Directions in Investment

Directions in Investment

These Directions in Investment discuss and analyze issues and opportunities related to investment in agriculture and rural development. Topics covered include agricultural and rural policy, new financing instruments, sustainable rural development, rural finance, and global food security, among many others. This series focuses on themes that have a regional or global relevance rather than country-specific subjects found under Country highlights.

Food security and the transition region

Date of publication: 1 October 2011

Population growth, accelerated urbanization and higher incomes are expected to lead to an increase in food demand by about 70 percent by 2050 – involving 1 billion extra tons of cereals and 200 million extra tons of meat. A FAO/EBRD report, presented at the occasion of EBRD's donor meeting on 29...


Commodity exchanges in Europe and Central Asia: A means for management of price risk

Date of publication: 1 March 2011

This study discusses commodity exchange in the European and Central Asian (ECA) region as a tool for risk management. There are well over two-hundred entities active in the region that call themselves “commodity exchange” (and many more registered commodity exchanges that are no longer active) but most exchanges would...


National policies to support the modernization of farm machinery in CIS countries

Date of publication: 1 November 2010

This report was prepared under the FAO/World Bank Cooperative Programme in the context of the "Agricultural Mechanization: the Next Challenge for Agriculture in Low- and Middle-Income Countries" project. It examines the policies that currently support the improvement of farm mechanization, i.e. investments in farm machinery and equipment, in selected...


The use of warehouse receipt finance in agriculture in transition countries

Date of publication: 1 October 2009

This paper discusses the state of warehouse receipt finance in countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA), and possibilities for enhancing its use. It describes legal and regulatory issues that need to be resolved, and how the international community can help in the process.

Postharvest credit in the form of warehouse receipt...


International grain reserves and other instruments to address volatility in grain markets

Date of publication: 1 September 2009

In view of the controversies surrounding the topic of grain stocks and other instruments to reduce price volatility in food commodity markets, and at the request of the Organizing Committee of the World Grain Forum 2009, the three sponsoring committees, The World Bank (WB), the Food and Agriculture Organization of...


Evolution and Impact of EU regional and rural policy

Date of publication: 10 September 2008

This working paper discusses the development of rural and regional policies in the European Union, particularly regarding how they have integrated evolving concepts related to economic theories of growth and endogenous development. Although the EU is based mainly on market integration and the harmonization of standards and regulations, its Member...

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