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PUBLIC CLIMATE CHANGE DOCUMENTS RELATED TO THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR, AND FINANCING MECANISMS

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Title/Abstract

Year

2010

Facilitating an International Agreement on Climate Change: Adaptation on Climate Change

Adaptation is about building resilience and reducing vulnerability. Adaptation is not simply a matter of designing projects or putting together lists of measures to reduce the impacts of climate change. A national policy response should be anticipatory, not reactive, and should be anchored in a country’s framework for economic growth and sustainable development, and integrated with its poverty reduction strategies. National governments bear the responsibility to develop and implement integrated policies and programs that build the resilience and reduce the vulnerability of their populations, emphasizing preventive local actions, to manage the risks associated with the impacts of climate change. The science is clear—climate impacts are being felt today, and greater impacts are unavoidable tomorrow. Adaptation is essential to reducing the human and social costs of climate change, and to development and poverty alleviation. Adaptation strategies abound that will yield benefits in their own right. There is no excuse for inaction.

KEYWORDS: Adaptation, Climate Change, Climate risk management, Disaster risk reduction

   

SOURCE: http://www.unfoundation.org/assets/pdf/adaptation_to_climate_change.pdf

2010

Climate change and its impact on development

This session on climate change and its impact on development is an opportunity to review the work of the United Nations in jointly addressing climate change. The review looks at work done by the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) task team on climate change and environmental sustainability and the United Nations system Chief Executives Board for Coordination-led initiative on ‘delivering as one’ on climate change, which have documented the areas in which the United Nations works at country level, prepared a framework for cooperation at the global policy level, and issued a ‘statement of purpose’ to articulate the normative basis, mandates and capacities in support of the climate change response of the United Nations system.

KEYWORDS: United Nations System, Climate Change, Adaptation

   

SOURCE: http://home.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/resources/wfp213809.pdf

2010

Summary of Developed Country ‘Fast-Start’ Climate Finance Pledges

The Copenhagen Accord commits developed countries to collectively provide resources “approaching USD 30 billion for the period 2010 - 2012” to support developing countries’ climate efforts. This so-called “fast-start” finance will help developing countries, particularly the poorest and most vulnerable, mitigate (reduce) their greenhouse gas emissions, and adapt and cope with the effects of climate change. These pledges also present an opportunity to build trust between developed and developing countries in the international climate arena, in turn fostering progress towards a comprehensive post-2012 international climate agreement. The World Ressources Institute (WRI) has carried out a preliminary analysis based on available information on countries’ immediate pledges announced thus far. The accompanying table sets out both the amounts and the mechanisms by which funding would be delivered. WRI has also looked at whether these pledges will provide “new and additional” funds compared to what developed countries already provide through official development assistance.

KEYWORDS: adaptation, climate finance, financial institutions, international policy

   

SOURCE: http://www.wri.org/publication/summary-of-developed-country-fast-start-climate-finance-pledges#qanda

2010

Power, Responsibility, and Accountability: Re-Thinking the Legitimacy of Institutions for Climate Finance

The full report seeks to ground the debate on the future of climate finance in an objective analysis of existing efforts to finance climate mitigation and adaptation in developing countries. The authors step back from the question of which institutions should be entrusted with new flows of climate finance to examine instead how governments can design a climate financial mechanism in a way that is widely perceived as legitimate. We identify three crucial dimensions of legitimacy: power, responsibility, and accountability. While these three dimensions interrelate and overlap, we have found them to provide a useful analytical framework to analyze and guide choices in institutional design.

KEYWORDS: Climate Finance, responsability, legitimacy, UNFCCC

   

SOURCE: http://pdf.wri.org/power_responsibility_accountability_executive_summary.pdf

2010

Guidelines for Reporting Information on Climate Finance

Reporting and reviewing financial information has become an increasingly urgent issue in the international climate negotiations. In the Copenhagen Accord, which resulted from the United Nations Climate Change Convention in Copenhagen in 2009, developed countries pledged to provide USD$30 billion for the period of 2010-2012 and $100 billion per year by 2020 for climate adaptation and mitigation in developing countries. Developing countries want assurances that developed countries are fulfilling their climate finance pledges. To address this need, the Bali Action Plan (2007) mandates that support from developed countries for developing country Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions be “measurable, reportable and verifiable.” The Copenhagen Accord, building on these provisions, calls for “financing by developed countries [to] be measured, reported and verified in accordance with existing and any further guidelines adopted by the Conference of the Parties,” and that accounting of such finance is “rigorous, robust and transparent.” However, countries have yet to agree on next steps for tracking progress against climate finance pledges under a post-2012 international climate regime and what, if any, common reporting format will be required.

