sugar and cooking oil.
   9 Jan 2011  Increase by 18 percent of the soft wheat market supplies, following several days of rioting. From January to August 2011, supply of soft wheat to the the processors will increase from 350,000 tonnes to 430,000 tonnes per month.
   11 Oct 2010  Introduction of a USD 200 fee per tonne on durum wheat imports, backdated to 1 August 2010, in order to encourage consumption of domestic supplies.
   16 Mar 2010  Barley exports have been authorized for the first time in 40 years.
   10 Mar 2010  Temporary ban on durum wheat import imposed, because available stocks are adequate to cover domestic needs.
   16 Feb 2010  Wheat production support has been renewed for 2010, aiming at reducing wheat imports by at least two-third in 2014.
   1 Oct 2009  Fertilizers and pesticides exempted from VAT and cereal production exempted from all taxes.
   12 Oct 2008  Subsidies to support wheat production in agricultural season 2009-2010 have been introduced.
   1 Aug 2008  Establishment of SYRPALAC, a public enterprise in charge of the rehabilitation of storage facilities for the main agricultural products, with the aim to avoid market speculation. The private sector will be associated to this initiative through special agreements.
   1 Jun 2008  Durum wheat procurement price increased from DZD 21 000 (USD 284) to DZD 45 000 (USD 608.5) per tonne, soft wheat from DZD 19 500 (USD 263.7) to DZD 35 000 (USD 473.3), and barley from DZD 15 000 (USD 202.8) to DZD 25 000 (USD 338).The sale price to millers fixed at DZD 22 800 (USD 308.3) per tonne for durum, DZD 12 850 (USD 173.8) for soft wheat, and DZD 15 500 (USD 209.6) for barley.
   1 May 2008  Distribuiton of 300 000 tonnes of imported barley at subsidized price to cattle breeders.
   8 May 2010  Allocation of USD 350 million as loans for 2010 crop season, in order to support production of small and middle farmers and fishermen.
   25 Nov 2009  The National Strategy on Food Security has been approved, including regulations on land tenure, environment, waters, seeds and micro-credit programmes.
   1 Sep 2008  Agricultural inputs (seeds, fertilizers, tools and tractors) distributed to farmer associations and small holders with the aim to increase cultivated area and production of food.
   1 May 2008  Land management measures taken in the Ouémé, Couffo, Mono, Niger and Pendjari valleys.
   1 May 2008  Emergency programme lunched for the immediate off- season food production and the promotion of short-term cycle rice and maize cultivation.
   1 Apr 2008  Import taxes removed on basic staple products such as wheat, maize, rice, pasta and oil.
   1 Apr 2008  Food prices control, imposed since December 2007, is extended for 3 more months.
   1 Mar 2010  The Integrated Support Programme for Arable Agriculture Development (ISPAAD) was renewed for the agricultural season 2009/2010 providing farmers with seeds and other agricultural inputs. A total of 247 245 bags (50 kg) of seeds have been distributed to 90 570 farmers and 59 315 bags of fertilizers to 4 867 beneficiaries.
Burkina Faso
   1 May 2008  Access to fertilizers promoted through costs reduction.
   1 May 2008  Minimum guaranteed price for rice introduced to encourage production during the agricultural season 2008/2009.
   1 May 2008  The Government declared its policy intention to reach food self-sufficiency.
   1 May 2008  Value Added Taxes (VAT) removed on local food products (mainly rice).
   1 Jul 2010  The East Africa Common Market Protocol has come into effect. The agreement, signed in November 2009 between Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, allows the free movement of goods, services, capital and labour.
   5 Apr 2011  Allocation of XAF 222 million (USD 480 000) to boost rice and maize production throught the Agricultural Competitiveness Improvement Project (PACA). Government signed agreements with 10 farmers associations wich will invest XAF 115.3 million, aimed at increasing rice output in the region by 5 000-10 000 tonnes by the 2011-12.
   1 Feb 2010  Agreement reached with industry groups and wholesalers, to freeze prices of basic food items, including rice, frozen fish and cooking oil for the next six months.
   1 Dec 2009  Measures to boost production of rice, maize and plantains have been extended. These measures include seeds distributions, agricultural inputs subsidies and credit facilities for farmers.
