Technical Papers

FAO Land Tenure Technical Papers

Working papers produced as part of normative projects include the following:

FAO Land Tenure Working Papers

These papers present an analysis of various aspects of tenure.

Livelihood Support Programme Working Papers

The Livelihood Support Programme (LSP) is a project (GCP/INT/803/UK), funded by DfID, to improve the impact of interventions at country level through the application of sustainable livelihood approaches. One sub-programme (Access to Natural Resources) addressed the use of sustainable livelihood approaches to improve access to natural assets by the poor.

Legal Empowerment of the Poor Working Papers

Within FAO’s corporate strategy on Sustainable rural livelihoods and more equitable access to resources and with donor funding from Norway (FNOP/INT/108/NOR), activities were undertaken on improving tenure security of the rural poor in order to meet the needs of FAO member countries and to support the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor (LEP). The work focused on sub-Saharan Africa.

FAO Land Tenure Working Papers

This paper reviews the land reforms that were carried out since 1989 in 25 countries, from the Baltic and Central European countries in the West, to Russia and the small Transcaucasus countries in the east, and to the Balkan countries in the south. The political decisions regarding land reform were driven by considerations of equity and political justice, and yet the land reform approaches varied considerably among the countries. The outcome of the land reforms also varied from one country to another, and the differences in farm structures of today can be explained, at least to some degree, by the land reform approaches that were used during the past decades.

Large scale land acquisitions in southern countries have stimulated new debates on land governance and agricultural development models. This study examines the impacts of large investments associated to contract farming in a long-term time perspective (10 to 50 years). It is based on case studies in seven countries in Africa and Asia and on a few major commodities such as: oil palm, rubber tree, fruits and vegetables, cereals, cotton and sugar cane.

A CIVIL SOCIETY PERSPECTIVE

This study is intended to contribute to the effective implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines by exploring ways of monitoring the governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests and providing a civil society perspective on monitoring in the context of the Guidelines. It provides an overview of existing and commonly used monitoring systems and practices in relation with tenure of land, fisheries and forests by civil society organisations and institutions. In order to do so, it will propose a schematic categorization of monitoring in the context of land, fisheries and forests. It will then present some illustrative examples of civil society monitoring initiatives and identify some characteristics of monitoring carried out by CSOs. Based on this, it will provide some recommendations for monitoring in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines. This particularly refers to issues that should be monitored and the way in which this monitoring should be carried out.

IMPLEMENTING RESPONSIBLE GOVERNANCE OF TENURE

Land Tenure Working Paper 21. This paper draws on proceedings of a meeting held to discuss the impact of growing private sector investments in land, fisheries and forests. This meeting, aimed at the private sector, took place at FAO headquarters on 28 February and 1 March 2011. The purpose of this paper is to provide a record of the discussion from the private sector perspective. The first section provides the context which led to the workshop concept. Section two discusses the investment environment in the context of access to land, fisheries and forests and identifies the main drivers behind investment. Section three seeks to identify ways of finding common ground between conflicting goals and interests in order to promote responsible investment. Section four provides a conclusion to the discussion and makes suggestions for the way forward by building on the findings of the workshop.

LESSONS FROM EXPERIENCES IN SELECTED COUNTRIES

Land Tenure Working Paper 20. This paper presents an analysis of communal tenure and its role for natural resource management system, in different contexts of selected Asian countries. The current market driven pressures on natural resources create both challenges and opportunities for communities and governments to use and strengthen communal tenure in order to promote sustainable management of some natural resources. Overall, policies and institutions that promote accountability and good governance over these resources, both by the government at national and local level and by communities, are required. Communal tenure will also very likely play a significant role in the policies and actions for climate change mitigation (REDD and REDD+).

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Livelihood Support Programme Working Papers

http://www.fao.org/es/esw/lsp

Baumann, P. (2002) Improving access to natural resources for the rural poor: A critical analysis of central concepts and emerging trends from a sustainable livelihoods perspective. FAO, LSP WP 1.

Cotula, L. (2002) Improving access to natural resources for the rural poor: The experience of FAO and of other key organizations from a sustainable livelihoods perspective. FAO, LSP WP 2.

Seshia, S., and Scoones, I. (2003) Understanding access to seeds and plant genetic resources: What can a livelihoods perspective offer? FAO, LSP WP 6.

Biggs, S. D. and Messerschmidt D. (2003) The culture of access to mountain natural resources: Policy, processes and practices. FAO, LSP WP 7.

