The module 4 Corresponds to impacts on beneficiary households where LAPs seek security and legal certainty about land ownership.

Module 4: Household Livelihoods

Hypotheses related to SLs

The central themes of the evaluation should be in line with its established scope, consequently the Development Objective of the programmes “to improve security of land tenure1 should be considered the priority for evaluation. The effects of increasing security and legal certainty of tenure can be evaluated through the conceptual framework of SLs in relation to five capitals that are crucial to the wellbeing of beneficiary households: social capital, cultural capital, economic and financial capital and physical capital.

The design of the impact evaluation on household SLs, based on the hypotheses used to create the indicators and subindicators in the results framework at household level, is described below.

Hypothesis of the effects of increasing legal certainty and security of tenure in relation to SLs

Social capital (KS):

  • RCT processes resolve disputes related to tenure and improve social fabric at local level.
  • Regularizing tenure allows an increase in the collection of property taxes and improves social investment capabilities at local level.
  • Households that have a title deed keep local and national registration information updated, which helps to improve the capabilities of local institutions.
  • Tenure regularization processes in indigenous territories and municipalities increase local governance capabilities.
  • Having a title deed can help to reduce the level of overcrowding in the household.
  • The tenure regularization process increases the credibility of organizations (such as indigenous communities or trusts) associated with the process.

Human capital (KH):

  • Regularization processes help households and users have a better knowledge of the legal and institutional aspects of land administration.
  • Participants in cadastral mapping and administrative public hearings are satisfied with the processes.
  • Security of tenure increases the physical security of the household.
  • LAP-driven titling and regularization processes help to increase access to land for women, both individually and jointly.
  • Having a title deed makes it easier for household members to invest more in their education and to embark on other forms of work.

Physical capital (KFis):

  • The investment pattern of households changes once legal certainty and security of tenure has been obtained and investment is boosted to improve housing and production infrastructure.
  • Municipalities and other government authorities invest in establishing services where tenure regularization processes are in progress because legal certainty exists and the collection of local taxes is increased.
  • Trusts, neighbourhood associations or communal lands strengthen their management capabilities and service administration through regularization processes.

Economic and financial capital (KF):

  • Households with legal certainty and security of tenure have greater confidence in using their property as a bank guarantee.
  • Having a title deed increases the amount of credit received for both men and women.
  • Having a title deed makes it easier to obtain insurance for housing or crops.
  • Households with legal certainty of their property have access to production support programmes for both men and women.
  • Having a title deed generates incentives for making new investments in production which help to increase income and food security.
  • In an urban setting, having an official address makes it easier to get a job.
  • Property gains value when it has legal certainty.

Natural Capital (KN):

  • Having a title deed boosts investment in the conservation of soil and natural resources on the property.
  • The regularization of land tenure in rural communities and colonies contributes to territorial planning processes which identify risk areas, vulnerable areas, and green or recreational areas for the better management of these.


1 Programa de Ordenamiento de la Propiedad “PRODEP 1” en Nicaragua.