   1 May 2008  System to monitor retail prices of basic food commodities, such as palm oil and milk, has been established.
   1 May 2008  Import tariff reduced on rice, wheat flour, salt and fresh fish and custom duties suspended on cooking oil and fuel.
Central African Republic
   1 Nov 2008  The VAT for basic food reduced from 19 to 5 percent.
   1 Feb 2010  Export ban on female cattle.
   1 Aug 2009  Maximum prices for millet, maize and rice, fixed at CFAF 264 000 (USD 592) per tonne, CFAF 275 000 (USD 617) per tonne, CFAF 420 000 (USD 942) per tonne respectively .
   1 May 2008  VAT reduced from 18 to 5 percent on a range of basic imported food stuffs (such as wheat, sugar and rice) and essential goods.
Côte d'Ivoire
   24 Jan 2011  Export of cocoa and coffee ban for one month following post-electoral civil disturbances.
   1 May 2008  Reduction on rice import tax.
   1 May 2008  Price control measure on food products.
   1 May 2008  VAT reduced for 3 months on agricultural products, including rice, vegetable oils, sugar, and soap.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
   1 May 2008  Internal consumption tax removed on wheat flour and rice .
   6 Mar 2008  Direct distribution of seeds to producers.
   7 May 2008  Internal consumption tax removed on rice, sugar, cooking oil, wheat flour and powder milk.
   13 Apr 2011  Allocation of additional EGP 10 million (USD 168 million) for food subsidies, until the end of June, to curb food inflation.
   13 Dec 2010  Rice acreage restriction implemented due to water shortages.
   18 Oct 2010  Starting procedures for the creation of an organizational authority to monitor the production and distribution of subsidized bread.
   21 Sep 2010  Ban on rice export imposed in 2008 has been extended until October 2011. A limited export quota of 100 000 tonnes of rice a month is allowed.
   21 Sep 2010  Plan to increase domestic wheat production over the next five years, expanding the total planted area and increasing average yields by more than 20 percent.
   5 Jan 2010  Despite the export restrictions adopted since 2008, an export quota of 128 000 tonnes of rice is allowed to 55 firms, by the end of February 2010.
   16 Dec 2009  New measures introduced to improve quality control of imported wheat. These include state inspection certificate, doubled financial guarantee deposited by international cargo firms, and penalties on firms that are found violating national wheat standards.
   28 Oct 2009  Fertilizer prices completely liberalized.
   22 Oct 2009  The rice export ban, introduced in March 2008, is extended to October 2010,with exception of the ban on broken rice wich was lifted on 15 July 2009 and replaced by an export tax of EGP 300 per tonne, later reduced to EGP 100 (USD 18). However, the Government announced in mid-October 2009 that it will hold monthly tenders to grant rice export licenses to traders, up to 100 000 tonnes per month, and it will reconsider the value of its rice export tariff.
   21 Nov 2008  The target for self-sufficiency in wheat has been increased to 75 percent (from current levels of about 55 percent).
   30 Sep 2008  Cash transfers to vulnerable groups of population.
   3 Jul 2008  The budget for food subsidies in fiscal year 2008/09 (July/June), has been increased by 25 percent over 2007/08 budget of USD 17 billion.
   8 May 2008  The Government doubled the amount of rice distributed under the ration card system. The card holders are allowed to buy 2 kg of rice in addition to 2 kg of sugar, 1.5 kg of oil, and 50 grams of tea per person every month for EGP 15 (USD 2.8). The system targets 55 million people out of Egypt's population of 75 million.
   1 May 2008  Public wages increased by 28 percent.
   1 Apr 2008  Ban on rice exports from March 2008 to October 2009.
   5 Feb 2011  Opening of market centers in which producers and consumers directly interact in the central region, in an attempt to monitor and stabilize the rising price of fruits and vegetables.
   21 May 2008  Subsidies on food and oil.
   7 Jan 2011  Maximum consumer prices set up for 17 basic food commodity items. Among others, sugar price set at ETB 14/kg (USD 0.8), meat at ETB 52/kg (USD 3), rice at ETB 12.4/kg (USD 0.70).
   13 Jul 2010  Export ban on cereals lifted following good harvests and lower prices on domestic markets
   1 May 2008  Ban on cereal export.
   1 May 2008  The Government imported 150 000 tonnes of wheat for the state subsidized distribution scheme implemented since March 2008.
