Data Spatial

These are data or attributes corresponding to the geographical characteristics of areas of freehold land described (location, dimensions, shape, perimeter). These data are represented by points, lines or areas. The information is captured in vector format by means of: digitizing tables, raster to vector converters, global geopositioning systems (GPS), alphanumeric data entry, etc.


The transfer of authority and responsibilities for exercising public functions from central government to intermediate or local government or organizations that are virtually independent of the government and/or private sector.

Direct Beneficiaries

This refers to i) those households whose tenure rights will be strengthened by LAPs through Regularization, Clearing and Titling processes (RCT), ii) users of LAI, and iii) professionals or qualified users who take part in these processes.

Double Difference Impact Evaluation

This is an evaluation that requires the measurement of variables at two time points (year 0 and year t) for which there is a population that has benefited from intervention by the Project (Treatment group) and one without intervention (Control Group). It is assumed that the value of the treatment variable (e.g. Titling) has value A before the project intervention and value B after its intervention. The value of the variable in the Control Group takes values C and D before and after the project, respectively. The first difference involves estimating the change between before and after for the treatment group (B – A) and the control group (D – C). The second difference consists in estimating the change in the control group compared with the change in the treatment group. The difference between the value of the variable observed for the Treatment Group (B) after the project can thus be identified with respect to an assumption of what would have happened without the project intervention (E).

Dividend Discount Model

This is a financial method of valuing an asset based on the present value of expected net income where a constant rate of growth exists in perpetuity. It is mainly used to value corporate shares based on expected dividends.