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Country fact sheets

How have governments responded to the 2007/08 food crisis and how has their approach evolved since then? Which measures have gained the attention of national policy makers in recent years? What are the emerging issues in the context of national food security policy, and which areas of investigation should be considered further?

The series of country fact sheets, launched by FAPDA, attempt to answer these questions presenting key food and agriculture policy trends since the 2007/08 food security crisis.

FAPDA country fact sheets are prepared in collaboration with national partners and FAO country and regional offices. Each fact sheet provides a glimpse of the overarching agriculture, food security and nutrition policy frameworks and highlight trends in key national policy decisions affecting producers, consumers and trade. The fact sheets synthesize policy information that is stored in the online policy database, the FAPDA policy analysis tool.

Asia and the Pacific

Bangladesh country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
In Bangladesh, during the past three decades, the self-sufficiency perspective in rice has dominated the food security and agricultural policy agenda. Since 2007, the government is assisting farmers by enhancing the use of inputs, increasing credit facilities and guaranteeing support prices through public procurement. With regard to social policies, there has been a notable evolution over the years, such as the transformation from relief to development programmes and the conversion of universal price subsidies to targeted food distribution and conditional cash transfers.

Cambodia country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
In Cambodia, the government has given increasing priority to commercial rice production by promoting higher yield seeds and expanding irrigation and post production infrastructure. Relevant reforms have been adopted in favour of the fisheries sector. Child malnutrition remains a critical development challenge for the country despite the enhancement of nutritional policies and programmes over the past few years.

Indonesia country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Indonesia has charted impressive economic growth since the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. The national top priority is becoming self-sufficient in rice, maize, soybeans, sugar and beef. To achieve this, the Government is providing farmers with significant market price support, fertilizer subsidies and setting import restrictions. Social protection is being strenghtened through the consolidation of the RASKIN programme, the introduction of nutrition and cash transfer programmes and the substitution of fuel subsidies.

Pakistan country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
During the review period (2007 – 2016), Pakistan has undergone a considerable shift from an agrarian to a service-led economy, and the agricultural share of GDP has experienced a declining trend. Since 2007, the government has been assisting farmers with enhancing access to formal credit, strengthening disaster risk management, scaling up fertilizer subsidies and ensuring wheat price support through public procurement. 

Thailand country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
During the period 2007–2017, the government’s main policies for the agricultural sector aimed at increasing price support to rice farmers, as well as scaling up insurance for them and moving towards a more sustainable and environmentally-friendly fisheries industry. With regards consumers’ policies, social security such as cash transfers to the poor have been extended and improved. In addition to, enhancing food safety through improving food labelling.

Africa

Burkina Faso country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Burkina Faso has succeeded in achieving the Maputo Declaration target by allocating at least 10 percent of the national budget to agriculture almost every year since 2003. Most of these expenditures have been allocated to support the production of cotton, one of the country’s main exports, through input subsidies and minimum prices to producers. However, a large portion of the country’s agricultural investments as well as social safety net programmes remain heavily dependent on donor funding.

Burundi country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
The government of Burundi has timidly decreased State involvement in strategic value chains, with a view to open the market, enhance effectiveness, and reduce the fiscal deficit. With regards to social protection, no specific national programmes are in place, though the country joined the Scaling Up Nutrition movement in 2013 committing to tackle the alarming levels of malnutrition in the country (the highest in the region).

Ethiopia country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Innovative and integrated actions to modernize and facilitate the transformation from subsistence to commercial agriculture are foremost on Ethiopia’s agenda. Initiatives to address soil depletion with the end goal of sustainably increasing productivity, building resilience in efforts to promote food sufficiency of vulnerable households, and tapping livestock sector potential to generate foreign exchange, are just three of the key policy trends that have emerged over the 2007─2013 period in Ethiopia.

Ghana country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Supporting agri-food production and exports has been the leading policy since 2007, with particular emphasis on agricultural modernization and ensuring minimum prices for farmers. The government’s social policy has focused on cash transfer programmes to improve health and education, and to alleviate poverty. Following these efforts and with the support of the overall economic growth since 2005, both income and social living conditions have improved.

Kenya country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
In recent years, government's investments in agriculture have focused on increasing land under irrigation, subsidizing inputs, strengthening the agricultural extension service and reforming agricultural sector institutions through the privatization of a number of parastatals. Although agriculture represents the largest contributor to Kenya's GDP, the allocation of public expenditure to the sector has remained below the five percent over the past decade.

Malawi country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
In reaction to weather and market induced food price crises, the government has implemented various measures targeting maize in order to combat low production and high prices such as the Farm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP) in 2005/06, export bans in 2005/06, 2008/09 and 2012/13, private domestic trade bans in 2006 and 2008, and import restrictions throughout the entire period under review.

Mali country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
During the period 2007-2016, the government’s main policies for the agricultural sector have focused on increasing domestic rice production, reforming the cotton sector and maintaining input subsidies programmes. With regards to consumer policies, the main forms of assistance include food distribution, food sales at subsidized prices, and ad hoc measures to stabilize food prices such as the closure of the border for food exports or the waiver of import duties on imported foods. 

Mozambique country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Mozambique’s general policy frameworks like the Government’s Five-year Plan (PQG) and the Strategic Plan for Agricultural Sector Development (PEDSA) set specific objectives like establishing legal frameworks and policies that are conducive to agriculture growth and investment. So far, the agricultural policy has been focusing on transforming the sector, shifting production away from mainly subsistence activities. 

Nigeria country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
During the period 2007-2017, Nigeria’s agriculture sector has undergone major reforms. The introduction of the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) reformed the input delivery system, strengthened famers’ resilience to shocks and enhanced agricultural credit. In 2016, the government launched the Social Investment programme which aims at strengthening school feeding, conditional cash transfers and food bio-fortification programmes. 