   1 May 2008  VAT removed on food commodities.
   14 Mar 2011  The Gambia Chamber of Commerce and Industry (GCCI), agreed with importers and retailers on "Food Price Matrix" to monitor the trends of wholesale and retail food prices and set maximum price levels.
   7 May 2008  Import taxes suspended on basic food.
   7 May 2008  VAT suspended on staple food prices (cooking oil, flour, fish, and milk).
   17 Nov 2009  Import duties reinstated on rice, wheat and yellow maize.
   16 Oct 2009  Increased subsidies to cocoa exports in 2009/2010 main crop season (October/April). The Government will pay farmers 71.1 percent of the net FOB value of cocoa exports, or GHS 2 208 (USD 1577) per tonne, which is 42 percent higher than in 2008/09.
   16 Oct 2009  Allocation of GHS 50 millions (USD 34 million) for production vouchers for the 2009/2010 main crop season, to be paid in two installments to the farmers: 50 percent in November 2009 and the remaining 50 percent in April-May 2010.
   23 May 2008  Subsidies on electricity costs.
   23 May 2008  Import duties removed on rice, wheat and yellow maize.
   23 May 2008  Duties and taxes on oil and fuel removed for the fishermen, and subsidies on fertilizers provided to farmers.
   1 Jun 2011  Import of 30 000 tonnes of rice to be sold at a subsidized price in the domestic market.
   27 Jan 2011  Export ban on rice , oil products, sugar and vegetable oil imposed in an effort to stabilize food prices.
   27 Jan 2011  Rice price fixed at USD 20 per 50 kilos bag, a reduction from the current USD 35 level.
   1 May 2008  Taxes temporarily suspended on imported food products.
   1 Apr 2008  Ban on agricultural products exports.
   13 Jul 2011  The export ban on raw nuts, lifted in December 2010, has been reintroduced.
   4 Jul 2011  Duty free import of wheat has been allowed for one year, starting from July 2011.
   3 May 2011  Import duty on wheat, as well as taxes on kerosene and diesel have been removed in a effort to reduce food inflation.
   2 Apr 2011  Destocking programme implemented in Turkana County in favor of breeders affected by drought. Six districts will receive KES 2 million (USD 23 800) each for buying livestock to be slaughtered and distribute the meat among the local population.
   22 Mar 2011  The government launched a KES 1.8 billion (USD 20.9 million) programme to provide farmers with subsidized fertilizers: 50 kg bag of fertilizer will be sold at KES 1 100 (USD 12.8).
   21 Mar 2011  Allocation of KES 1.127 billion (USD 13.1 million) to assist drought-affected pastoralists. The funds will be used to buy animal feed and control livestock diseases.
   1 Jul 2010  The East Africa Common Market Protocol has come into effect. The agreement, signed in November 2009 between Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, allows the free movement of goods, services, capital and labour.
   11 Jun 2010  Wheat and rice import tariff reduced from 35 to 10 percent and from 75 to 35 percent, respectively.
   14 Jan 2010  Duty waiver on maize imports is extended until June 2010.
   1 Aug 2009  The Government has supplied KES 2.06 billion (USD 26.5 million) to support production, also trough direct payment to farmers in the form of free inputs for 14 000 acres of maize production and 21 000 acres of rice production.
   1 Jun 2009  Allocation of KES 35 billion (USD 451 million) to support agricultural sector. This represents a 66 % increase compared to the KES 21 billion (USD 270 million) allocated in the financial year 2008/2009 (July/June).
   27 Jan 2009  Import duties removed on staple food, including maize.
   5 Oct 2008  Ban on maize exports.
   12 Jun 2008  Sales taxes removed on rice and bread.
   1 Jun 2008  Agricultural inputs distributed through cash vouchers.
   1 May 2008  An amount of 270 000 tonnes of duty free maize imports from South Africa has been allowed.
   13 May 2008  Ban on food export
   1 May 2008  Import tax removed on rice.
   1 May 2008  Public wages increased.
   1 May 2008  Expansion of safety nets programmes (food for work and cash for work).
   1 May 2008  Supply of inputs (mainly fertilizers) for the planting season 2008/2009.
   12 Jan 2011  Taxes and custom duties removed on locally produced and imported food products, including wheat by-products, rice and vegetable oils.
