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PUBLIC CLIMATE CHANGE DOCUMENTS RELATED TO THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR, AND FINANCING MECANISMS

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Title/Abstract

Year

2010

Roots in the Water, Legal Frameworks for Mangrove PES in Vietnam

Forest Trends and the Katoomba Group have commissioned this study into the legal and regulatory frameworks for mangrove management and PES in Vietnam. This study is timely as in recent years various Vietnamese policies have prioritized terrestrial forest, mangrove, and coastal conservation, and the national government is now considering market mechanisms as a potential conservation tool. This study suggests that a sector-based approach cannot ensure effective mangrove management, as disparate interests conflict and erode mangrove protections. Rather, an inclusive, ecosystem-based, cross-sectoral approach is needed in – and should be a key characteristic of – mangrove management in areas with high conservation value. Integrated approaches are increasingly feasible within Vietnam, given the support of the national Government in exploring PES and other innovative approaches. We hope that this legal study provides greater clarity and increased interest in the potential for payments for ecosystem services in Vietnam’s mangrove forests.

KEYWORDS: PES, Vietnam, Mangrove, coastal ecosystems

   

SOURCE: http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_2561.pdf

2010

Policy Paper: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Definitions, Issues and Options

According to the Bali Action Plan (BAP), the current negotiations on the future climate regime include consideration of “nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner.“ However, despite two years of discussions and negotiations, a clear consensus on the exact nature of NAMAs and mechanisms for support has yet to emerge. This paper therefore aims to present an overview of the current state of debate and possible ways forward. JIKO policy papers are written and published by the Wuppertal Institute on behalf of the German Environment Ministry (BMU). The positions expressed in this policy paper are strictly those of the authors and represent neither the opinion of the Wuppertal Institute nor of the BMU.

KEYWORDS: Policy paper, NAMAs, MRV, UNFCCC, Climate Change

   

SOURCE: http://www.jiko-bmu.de/files/basisinformationen/application/download/pp-namas-fin.pdf

2010

REDD Crediting vs. REDD Funds – How Avoided Deforestation under the UNFCCC Should Be Financed

Since 2005, the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiate how the protection of rainforests could be integrated into the climate regime (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, REDD). This discussion paper primarily addresses the question of how financing of avoided deforestation should be organized. For this purpose, the authors first trace the negotiation process until the end of 2009. A short excursus then describes and analyses the integration of afforestation and reforestation activities into the Clean Development Mechanism. In the main part, the authors present the basic determinants for a possible REDD mechanism followed by a deeper look into financing options. Two main approaches can be identified: on the one hand, the introduction of a public fund, which acquires and manages financial means and distributes them to developing countries. On the other hand, financial resources could be raised via the international carbon market. The authors conclude that a combination of both financing approaches would not only raise the highest amount of financial means but also serve best to reduce several risk factors. In doing so, a temporal differentiation should be made by first raising financial means through a fund in order to gradually switch to a market integration. This process should be carried out with close connection to the other building blocks of the UNFCCC negotiations, especially concerning the setting of midand longterm emission reduction goals. Certainty on these goals is essential to estimate possible implications of a market integration.

KEYWORDS: Policy paper, UNFCCC, REDD, carbon market, CDM

   

SOURCE: http://www.jiko-bmu.de/files/basisinformationen/application/download/redd_financing_accessible_fin.pdf