Rwanda country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Rwanda has made remarkable progress since the 1994 genocide, which severely impoverished the population, particularly in delivering education and health services to the poor. The proportion of people suffering from hunger has been halved and the progress toward reducing under-nourishment has been commendable. However, 44 percent of Rwandans still live under the national poverty line.

Senegal country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
In Senegal, the government has given great importance and priority to the development and promotion of national rice production to achieve self-sufficiency by 2017. Besides, emphasis has been placed on risk management with the creation of the National Agricultural Insurance Company (CNAAS) and several plans dedicated to flood and water management.

Tanzania country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
The National Inputs Voucher Scheme (NAIVS) will be ending at the close of this cropping year (2013/2014). NAIVS provided access to fertilizer and seeds through subsidized input packages for maize and rice. The Big Results Now (BRN) initiative was launched in 2013, which aims to modernize the agriculture sector by promoting public-private partnership and mainstream market oriented measures. 

Uganda country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Uganda is putting significant efforts toward addressing the constraints responsible for its low agricultural productivity, which affects farmers’ incomes and therefore, their food security. The biggest developments are being seen in improving the added value of its production, as well as in supporting strategic commodities such as livestock and rice.

Zimbabwe country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
In response to the declining production trend for maize and wheat over the period 2007-2016, the government took measures that included direct inputs assistance to farmers, provision of extension services, and liberalization and deregulation measures. However, financial constraints, together with a number of weather-related shocks, have considerably limited the impact of these measures on agricultural production and development.

Latin America and the Caribbean

Argentina country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Strong market interventions and regulations of agricultural products have been part of the import substitution strategy implemented by the previous government until 2015, when the new administration reversed it by opening the market. Throughout the review period (2007-2017), the country prioritized social spending through various programmes, all of which were sustained by the new administration.

Brazil country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
In Brazil, the government has successfully adopted an integrated approach for combating malnutrition and hunger. Under the well-known Zero Hunger strategy (“Fome Zero”) and subsequent Brazil Without Misery plan (“Brasil Sem Miséria”), innovative social programmes were launched to target more poor women and children. 

Dominican Republic country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
During the review period (2007-2015), the government continued to support small and medium scale producers through several schemes, including distributing seeds, expanding agricultural credit, providing direct payments and marketing programmes. Since 2005, the National Pledge Programme has been targeting rice producers and financing storage in periods of low prices or oversupply.

Guatemala country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Attempts have been made to institutionalize government programmes in favour of long-term and comprehensive strategies: notably, the introduction and reinforcement of conditional cash transfer programmes and free food distribution systems. Input distributions continue to be the main policy instrument to support farmers.

Haiti country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
The government of Haiti has attempted in recent years to increase the efficiency in agricultural support measures, partly reforming the input subsidy programme, and modernising land registration systems and zoo-phytosanitary measures. Extreme poverty has fallen from 31 to 24 percent over the last decade, especially in urban areas. However, vulnerable sectors of the population continue to have limited access to public support. Main social protection programmes reviewed were cash transfers and school feeding, sustainability, targeting, and coverage remain as challenges.

Mexico country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
Over the period 2007-2016, under the guidance of the Pacto por México (2012) and other sectoral plans, the government has embarked on reforms to raise agricultural productivity and promote investments in the sector. However, market price support and output-based payments still account for a large amount, and these include the Direct Farm Support Programme (PROCAMPO) in place since 1994. 

Near East and North Africa

Iran country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
From 2007 onwards, the Iranian government has continued to provide guaranteed purchase prices for 20 agriculture crops, wheat and rice being the most important. In December 2010, the government launched the Targeted Subsidies Reform, gradually increasing domestic energy and agricultural prices in phases; cash transfers were one of the compensatory measures taken to mitigate the short-term impact of the reform, yet in November 2012, parliament halted the second phase of the reform but continued depositing cash in the bank accounts of beneficiaries.

Tunisia country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
The political unrest experienced in the last few years and the economic downturns have forced successive governments to respond by implementing a series of measures, such as continuing implementing the cereal production strategy; reforming social protection programmes; as well as operationalize market reform policies. All these measures to mitigate economic instability; urgent social needs, and achieve overall economic and social growth.

Yemen country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
For the past few years, the Yemeni government has been trying to overcome severe economic and political crises, while at the same time focusing efforts on improving the livelihoods of vulnerable groups. Currently, the government is implementing: The Transitional Program for Stabilization and Development (TPSD) 2012-2014; a fuel subsidy reform endorsed in 2010; and the updated National Agriculture Sector Strategy (NASS) 2013-2017, which has a new focus on agricultural investment.

Europe and Central Asia

Kazakhstan country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
During the period 2007-2017, the government’s main policies for agricultural sector aimed at decreasing food import-dependency and increasing domestic food production. The government introduced several incentives for local producers to improve productive efficiency, rise local food consumption, encourage the development of national agro-industrial complex and promote agriculture as part of economic diversification. The government has as well increased public expenditures on social protection and poverty targeted transfers. 

Kyrgyzstan country fact sheet on food and agriculture policy trends
During the period 2007–2017, the government’s main policies for the agricultural sector aimed at reinforcing support to farmers, strengthening disaster risk management and rehabilitating degraded pastures. The government increased non-contributory social assistance expenditure for categorically targeted programmes from 1.3 percent of GDP in 2008 to 2.2 percent in 2014 (higher than levels in Europe and Central Asia). Nevertheless, the performance of the social assistance system in terms of coverage, targeting accuracy and adequacy, remains a challenge.