KEYWORDS: Climate Finance, public finance, UNFCCC

   

SOURCE: http://pdf.wri.org/guidelines_for_reporting_information_on_public_climate_finance_2010-12.pdf

2010

Investing in Results: Enhancing Coordination for More Effective Interim REDD+ Financing

In 2007, the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) placed efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) at the center of the international negotiations for a new global climate agreement. Three years later, the outcome of these negotiations remains uncertain, but political and stakeholder interest in REDD+ continues to be high. Developed countries have pledged approximately US$4.5 billion for REDD+ from 2010 to 2012 to support developing country capacity building, planning, and implementation. It is expected that these “interim” actions will encourage the learning, consensus building and trust necessary for an eventual international agreement and future actions on REDD+. This working paper proposes several options for improved coordination at the national, bilateral and multilateral level. It also suggests potential roles that Parties to the UNFCCC, the Interim REDD+ Partnership, and the major multilateral REDD+ initiatives (the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, the Forest Investment Program, and the UN-REDD Programme) can play in taking these options forward.

KEYWORDS: REDD+ Financing, AFOLU, UNFCCC

   

SOURCE: http://pdf.wri.org/working_papers/investing_in_results.pdf

2010

The Clean Technology Fund: Insights for Development and Climate Finance

This working paper summarizes key innovations and challenges of the Clean Technology Fund. It analyzes the projects included in the investment plans that the Fund has endorsed to date. It makes the case for a more transparent approach to project implementation to ensure that the international community can learn the lessons from this pilot phase of operations.

KEYWORDS: Clean Technology Fund, World Bank, Climate Finance

   

SOURCE: http://pdf.wri.org/working_papers/getting_to_work_2010-11-30.pdf

2010

Making Development Climate Resilient: A World Bank Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa

This Strategy for Making Development Climate-Resilient in Sub-Saharan Africa is the World Bank’s operational response to climate variability and change on the continent. Grounded in a climate risk review of the Africa Region’s Sustainable Development portfolio, it adds the climate change dimension to the Region’s development strategy and business plan — the Africa Action Plan (AAP, 2009-2012) — and will be an integral part of the AAP in the future. The AAP and the climate change strategy are a sound and realistic framework for climate-resilient development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The proposed strategy is based on the premise that increased climate variability threatens the development gains of African countries, and that these effects need to be anticipated so that development efforts can be made more resilient to climate change. The strategy is underpinned by four principles: (i) Disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation need be managed as a single integrated agenda; (ii) Adaptation and risk reduction are fundamentally about sound development; (iii) Mitigation should go hand-in-hand with adaptation; (iv) Scaling-up financing is necessary to meet Africa’s development needs in a climate-constrained environment

KEYWORDS: Climate Change, adaptation, World Bank, Africa, finance

   

SOURCE: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRICA/Resources/ClimateChange-StrategyReport2010-Full_vNoImages.pdf

2010

Institutional Models for Carbon Finance to Mobilize Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

If there is a silver lining to the storm cloud of climate change for Africa’s small farmers, it is the potential for them to participate in international climate change mitigation markets that have emerged in recent years. With supportive policies and skillful project development, these markets have the potential to catalyze climate-friendly and resilient smallholder agricultural development in Africa. This project aimed to examine the ways that agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) markets are developing in Africa to support livelihoods of small farmers and the agroecosystems that they manage and to suggest ways to strengthen the institutions upon which these projects will be built in the future. Our definition of agriculture projects includes those in which farmers benefit from GHG mitigation markets. So, in addition to sequestration and emission reduction projects on working farm and pasture land, we have included forestry projects in which farmers are the primary “sellers” of credits.

KEYWORDS: Climate Change, agriculture, Africa, Carbon markets, Cabon Finance

   

SOURCE: http://www.ecoagriculture.org/documents/files/doc_335.pdf

2010

Climate Smart Agriculture

Agriculture in developing countries must undergo a significant transformation in order to meet the related challenges of achieving food security and responding to climate change. Projections based on population growth and food consumption patterns indicate that agricultural production will need to increase by at least 70 percent to meet demands by 2050. Most estimates also indicate that climate change is likely to reduce agricultural productivity, production stability and incomes in some areas that already have high levels of food insecurity. Developing climate‐smart agriculture1 is thus crucial to achieving future food security and climate change goals. This paper examines some of the key technical, institutional, policy and financial responses required to achieve this transformation. Building on case studies from the field, the paper outlines a range of practices, approaches and tools aimed at increasing the resilience and productivity of agricultural production systems, while also reducing and removing emissions. The second part of the paper surveys institutional and policy options available to promote the transition to climate‐smart agriculture at the smallholder level. Finally, the paper considers current financing gaps and makes innovative suggestions regarding the combined use of different sources, financing mechanisms and delivery systems.

KEYWORDS: adaptation, mitigation, financing, food security

   

SOURCE: http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1881e/i1881e00.pdf

Credits: Luc Dubreuil - Massimo Lupascu