Agricultural extension in transition worldwide
fao
Introduction
Chapters
Overview
Overview of the course modules
Definitions
Tools for further study
Further references relevant to the introductoty Module
Overview
Overview of the course modules
Definitions
Further references relevant to the introductoty Module
Tools for further study

 

 

 

Definitions


©FAO photo

Management

Characterizes the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources, including human, financial, material, intellectual and intangible.

 

ICT

ICT (Information and Communication Technologies). A term used to describe a range of technologies for gathering, storing, retrieving, processing, analysing and transmitting information. Advances in ICT have progressively reduced the costs of managing information, enabling individuals and organizations to undertake information-related tasks more efficiently, and to introduce innovations in products, processes and organizational structures.

 

Agent training

Extension agents in developing countries are usually required to follow a two-year course of study after which, once in service, they receive in-service training. In developed countries, extension agents must have an MS or equivalent and many specialists have PhDs. The type of in-service training an agent receives will depend on the program aims of the service they are working in.

 

Participation

Participation refers to shared or joint decision-making between superiors and subordinates at the work group, program or organizational level. Heaver argues that a bottom-up administration approach to development is preferred, and that empirical evidence has shown that participation has more possibilities in the developing than in the economically advanced countries (Heaver, 1982).

 

Quality management

In recent decades, quality management and total quality management (TQM) have been advocated in the management literature (Creech, 1994; Boland, 2007). TQM focuses on team development. As with other reform measures, organization and leadership decentralization are considered essential for developing a team-based system. (GTZ Knowledge Systems in Rural Area, Bulletin in references).

 

Leadership

Leadership is one of the many assets a successful manager must possess.  However, leadership and management are two distinct concepts. According to Drucker (1985), leadership is “the lifting of people’s vision to a higher sight, the raising of their performance to a higher standard, the building of their personality beyond its normal limitations.” While leadership is an important component of the management function, managers cannot just be leaders; they also need formal authority to be effective. For any quality initiative to take hold, senior management must be involved and act as a role model (Heaver, 1982). 

 

Top of page
Home