Herbs, spices and essential oils: post-harvest operations in developing countries


M. Douglas
J. Heyes
B. Smallfield

NZ Institute for Crop and Food Research Ltd
New Zealand


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1 Introduction
  1.1 Economic Impact
  1.2 World Trade
  1.3 Primary Products
  1.4 Secondary and Derived Products
  1.5 Requirements for Export and Quality Assurance
  1.6 Consumer Preferences

2 Post-Production Operations   
  2.1 Pre-harvest Operations
  2.2 Harvesting

    2.2.1 Harvesting Seeds and Fruits
    2.2.2 Harvesting Leaves and Stems
    2.2.3 Harvesting Flowers and Buds
    2.2.4 Harvesting Roots and Rhizomes
    2.2.5 Harvesting Bark, Wood and Resins
  2.3 Transport
  2.4 Threshing
  2.5 Drying
    2.5.1 Drying Seeds and Fruits
    2.5.2 Drying Leaves and Stems
    2.5.3 Drying Flowers and Buds
    2.5.4 Drying Roots and Rhizomes
  2.6 Cleaning
  2.7 Packaging
    2.7.1 Packaging for Seeds and fruits
    2.7.2 Packaging for Leaves and stems
    2.7.3 Packaging for Flowers and buds
    2.7.4 Packaging for Roots and Rhizomes
    2.7.5 Packaging for Bark, Wood and Resins
  2.8 Storage
  2.9 Processing
    2.9.1 Grinding and separating
    2.9.2 Extraction of essential oils

3 Overall Lossess

4 Pest control
  4.1 Pest species
  4.2 Relative status of major pest species
  4.3 Pest control

5 Economic and Social Considerations   
  5.1 Overview of costs and losses
  5.2 Major problems
  5.3 Proposed improvements
  5.4 Gender aspects

6 References

Appendix I: Spice and Essential Oil Products and their Growing Regions: table 1a;
table 1b; table 1c; table 2a; table 2b; table 2c; table 2d; table 3; table 4; table 5
Appendix II: Trade in Spices and Essential Oils: table 6; table 7; table 8; table 9a; table 9b;
Appendix III: Quality Assurance and Standards: table 10a; table 10b; table 10c; table 11.