Land Resources

Lessons learned

From the Farmer Field School on Land and Water management, some policy recommendations are presented in the table below:




Responsible bodies

Limited support for adoption and investment in soil and water conservation measures/initiatives

Support investment in and adoption of soil fertility measures and water management (including water harvesting and soil moisture management)

Extension service, ministry of agriculture, agricultural research agency, environmental agency, development partners

Integration of land and water management aspects in short-term, commodity-driven strategy

Integration of short-term strategy with long-term natural resources management strategy

Extension service

Limited knowledge by local leaders of the importance of land and water management issues and their implications to livelihoods

Sensitize local leaders to incorporate land and water management in district action plans with an appropriate budget

Local governments, NGOs

Lack of supportive ordinances and by-laws to enforce sustainable land and water management

Develop enabling legislation and promote practical ordinances and by-laws

Parliament, extension service, ministries of agriculture and environment, local governments

Limited support and investment to scale up soil/water management and rainwater harvesting

Invest in and support widespread efforts for soil/water management and rainwater harvesting at small and large scales

Ministries of finance and agriculture, development partners

Lack of vocational schools for training in agriculture and land and water management

Establish vocational institutions, backed by life schools to transfer skills to young people and those affected by HIV/AIDS

Ministries of education and health, NGOs working on HIV/AIDS

Integration of agriculture, land and water management in primary education curriculum

Include agriculture, land and water management in primary education curriculum through junior farmer field schools

Ministry of education

Lack of incentives for long-term investment in land and water management

Identify type and provide incentives for farmers for long-term investments in land and water management

Ministries of finance and agriculture

Farmer field school sustainability

Build long-term resilience for sustainability of farmer field schools, including: Promote farmer field schools as an initiative to empower farmers; Link to policy at local, district and national levels institutions, private sector; Preach practical messages continuously at all levels; Strengthen links among partners; Seek ways to reduce cost of farm power and inputs for farmers; Implement strategy targeted to different types of farmers (hand power, animal power, and motorized). Integrate conservation agriculture; Conduct impact assessments to generate evidence needed to convince donors and policymakers

Farmers, ministries of agriculture and environment, NGOs, donors, agricultural research agency, national and international research and development institutions, local governments, extension service, academic institutions, private sector

Outdated guidelines for soil and water conservation

Review guidelines

Ministry of agriculture

Lack of district farm planning units

Establish and train farm planning units in each district and provide adequate budgets

Ministries of agriculture and finance 

Limited access by extension and farmers to updated and targeted recommendations for fertilizer application

Provide updated and targeted recommendations for fertilizer rates and integrated nutrient management practices 

Agricultural research agency

Quality assurance of farmer field schools

Ensure quality control of farmer field schools is maintained when scaling up

Ministry of agriculture, agricultural research agency

Implementation and enforcement of policies (on land, land use and soils), and harmonization with other polices (forestry, wetlands, water)

Establish mechanisms for training, implementation, enforcement and harmonization of policies 

Ministries of environment and agriculture, environmental agency

Scaling up of land and water management farmer field schools to other districts

Establish mechanisms and tools for expanding process to other districts

Ministries of agriculture and finance

Limited technical and financial support to various policymaking levels

Provide technical support and funding for various policymaking levels to facilitate implementation

Environmental agency, ministries of agriculture and environment

Limited knowledge and information about the farmer field school approach and its application among NGOs and private sector service providers

Sensitize NGOs and private service providers to use the farmer field school approach in their community development interventions

NGOs which have piloted the approach, local governments, other NGOs, private sector service providers

Farmer group formation and sustainability

Facilitate group formation and sustainability through business links to appropriate microfinance institutions and markets

Extension service, NGOs, private sector