   1 May 2008  Strategic food reserve (mainly for wheat) set up.
   18 Jan 2010  Suspension of the incentives for farmers, including subsidizes to fertilizers and seeds and technical assistance provided in the previous years.
   10 Jul 2008  Fuel subsidies to lower transport costs.
   7 Jul 2008  Import duties on oil, flour, and rice reduced by 5 percent to 20 percent.
   3 Jun 2011  Allocation of MWK 17.4 billion (USD 114 million) to the Farm Inputs Subsidy Program (FISP) to procure 140 000 tonnes of fertilizers to be distributed to 1.4 million farm households, at a subsidized price of MWK 500 (USD 3.2) per bag. In addition, MWK 3.6 billion (USD 23.5 million) will be allocated for the procurement of hybrid/improved maize seed varieties to be distributed to farmers.
   3 Jun 2011  Agricultural expenditure increased in the 2011/12 national budget to MWK 38.3 billion (USD 248 million), from MWK 32.7 billion of the previous year, representing 12.6 percent of the total budget.
   1 Jun 2011  ADMARC (Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation) allocated MWK 1.2 billion from the 2011/12 national budget (compared to MWK 1.9 billion in 2010/11) for the procurement of maize grain. With the farm gate price set at MWK 25 per kg, ADMARC is able to purchase nearly 50 000 tonnes of maize, to be stored in the Strategic Grain silos.
   20 Jan 2011  Minimum Farm Gate Prices for 2010-2011 agricultural season fixed: maize price set up at MWK 25/kilo (USD 0.16) and paddy rice at MWK 55/kilo (USD 0.35). All buyers have to adhere to the set minimum farm gate prices.
   1 Oct 2009  Agriculture Input Subsidy Programme 2009-2010 was launched, with a 39 percent reduced budget compared to 2008-2009. The beneficiaries receive fertilizers vouchers and input subsidies.
   20 Sep 2009  The export ban on maize introduced in 2008 has been removed. Traders have been allowed to export 300 000 MT of maize grain.
   1 Sep 2009  The maximum retail price of maize set at MK 52 (USD 0.37) per Kilogram.
   1 Jun 2009  The minimum buying price for maize has been set at MWK 40 (USD 0.28) per kilo, with ADMARC procurement price at MWK 50-60. (However private traders are buying maize from farmers at well below the minimun buying price).
   11 Nov 2008  The Government started the construction of 600 metal storage facilities across the country to improve the maize storage capacity of the farmers.
   1 Oct 2008  Agriculture Input Subsidy Programme 2008-2009 was launched, with a budget cost of MWK 17.8 million (125 384 USD). Through the programme 1.7 millions of beneficiaries received fertilizers vouchers, fertilizers subsidies (for maize and tobacco cultication) and seeds subsidies (maize, cotton and pulses)
   20 Aug 2008  A ban imposed on private trade of maize, making the Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation (ADMARC), the state’s grain marketer, the sole trader in the country. ADMARC will buy maize at MK 45 per kg and sell it at no more than MK 52 per kg.(However, maize prices remained generally above the maximum set prices).
   20 Aug 2008  The governement institutes an inspection regime by which traders suspected of hoarding could be prosecuted.
   1 Apr 2008  Export ban on maize introduced in April to face the record high prices, except for the residual export quota to Zimbawe.
   26 Mar 2010  The Rice Intensification (SRI) programme will be expanded in the 2010/2011 season to cover 36 sites in six regions and benefit 400 farmers. The programme was launched in the 2009/2010 season in 23 sites of four regions (Sikasso, Mopti, Timbuktu and Gao) and resulted in a 35 percent increase of rice production in the selected sites, beneficing 123 farmers.
   1 May 2008  Implementation of a " Special Plan of Intervention and Support to agriculture production" for the 2008 cropping season, including the distribution of agricultural inputs and provision of credit to farmers. Agricultural credits increased from USD 4.3 million to USD 13 million. Loans of USD 210 per hectare available for small farmers with repayments until 2011 .
   1 May 2008  The Government started purchases of 4 500 tonnes of cereals in order to replenish the National Food Strategic Reserves (NFSR).
