Information Network on Post-harvest Operations - INPhO
INPhO
 
©International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)/Neil Palmer

Cassava is an edible root that provides an important source of carbohydrates for an estimated 500 million people in Africa, Asia and the Americas. World production was 230 million tonnes in 2008, with Nigeria as the largest producer followed by Brazil, Thailand and Indonesia (FAOSTAT). Key post-harvest considerations include the rapid deterioration of roots two to three days after harvesting and the presence of cyanides, which need to be detoxified during processing to make the root safe for consumption.
Organization:
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria
Author:
Mpoko Bokanga
Technical Editor:
Danilo Mejía, FAO
Last Reviewed
:14/10/1999      Download Document (pdf 36pp 0.4Mb)

©Taiger 808

Edible aroids are root crops grown widely in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Taro also known as cocoyam and tannia are the more common species. World taro production in 2008 was over 11 million tonnes principally in Cameroon, China, Ghana and Nigeria, with smaller production in other areas of Africa, Asia and South Pacific (FAOSTAT). The corms provide a useful carbohydrate source but must be cooked prior to consumption to detoxify the calcium oxalate crystals present. The growing season ranges from 6 to 12 months depending on the species. The short storage life of aroids at ambient temperatures of only 2 to 6 weeks is a limiting factor in their use.
Organization:
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Author: Linus U. Opara
Technical Editor:
Danilo Mejía, FAO
Last Reviewed
: 28/08/2003     Download Document (pdf 27pp 0.6Mb)

©ilovebutter

Garlic is a crop widely grown for the fresh local market by many producers on a small scale and  by a few large scale producers for both fresh sales and processing. China produced 77 percent of the world’s 15 million tonnes in 2008 (FAOSTAT). There are about 300 varieties of garlic cultivated worldwide and it can be easily grown in most mild climates and stores well for several months under the correct conditions. It has many culinary uses as a flavouring and a range of medicinal benefits.
Organization: Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (ITVER), México
Authors:
J. De La Cruz Medina and H.S. García
Technical Editor:
Danilo Mejía, FAO
Last Reviewed:
21/12/2007     Download Document (pdf43pp 0.3Mb)

©meganpru

Onions are an important crop worldwide with China the biggest producer. They are grown in both tropical and temperate regions at all scales of production. Improving post-harvest techniques in small and medium farming can particularly enhance efficiency and quality.  If dried and packed properly, the bulbs can be stored and transported for considerable distances without deteriorating. Onions are primarily for human consumption and have a wide range of uses in fresh, dried, frozen, canned and pickled forms across the world’s cultures.
Organization:
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Author:
Linus U. Opara
Technical Editor:
Danilo Mejía, FAO
Last Reviewed
:28/08/2003     Download Document (pdf16pp 0.4Mb)

©oceandesetoiles

Potato is an important staple food world-wide, claiming fourth place after maize, rice and wheat. It is a good carbohydrate source in addition to other nutritional benefits. Potatoes are cooked before consumption which reduces the presence of the toxic alkaloid solanine. Developing countries now produce approximately one third of world production, which was 314 million tonnes in 2008 (FAOSTAT). Though commonly consumed in its fresh form, the tuber is versatile and may also be used frozen, fried or dehydrated. Potatoes store for many months in optimum cold store conditions but losses increase dramatically under ambient conditions.
Organization: Instituto de Desarrollo Agroindustrial (INDDA), La Molina, Perú
Author:
Magno Meyhuay
Technical Editor:
Danilo Mejía, FAO
Last Reviewed:17/05/2001     Download Document (pdf 56pp 1.1Mb)

©World Island Info

Yams are second to cassava as the most important tropical root crop and are a staple food in many parts of Africa, Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. Seventy percent of the 50 million tonne world output of 2008 was grown in Nigeria (FAOSTAT).The starchy tuber, with a rough brown skin, is produced by a herbaceous vine and takes from 8 to 11 months to mature after planting. Yams are mainly grown for direct human consumption and are marketed as fresh produce in all the growing regions. The tubers can be stored for up to six months without refrigeration.
Organization:
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Author
: Linus U. Opara
Technical Editor: Danilo Mejía, FAO
Last reviewed
:28/08/2003     Download Document (pdf 22pp 0.5Mb)

Roots & tubers

©Jonny Hughes