water storage occurs in lakes, reservoirs (and also wetland
areas) for water in its liquid phase. The volume of water
in a surface storage unit at any one time is an integrator
variable, reflecting both atmospheric (precipitation, evaporation-energy)
and hydrologic (surface water recharge, discharge and ground
water tables) conditions. Depending on the storage capacity
of a reservoir, it may primarily reflect human control.
However, if lakes and wetland areas are not being affected
by excessive withdrawal, they are strongly driven by extant
climate conditions and are important for assessing net climate
effects over time. If climate change is leading to a hotter
and drier mode, then lakes and wetlands should reflect this
lake levels standards report
by UNFCCC SBSTA/COP for its 23rd Session in Montreal, November
2005, GTOS is undertaking the assessment of the status of
the development of standards for each of the essential climate
variables in the terrestrial domain. The following report,
documentation and other material have been so far compiled
for lake levels. We very much welcome your comments and
inputs in improving and completing the analysis. Please
send any material and comments to the GTOS
below are the major references that have been identified
in regards to methodology and standards for lake levels.
Please inform us if you are aware of any other documentation
or material which could be considered.
R.E. and J. Simpson. 1996. Volunteer Lake Monitoring in
the Upper Mid-west: Programs, Techniques, and Technical
Recommendations. North American Lake Management Society,
Organization for Standardization, 1988: Liquid FlowMeasurement
in Open Channels: Vocabulary and Symbols. Third edition,
ISO 772, Geneva.
Organization for Standardization, 1981: Liquid FlowMeasurement
in Open Channels. Part 1: Establishment and operation of
a gauging station and Part 2: Determination of stage-discharge
relation. ISO 1100, Geneva.
Meteorological Organization, 1980: Manual on Stream Gauging.
Volumes I and II, Operational Hydrology Report No. 13. WMO-No.
reference section is still under construction, if you want
the full list of references identified please contact the
below are the links relevant to lake level measurements.
New links are welcome.
Terrestrial Network - Hydrology
variables and T-sites
Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring Sites (TEMS)
database contains details on ecological variables and
research sites which are undertaking ecological measurements.
like to thank the following individuals for having provided
inputs and comments to the lake level ECV.
. Monica Monteduro,
your inputs, comments and queries. Please send feedback
to the GTOS Secretariat.
above activities are part of Task Number
of the GEOSS implementation plan of