Herbs, spices and essential oils: post-harvest operations in developing countries

by

M. Douglas
J. Heyes
B. Smallfield

NZ Institute for Crop and Food Research Ltd
New Zealand


Copyright

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to

Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division,
FAO
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome
Italy

or by e-mail to: copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2005


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

1 Introduction
  1.1 Economic Impact
  1.2 World Trade
  1.3 Primary Products
  1.4 Secondary and Derived Products
  1.5 Requirements for Export and Quality Assurance
  1.6 Consumer Preferences

2 Post-Production Operations   
  2.1 Pre-harvest Operations
  
  2.2 Harvesting

    2.2.1 Harvesting Seeds and Fruits
    2.2.2 Harvesting Leaves and Stems
    
    2.2.3 Harvesting Flowers and Buds
    2.2.4 Harvesting Roots and Rhizomes
    2.2.5 Harvesting Bark, Wood and Resins
  
  2.3 Transport
  2.4 Threshing
  2.5 Drying
    2.5.1 Drying Seeds and Fruits
    2.5.2 Drying Leaves and Stems
    2.5.3 Drying Flowers and Buds
    2.5.4 Drying Roots and Rhizomes
  2.6 Cleaning
  2.7 Packaging
    2.7.1 Packaging for Seeds and fruits
    2.7.2 Packaging for Leaves and stems
    2.7.3 Packaging for Flowers and buds
    2.7.4 Packaging for Roots and Rhizomes
    2.7.5 Packaging for Bark, Wood and Resins
  2.8 Storage
  2.9 Processing
    2.9.1 Grinding and separating
    2.9.2 Extraction of essential oils

3 Overall Lossess

4 Pest control
  4.1 Pest species
  4.2 Relative status of major pest species
  4.3 Pest control

5 Economic and Social Considerations   
  5.1 Overview of costs and losses
  5.2 Major problems
  5.3 Proposed improvements
  5.4 Gender aspects

6 References

Appendix I: Spice and Essential Oil Products and their Growing Regions: table 1a;
table 1b; table 1c; table 2a; table 2b; table 2c; table 2d; table 3; table 4; table 5
Appendix II: Trade in Spices and Essential Oils: table 6; table 7; table 8; table 9a; table 9b;
Appendix III: Quality Assurance and Standards: table 10a; table 10b; table 10c; table 11.