   6 Apr 2008  Cereal banks created across the country.
   1 Apr 2008  Import taxes suspended on rice and reduced on other cereals.
   9 Nov 2010  Durum wheat import tariff of 80 percent suspended until the end of 2010.
   16 Sep 2010  Tariff on soft wheat imports suspended until 31 December 2010 aiming to ensure domestic supplies.
   1 Feb 2010  Wheat import tariff reduced to 90 percent from the 135 percent imposed in June 2009.
   1 Sep 2009  In the framework of the Government’s “Green Morocco” programme, launched in 2008, new agricultural production support measures introduced, including seed subsidies, and to increase support for agricultural mechanization.
   1 Jun 2009  Wheat import tariff of 135 percent set in order to protect local farmers from foreign competition after a bumper harvest.
   13 Aug 2008  Tariffs on basic food imports (wheat, animal compound foodstuffs, milk powder) suspended.
   12 Aug 2008  Price subsidies increased for cereal, sugar and milk.
   15 Jan 2008  Reduction of wheat import tariff from 130 to 2.5 percent.
   5 Jul 2011  Flour subsidies to bakeries, introduced in September 2010, have been decreased by 25 percent to MZN 150 (USD 5.4) per 50 kilos bag.
   26 May 2011  Reactivation of the state seed production company, Sementes de Mocambique (SEMOC), for the next agricultural campaign (2011/2012). Basic food stuff, including maize, cassava, vegetables and rice will be covered.
   1 Apr 2011  A new food subsidy system, replacing the current general subsidies on wheat flour and third grade rice, is scheduled to be implemented from June 2011 targeting households with a monthly income below the threshold of MZN 2 500 (USD 82) in Maputo and 10 provincial capitals. The eligible households will be able to purchase a basket of subsidized food at a monthly price of MZN 840 (USD 28). Approximately 1.8 million people in urban centers will benefit from the subsidy.
   21 Oct 2010  Import tariff on low grade rice removed.
   14 Sep 2010  Renewal of subsidies on bread, on water and electricity in favour of the households who use less than 100kilowatt-hours of power and less than 5 cubic metres of water per month.
   13 Sep 2010  Provision of USD 25 million in low interest loans to small farmers to support cereal production growth for the next planting season.
   1 May 2010  Temporary ban on maize imports. The measure is applied yearl (from May until all available white maize harvested is purchased) to assure local production is sold before imports are permitted (maize harvesting period April-June).
   1 Aug 2008  VAT of 15 percent removed on bread, cakes, cooking oil, and dry beans.
   1 Mar 2010  After a sharp decline in the 2009 cereal production (30% less than previous year), the programme "Selling Cereals at Subsidized Prices" has been introduced, aimed at selling 60 000 tonnes of cereals at CFA Franc 130 (USD 0.23) per kilogram, targeting people in severe food insecurity situation, in Diffa Zinder and Tillabery regions. The cost of the programme amount to CFA Franc 13 800 milions (USD 27 132 652).
   2 Mar 2008  Distribution of 20 000 MT of grains as food aid to 144 158 most vulnerable household for a total budget of FCFA 388 306 354 (USD 881 223). The distributed ration per person is equivalent to 3 months of average per capita consumption (57 Kg of cereals).
   1 Mar 2008  Increased salary for civil servants by CFA Franc 12 500 - 35 000 (USD 28 - 79) per month, according to employment category.
   1 Mar 2008  Sale of  45 000 MT of cereals at subsidized prices to 2 274 939 targeted beneficiaries.
   1 Mar 2008  Enhancement of 200 existing cereal banks with a total amount of 1 000 tonnes of grains and a total budget of 155 400 000 FCFA (USD 352,665).
   1 Mar 2008  New measures introduced to reduce the price of imported food commodities: import taxes suspended on oil, wheat flour, sugar, powdered milk, and rice; credit facilities in favor of rice importers.
   1 Mar 2008  Cash for work Programme launched for a total budget of CFA Franc 1 530 047 648 ( USD 3.5 million) to benefit 233 725 people. Activities of the programme include ponds construction and mamagement, small scale irrigation and rehabilitation of rural roads.
   13 Jul 2011  An amount of NGN 2 billion (USD 13 million) are allocated by the Borno State government to procure essential food items, including grain, sugar, milk and cooking oil for distribution to vulnerable people during the month of July, ahead of the Ramadan season.
   21 Feb 2011  Public acquisition of over 30 000 hectares of land across the 30 local government councils of the state to boost food production farming. At least 10 hectares would be distributed to every farmer willing to participate in the new agricultural programme.