2010

Linkages between Agricultural Policies and Environmental Effects

The OECD has developed the Stylised Agri-environmental Policy Impact Model (SAPIM), which can be adapted and applied by researchers and policy makers to better understand the impact of policies on the agri-environment conditions in their countries. This report applies the model to representative farms in Finland, Japan, Switzerland and the United States. These countries include a wide range of objectives, policy measures and agri-environmental conditions. The results highlight that when positive or negative environmental externalities are not taken into account by farmers then the production choices by farmers will reflect private costs and benefits. Policies can potentially raise social welfare by taking account of those externalities. This report notes that, overall, the diversity of conditions across sectors and countries makes it difficult to generalise the impact of agri-environmental policies beyond the situations that are modeled. Nevertheless, some wider policy messages emerge. Drawing on the four case studies examined, this report recommends that; polluting activites that are not regulated should be included in policy design; the existing overall policy environment needs to be taken into account in evaluating agri-environmental policies; and environmental co-benefits and trade-offs need to be recognised. Green growth policies can stimulate economic growth while preventing environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and unsustainable natural resource use. The results from this publication contribute to the Green Growth Strategy being developed by the OECD as a practical policy package for governments to harness the potential of greener growth.

KEYWORDS: Agri-environmental policy, OECD, Green growth

   

SOURCE: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/agriculture-and-food/linkages-between-agricultural-policies-and-environmental-effects_9789264095700-en;jsessionid=1j7gytde6f6pb.delta

2010

Getting ready for REDD+

Global efforts are being made to prepare tropical forest countries for REDD+. The work is advancing rapidly with new funding pledges being added and new countries joining. As REDD+ work proceeds it will be crucial to maintain awareness of the obstacles to be faced. The risk that REDD+ steels the limelight from other issues should also be kept in mind. Following the Focali report in 2009 that provided an assessment of initiatives involved in preparing and building capacity for REDD, Focali releases the report Getting ready for REDD+ that provides an update of what has happened in the REDD+ arena in the last two years and identifies some key issues for the future. All over the world REDD+ preparations are carried out and regardless of the outcome of the UNFCCC negotiations it seems REDD+ will become reality. Numerous pilot initiatives are on the way to prepare countries for REDD+ and take the first steps towards building the necessary capacity and institutions. Furthermore, the process is advancing rapidly and funding pledges are constantly issued.

KEYWORDS: REDD+, UNFCCC negociations, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

   

SOURCE: http://www.focali.se/filer/Focali%20Report%202010_01.pdf

2010

Earth Negotiations Bulletin: COP16 Final

KEYWORDS: COP16, UNFCCC, Negociations

   

SOURCE: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop16/

2010

The top 100 question of importance to the future of global agriculture

Despite a significant growth in food production over the past half-century, one of the most important challenges facing society today is how to feed an expected population of some nine billion by the middle of the 20th century. To meet the expected demand for food without significant increases in prices, it has been estimated that we need to produce 70–100 per cent more food, in light of the growing impacts of climate change, concerns over energy security, regional dietary shifts and the Millennium Development target of halving world poverty and hunger by 2015. The goal for the agricultural sector is no longer simply to maximize productivity, but to optimize across a far more complex landscape of production, rural development, environmental, social justice and food consumption outcomes. However, there remain significant challenges to developing national and international policies that support the wide emergence of more sustainable forms of land use and efficient agricultural production. The lack of information flow between scientists, practitioners and policy makers is known to exacerbate the difficulties, despite increased emphasis upon evidence-based policy. In this paper, we seek to improve dialogue and understanding between agricultural research and policy by identifying the 100 most important questions for global agriculture. These have been compiled using a horizon-scanning approach with leading experts and representatives of major agricultural organizations worldwide. The aim is to use sound scientific evidence to inform decision making and guide policy makers in the future direction of agricultural research priorities and policy support. If addressed, we anticipate that these questions will have a significant impact on global agricultural practices worldwide, while improving the synergy between agricultural policy, practice and research. This research forms part of the UK Government’s Foresight Global Food and Farming Futures project.

