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Mongolia

Programmes and projects

Based on the situation analysis, in line with the UNDAF and the government policies on food, agriculture and natural resources sectors, and taking into consideration the achievements made so far under MDGs and the on-going FAO programs in Mongolia, the CPF has identified the following four priority areas for FAO interventions for a period of five years in Mongolia.

Priority area 1. Promotion of sustainable livestock development through improved quality, health, and productivity of livestock and increased pasture, feed, fodder, and water supply

Livestock is the main source of food supply for the population and raw materials for processing industry, export revenue, and as such plays an important role for the Mongolian economy. Moreover, livestock is both a renewable resource and the traditional way of living of many Mongolians. Therefore, the sector should be given most priority in the agricultural production of Mongolia and utmost to be done to maintain and enrich this valuable sector in order to preserve traditions while at the same time adopting it to rapidly changing climatic and socio-economic circumstances. This broadly requires that Government agencies introduce public-private partnerships (PPP) that allows public ownership over natural resources while herder households continue to privately own animals.

Priority area 2. Introduction of environment-friendly technologies, better irrigation and rotation schemes, and crop diversification strategies to improve crop production

Mongolia is becoming self-sufficient in wheat and potato and has the potential to export such products. On the other hand, the domestic production of vegetables only covers less than two thirds of the total demand. The frequent droughts and the short vegetation period (95-110 days) require the expansion of irrigated fields. Sustainable crop development also requires introducing environmentally friendly modern technology and methods focused on an increase of productivity of the entire crop sector, protection and improvement of soil, diversification of crop with more nutritious, and strengthening the scientific and personnel capacities.

Priority area 3. Promotion of sustainable natural resource management as techniques for adaptation, mitigation, and management for the impacts of climate change

Water, land and other natural resources need to be used rationally and their capacity should be met in developing livestock and crop production, supplying of ecologically clean products and safe food from nature. Industrial processing of forest resources such as fruits, berries, mushroom, nuts, medicinal and culinary herbs, and fodder crops is not sufficient and supportive to food security. Scientific basis and information sharing network of natural resource management and capacity building is required for elevating its effectiveness and result-oriented activities. Therefore, the following priority outputs and activities will contribute significantly to the improved participation and responsibility of the state, residents and business entities and other organizations in renovation and capacity development, management and organization of the environmental sector as well as conservation of nature, restriction of desertification and loss of natural resources.

Priority area 4. Development of value chain: improvement of food products, food safety standards, and food marketing

Since the privatization of the state trade and procurement system and agro-processing factories at the beginning of the transition, the country lost reliable markets’ links between primary producers, processors and end consumers that lead to the existing disparities in food consumption of rural and urban populations and decreasing quality of agricultural raw materials and incomes of primary producers as well as insufficient supply of national processors and exporting of unprocessed agricultural products.

It requires introduction and development of the effective market value chain, linking primary producers with end consumers, including agro-processing factories.

As briefly indicated in the situation analysis, much of the food available in Mongolia is either locally produced and transported by the informal sector or imported by small traders. Such food products of uncertain origin enter the market without appropriate quality and hygiene certificates increasing the vulnerability to food and human security. This suggests both the government and private sectors to establish a proper market value chain for food products and to focus on modernizing and expanding food processing and rationalizing the food safety management system. It requires comprehensive action to develop a value chain and improve food quality and safety standards, including support for agro-processing industry and SMEs, facilitating producers’ access to markets.