   14 Feb 2011  Under the Commercial Agriculture Credit Scheme, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) released NGN 91.8 billion (about USD 600 million) for loans to farmers.
   29 Mar 2010  The National Rice Development Strategy (NRDS) has been launched aiming to improve production and reduce rice imports.
   16 Feb 2010  Reference price for imported rice has been increased to USD 640 per tonne, 5 percent higher than 2009. In addition, milled rice import tariff has been increased to 32 percent from the 30 percent imposed in October 2008.
   2 Jun 2008  Allocation of NGN 80 billion (USD 680 million) for the import of 500 000 tonnes of rice.
   2 May 2008  Agreement signed with South Korea to create a rice processing mill to boost production. Nigeria has planned to increase rice production from 2.8 million tonnes to 5.6 million tonnes annually over the next four years
   1 May 2008  Release of 65 000 tonnes of grains from its eight strategic grain reserve across the country, to be distributed to targeted groups at half the current market prices: 50 kilogram of maize will be sold at NGN 1500 (USD 3.4) against NGN 3000 being in the open market, 50 kilogram of sorghum and millet at NGN 1700 (USD 3.9) instead of NGN 3400 and 50 kilogram of garri at NGN 2500 (USD 5.7) rather than NGN 5000.
   1 May 2008  Guaranteed minimun price system set up for the purchase of production surplus of selected commodities through licensed buying agents.
   1 May 2008  The Government announced its policy to become self sufficiency in rice, cassava, wheat, tomatoes, cotton, livestock, and fisheries, within a period of five years.
   1 May 2008  Improvement of the information system for weekly monitoring and publishing of food commodity prices.
   1 May 2008  Procurement of 650 000 tonnes of imported fertilizers for the coming planting season.
   1 May 2008  Import tariff on rice decreased from 100 to 2.7 percent.
   1 Jul 2010  The East Africa Common Market Protocol has come into effect. The agreement, signed in November 2009 between Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, allows the free movement of goods, services, capital and labour.
   23 Jun 2010  Purchase of 7 000 tonnes of maize from farmers, at the Minimum Purchase Price of RWF 150 (USD 0.3) per kilogram. (Market price in Eastern Province is RWF 120 (USD 0.2) per kilo)
   12 Jan 2010  New agricultural strategy implemented, including timely distribution of seed, fertilizer and adoption of market-oriented farming methods.
   1 May 2008  Import tariff decreased on food products.
   4 Feb 2011  New fixed price for some food products, including rice, sugar and milk. Price of sugar set at XOF 620 (USD 1.3), for rice at XOF 310 (0.7) and for imported rice at XOF 280 (USD 0.6).
   1 Feb 2010  The import ban on palm oil (with acidity levels of 30%and higher), introduced in September 2009, has been extended.
   15 May 2008  The Government launched the Grand Agricultural Offensive for Food and Abundance (GOANA) to increase agricultural production and productivity.
   1 May 2008  Reduction of taxes on salaries.
   1 May 2008  Rice distribution within the country, for an estimated value of nearly USD 24 million.
   2 Apr 2008  Subsidy on wheat flour set at 40 percent.
   2 Apr 2008  Tariff suspended on wheat imports.
   2 Apr 2008  Price control imposed on food products (rice, wheat).
   2 Jul 2008  Revision of the Agriculture and Fisheries Incentives Act 2005 with a view to provide investors in agriculture with concessions on imported agricultural inputs.
   2 Jul 2008  The 2005 Agriculture and Fisheries Incentives Act was revised to provide additional concessions and facilities on imported agricultural inputs, aiming to expand the availability of seeds and fertilizers in the country.
Sierra Leone
   28 May 2011  The 10 percent tax on imported rice has been suspended in an attempt to curb rising domestic prices.
   1 Apr 2011  Fuel subsidies increased to reduce the price of petrol and kerosene from SLL 5 000 to SLL 4 500 (USD 1.83) per litre .The total cost of the subsidies will increase from about USD 650 000 a week in October 2010 to about USD 2.5 million a week by the end of April 2011.
   1 Jul 2008  Safety nets to mitigate the impact of rising prices on the poorest and most vulnerable through targeted programmes, such as food or cash for work, school feeding, supplementary feeding for vulnerable groups, namely children under five years, pregnant and lactating mothers and households impacted by HIV/AIDS.