KEYWORDS: Farming, food security, global agriculture, sustainability

   

SOURCE: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/earthscan/ijas/2010/00000008/00000004/art00001

2010

Accessing Money for REDD: Public Finance or Market

Of the two possibilities of Public Finance and Market Mechanism for funding REDD activities the former would mean contribution by developed countries into a REDD Multilateral Fund requiring approval by national parliaments that might pose insurmountable difficulties in these times of recession. On the other hand the fact that money in market for REDD credits would come from business entities, and not from the exchequers, would makes it a politically attractive option. It is often argued that market mechanism would be efficient, effective and enhance equity while reducing governance risks and keeping costs low. But in a market where producers abound and buyers dominate it would not lead to greater equity as the two externalities of biodiversity and the concern for indigenous people, both critical for equity, remain stubbornly outside. Nor would the market be effective in meeting the REDD objectives as the credibility of the carbon credits generated would suffer from high uncertainties of leakage and fears of impermanence. The market will discount low credibility reducing economic returns particularly in poor and poorly governed countries further hurting equity. Also the market mechanism does not reduce overall global emissions and is merely a translocation of green house gas emissions from the poor countries to the rich. Settling on interim solutions, when final solutions prove elusive, could be a good strategy. One such interim solution could be the setting up of public financing for REDD confined only to LDCs. This would be politically acceptable in the developed countries provided the LDCs agree to a dominant role for the donor countries in planning as well as MRV processes in the initial years which could taper as the governance and the technical capabilities of the LDCs improve. In the case of the emerging economies an interim step could be a market mechanism for REDD that takes the shape of an enlarged CDM in which additional activities of forest management, conservation and enhancement of carbon stock are also included and making it mandatory that 20 percent of emission reduction requirements be met from forest based mitigation efforts. There is an urgent need of making compromises on all sides in order to move forward quickly.

KEYWORDS: REDD, Green Economy, Public Finance, Markets

   

SOURCE: http://igrec.in/money_for_REDD_public_finance_or_the_market.html

2010

Towards voluntary guidelines on responsible governance of tenure of land and other natural resources

This discussion paper has been prepared by FAO’s Land Tenure and Management Unit to seek views and comments on voluntary guidelines on responsible governance of tenure of land and other natural resources. Weak governance of tenure results in the loss of life and livelihoods; it deters investment and widespread economic growth and discourages the sustainable use of natural resources. In contrast, responsible governance of tenure ensures that relevant policies and rules lead to sustainable, beneficial results, and that related services are delivered efficiently, effectively and equitably. Responsible governance is not confined to statutory tenure (e.g. private and public ownership and other rights and responsibilities) but it recognizes as well customary and common property tenures. It is anticipated that voluntary guidelines will help countries to improve the governance of tenure. FAO has been working on governance of tenure since 2005 with generous support from the Government of Finland (see for example FAO Land Tenure Studies 9: “Good governance in land tenure and administration”1.) The work of FAO and its partners, including UN-Habitat, the World Bank, IFAD, individual countries, and civil society, has shown that there is a growing and widespread interest in voluntary guidelines that can be adopted at the international level and implemented by countries.

KEYWORDS: Land tenure, natural resources, governance

   

SOURCE: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/ak374e/ak374e00.pdf

2010

Energy Innovation Driving Technology Competition and Cooperation Among the United States, China, India, and Brazil

If governments are to respond effectively to the challenge of climate change, they will need to ramp up their support for innovation in lowcarbon technologies and make sure that the resulting developments are diffused and adopted quickly. Yet for the United States, there is a tension inherent in these goals: the country’s interests in encouraging the spread of technology can clash with its efforts to strengthen its own economy. Of particular importance is the spread of low-carbon technologies from the United States to the major emerging economies— China, India, and Brazil. Washington’s strategy to promote the spread of low-carbon technologies to these countries must combine efforts to grow and open markets for low-carbon technologies with active support for accelerating the innovation and diffusion of these technologies. Its strategy will also need to reflect the unique challenges presented by each of the three countries.

KEYWORDS: low Carbon Technology, United States, China, India, Brazil, energy innovation

   

SOURCE: http://www.cfr.org/publication/23321/energy_innovation.html

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Credits: Luc Dubreuil - Massimo Lupascu