Evolution of extension services in Nicaragua
In the last two decades, it has been observed an evolutionary process in Nicaragua extension services, through the has had the opportunity to observe an evolutionary process in Nicaragua extension services. The main purpose of this study is to contribute to the design of the extension based processes, which are aimed at improving the conditions of underdeveloped agricultural systems, using the analysis and evaluation of different extension methodologies and modalities of contracting this service.
The objective was hence to put the emphasis on the process and on considering the features of pluralism, demand and market-orientation. There was no emphasis on a particular advisory model which gave room for developing a country-specifc system based on existing institutional and organizational capacities and targeted to the poor and vulnerable producers. Oone of the main objectives of the initiative was to promote farmers' participation in the design process and their empowered role in the future advisory system.
This chapter provides an overview of the techniques, current status and issues involved in
using marker-assisted selection (MAS) for genetic improvement in developing countries.
Molecular marker maps, the necessary framework for any MAS programme, have been
constructed for the majority of agriculturally important species, although the density
of the maps varies considerably among species. Despite the considerable resources that
have been invested in this field and despite the enormous potential it still represents, with
few exceptions, MAS has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding
programmes for crops, livestock, forest trees or farmed fish in the developed world.
Cette série d'ouvrages est consacrée au développement d'une stratégie sous régionale de renforcement des capacités en matière de dissémination des connaissances et des technologies agricoles dans l'espace CEMAC sur labase du diagnostic des situations nationales des pays membres.
As part of the former Soviet Union, Belarus was a major food producer, particularly of meat and dairy products. However, since gaining independence in 1991, it hardly instituted any structural reforms in the agricultural sector, largely retaining the former system of subsidised collective and state farms. Agricultural production generally declined following independence, but over the last six years, yields have stabilised and even increased in some instances. Private smallholdings contribute significantly to agricultural production. Following the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986, a sizeable area of the productive agricultural land and forest remains contaminated with radioactive fallout.
The Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR) has launched its new web site. The site contains an extensive document repository, featuring over 1,000 publications from GFAR and it's Regional Fora dealing with important areas of focus such as both new and learned methods of research, innovation, regional research priorities and more. Members of “e-GFAR” are able to participate in Forum debates, post news items and also submit reports, papers and other information regarding agricultural research on this site.
This publication is comprised of three papers. The first, by A. Sonnino and co-authors, discusses some approaches used in impact assessment of innovations and presents a general overview of the literature about the impacts of non-transgenic biotechnologies. The second, by Z. Dhlamini and co-authors, surveys the extent of micropropagation application in Gabon, Mali, Nigeria, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The third, by P. Warren and co-authors, reports the findings of two field studies, on micropropagation of banana in Uganda and of sweetpotato in Zimbabwe.
FAO moderated e-mail conference entitled "The role of agricultural biotechnologies for production of bioenergy in developing countries" took place from 10 November to 14 December 2008. Major topics of discussion included applications of biotechnologies in jatropha; the potential benefits for small-scale farmers of applying biotechnologies for bioenergy production; biogas production in developing countries; and production of enzymes for efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid biofuels. Of the different biotechnologies, most attention was paid to applications of genetic modification, molecular markers and tissue culture in crops for biofuel purposes.
22 March is World Water Day. Its international observance is an initiative that grew out of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), on behalf of the 24 Agencies and Programme Members of UN-Water, the theme of World Water Day for 2007 was “Coping with water scarcity”. The day provided an opportunity to reflect on the challenges posed by the unsustainable increase in water use and its degradation across the world and it also served as a spur to action.
The background document for the FAO e-mail conference entitled "The role of agricultural biotechnologies for production of bioenergy in developing countries" is now available. The 22-page document gives an overview of the current status regarding bioenergy, focusing on first- and second-generation liquid biofuels, including the reasons for the major current focus on liquid biofuels as well as current concerns about them.