   1 Jul 2008  Increasing national production by providing various incentives, such as additional seeds and fertilizers.
   1 Jul 2008  Tariffs on imported rice reduced from 15 to 10 percent.
   1 Jul 2008  Targeted programmes, such as food or cash for work, school feeding, and supplementary feeding for vulnerable groups, are in place to mitigate the impact of rising prices on the most vulnerable people (mainly children under five years, pregnant and lactating mothers, and households affected by HIV/AIDS)
   1 Jul 2008  Tariff on imported rice reduced from 15 to 10 percent.
   14 May 2008  Sierra Leone has granted permission to purchase some 40 000 bags of rice (some 2 000 tonnes) under a partially lifted ban by India. Following a historic Indian-African summit on 8-9 April, India decided to accommodate the African countries in most need of rice supplies.
   14 May 2008  Purchase of 2000 tonnes of rice from India, which sustains African countries in need of rice supplies, partially lifting its ban.
South Africa
   1 Apr 2008  Increased allowances to poor, old-age and disabled. In August the Government announced an increase in the income threshold of people qualifying for social grants. This is expected to benefit additional one million urban and rural poor
   1 Apr 2008  Social allowances increased for poor, old-age and disabled, benefiting an additional one million urban and rural poor.
   6 May 2011  Microfinance initiative launched by Agricultural Bank of Sudan targeting 55 000 families in Kordofan states for a total budget of SDG 10 billion (USD 3,7 billion)
   14 May 2010  All food commodities have been exempted from taxation in the Upper Nile State of Southern Sudan with the aim to reduce the price of food in the region following a 2009 poor agricultural season.
   1 May 2008  A new national system is set to monitor agricultural commodities prices.
   1 Apr 2008  VAT suspended on wheat flour and bread. Taxes also reduced on other food grains.
   1 May 2008  Price control on water, bread and power. Allocation of XOF 17.5 billions to subsidize fuel (USD 40million )
   1 May 2008  Release of 7000 tonnes of cereals to increase market supplies.
   15 Oct 2008  Extension of repayment period for agricultural loans and increase in the credit limit by 10 percent, benefiting around 25000 farmers.
   29 Sep 2008  An amount of 26 400 tonnes of improved seeds provided at a subsidized cost.
   24 Sep 2008  Production subsidies for soft wheat and barley (USD 80 per tonne) and hard wheat (USD 125 per tonne) will be maintained until August 2009.
   24 Sep 2008  Programme to expand the irrigated area from 17 000 to 93 000 hectares.
   3 Sep 2008  The National Agriculture Bank decreased the seasonal credit interest rate from 8.5 to 6.5 percent for the period 2008-2011. The Government will cover the insurance costs of the seasonal loans for 3 months.
   1 Sep 2008  Hard wheat minimum producer price set at TND 430 (USD 344) per tonne, soft wheat at TND 350 (USD 280) per tonne, and barley to TND 300 (USD 240) per tonne.
   1 Jul 2010  The East Africa Common Market Protocol has come into effect. The agreement, signed in November 2009 between Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, allows the free movement of goods, services, capital and labour.
   12 Jun 2008  Taxes removed on some basic food commodities.
United Republic of Tanzania
   27 Jul 2011  Allocation of TZS 17.6 billion (USD 11 million) for the purchase of 200 000 tonnes of maize from farmers, starting from 1st August. Price is set at the competitive price of TZS 350 per kilogramme, to discourage farmers from selling in neighbouring countries.
   25 Jul 2011  Allocation of TZS 42.229 billion (USD 26.7 million) to improve irrigation infrastructure in 160 areas of the country and encourage farmers to adopt modern farming technologies.
   18 May 2011  Ban on food exports, including maize and other cereals, introduced for at least three months aiming to limit price increases following shortagesin 42 districts in 16 regions
   1 Jul 2010  The East Africa Common Market Protocol has come into effect. The agreement, signed in November 2009 between Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, allows the free movement of goods, services, capital and labour.
   15 Apr 2010  Cereals (maize and rice) export ban, imposed in 2009 has been lifted after a good harvest. An export licences system is imposed to ensure adequate domestic supplies.
   12 Jun 2008  Taxes removed on some basic food commodities.
   1 May 2008  Subsidies on fertilizers.
   1 May 2008  Ban on cereal import lifted.
   1 Apr 2008  Subsidized food distributed to 400 000 targeted people. (As of 28th April, 2008, the Government distributed a total of 1083 tonnes of maize and 193 tonnes of sorghum)
   1 Jan 2008  Export ban on maize imposed.
   31 May 2011  The Food Reserve Agency (FRA), announced purchases of 1.3 million tonnes of maize between June and October, following a 2011 record maize harvest of 3 million tonnes. The procurement price is set at USD 273 per tonne (ZMK 1.3 million), similar to last year's level despite falling market prices, to mantain farmers income.
   3 Mar 2011  Price of maize from the Food Reserve Agency sold to millers cut by 20 percent , from USD 200 per tonne to USD 160 per tonne.
   1 Mar 2011  Farmer Input Support Programme (ISFP) targetting traditional communities( some 900 000 beneficiaries) enhanced to increase distribution of fertilizers to village Chiefs from 4 to 10 bags. The measure aims to increase production of the next cropping season to be planted from November .
   24 Feb 2011  About ZMK 3 billion (USD 621 000) allocated for the construction of a livestock artificial insemination centre to support production.
   19 Nov 2010  Additional maize export quota of 258 000 tonnes is allowed, followiing a bumper 2010 harvest estimated at 2.7 million tonnes.
   3 May 2010  Government purchases of about 300 000 tonnes of maize at ZMK 65 000 per 50kg bag (USD 256 per tonne) from farmers, during the marketing season 2010/2011 (May-April) to build up strategic food reserve.
   29 Oct 2009  Export ban on maize lifted, allowing exports up to 100 000 tonnes.
   30 Sep 2009  Import duty on crude vegetable oil reduced from 5 percent to zero.
   30 Sep 2009  The Fertilizer Support Program targeting small-scale farmers is renewed: the number of beneficiaries increase from 250 000 (in 2008) to 500 000, by reducing 50 percent of the amount of fertilizer per beneficiary household from eight to four bags (of 50 kg each).
   30 Sep 2009  Elimination of VAT on agricultural equipment to enhance growth in the in the agricultural sector..
   1 Dec 2008  Import of 100 000 tonnes of maize to increase domestic strategic reserves.
   1 Jul 2008  Producer price of white maize raised from ZMK 45 000 (USD 8) to ZMK 55 000 (USD 14) per 50 kg bag.
   1 Mar 2008  Ban on maize export.
   1 Aug 2011  Import duty restored on some food stuffs to protect local industry. The measure will be effective from August for maize meal (10 percent) and cooking oil (15 percent) and from September for other food stuffs (potato chips, baked beans and mixed fruit jam).
   27 Jul 2011  Import tariff on rice salt and flour remain suspended until 31 December 2011.
   21 Jul 2011  The Grain Marketing Board (GMB) released 50 000 tonnes of maize for free distribution to 164 324 households affected by reduced harvest. Benefiting households will receive vouchers to purchase grain from GMB at ward distribution points and an additional USD 10 cash to adquire other products as milling and cooking oil.
   2 Jun 2011  The Grain Marketing Board (GMB), announced procurement target of 500 000 tonnes of maize for the Strategic Grain Reserves. Last year GMB bought 245 000 tonnes of grain .
   31 May 2011  Cash transfer programme targeting low income families has been recently launched, providing households with an average supplement income of USD 20 per month. In the first year the programme will cover the 10 poorest districts in each of the 10 provinces
   24 May 2011  Producer price set at USD 285 per tonne for maize and all grains. The Grain Marketing Board (GMB) will pay the new price retroactively to April 1 2011.
   3 Feb 2011  Allocation of USD 10 million to finance this year's winter wheat cropping season to be planted from May.
   30 Sep 2009  Approval of an USD 210 million assistance package to support agricultural production, distributing input vouchers as loans, repayable following the sale of the 2010 harvest.
   1 Aug 2009  The duty free regulation on import for basic food commodities, imposed in 2008, is extended until December 2009. (The measure is part of a wide economic reform that includes the abandonment of the Zimbabwe dollar, the adoption of the US Dollar and South African Rand as legal currencies, and the permission of private trade).
   29 Aug 2008  The Government lifted the prohibition on humanitarian and emergencies NGOs and UN agencies distributing food aid.
   1 Aug 2008  Import duty on rice, flour and other selected basic food products suspended until the end of 2008.



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