Evrard, O. (2004) La mise en oeuvre de la réforme foncière au Laos, Impacts sociaux et effets sur les conditions de vie en milieu rural (with summary in English). FAO, LSP WP 8.

Ellis, F., and Allison, E. (2004) Livelihood diversification and natural resource access. FAO, LSP WP 9.

Hodgson, S. (2004) Land and Water – the rights interface. FAO, LSP WP 10.

Mitchell, R. and Hanstad, T. Rural Development Institute (RDI). (2004) Small homegarden plots and sustainable livelihoods for the poor. FAO, LSP WP 11.

Hanstad, T., Nielsen, R., Brown, J. Rural Development Institute (RDI). (2004) Land and Livelihoods: Making land rights real for India’s rural poor. FAO, LSP WP 12.

Fisher, R.J., Schmidt, K., Steenhof, B. and Akenshaev, N. (2004) Poverty and forestry: A case study of Kyrgyzstan with reference to other countries in West and Central Asia. FAO, LSP WP 13.

Cotula, L., and Toulmin, C., with van Vlaenderen, H., Mansour Tall, S., Gaye, G., Saunders, J., Ahiadeke, C. and Anarfi, J. (2004) Till to tiller: Linkages between international remittances and access to land in West Africa. FAO, LSP WP 14.

Norfolk, S. (2004) Examining access to natural resources and linkages to sustainable livelihoods. FAO, LSP WP 17.

Unruh J. (2004) Post-conflict land tenure: using a sustainable livelihoods approach. FAO, LSP WP 18.

Unruh, J. D., Turray, H (2006) Land tenure, food security and investment in postwar Sierra Leone. FAO, LSP WP 22.

Nielsen, P., Hanstad, T., and Rolfes, L. (2006) Implementing homestead plot programmes. Experience from India. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 23. FAO LSP WP 23.

Quan, J. (2006) Land access in the 21st century. Issues, trends, linkages and policy options. FAO, LSP WP 24.

Cotula, L., Hed, C., Sylla, O., Thébaud, B., Vogt, G., and Vogt, K. (2006) Land and water rights in the Sahel. Tenure challenges of improving access to water for agriculture. FAO, LSP WP 25.

Gomes N. (2006) Access to water, pastoral resource management and pastoralists’ livelihoods: Lessons learned from water development in selected areas of Eastern Africa (Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia). FAO, LSP WP 26.

Tanner, C., Baleira, S., Norfolk, S., Cau, B., and Assulai, J. (2006) Making rights a reality. Participation in practice and lessons learned in Mozambique. FAO, LSP WP 27.

Tanner C. and Baleira S.with Afonso Â, Azevedo J. P., Bila J., Chichava C., Moisés A., Pedro C. and Santos J. (2006) Mozambique’s legal framework for access to natural resources: The impact of new legal rights and community consultations on local livelihoods. FAO, LSP WP 28.

Romano F. and Reeb D. (2006) Understanding forest tenure: What rights and for whom? Secure forest tenure for sustainable forest management and poverty alleviation: the case of South and Southeast Asia, with case studies of Orissa and Meghalaya, India and Nepal. FAO, LSP WP 29.

Lindsay J., Wingard J. and Manaljav Z. (2006) Improving the legal framework for participatory forestry: Issues and options for Mongolia. FAO, LSP WP 30.

Schmidt S. with Altanchimeg C., Tungalagtuya K., Narangerel Y., Ganchimeg D., Erdenechimeg B., Dambayuren S. and Battogoo D. New Zealand Nature Institute - Initiative for People Centered Conservation. (2006) Depleting natural wealth – perpetuating poverty: Rural livelihoods and access to forest resources in Mongolia. FAO, LSP WP 31.

Schmidt S. with Altanchimeg C., Tungalagtuya K., Narangerel Y., Ganchimeg D., Erdenechimeg B., Dambayuren S. and Battogoo D. New Zealand Nature Institute - Initiative for People Centered Conservation. (2006) Rural livelihoods and access to forest resources in Mongolia: Methodology and case studies of Tsenkher Soum, Ulaan Uul Soum, Binder Soum, Teshig Soum and Baynlig Soum. FAO, LSP WP 32.

Shimizu T. (2006) Assessing the access to forest resources for improving livelihoods in West and Central Asia countries. FAO, LSP WP 33.

Baumann P. (2006) Forest - poverty linkages in West and Central Asia: The outlook from a sustainable livelihoods perspective. FAO LSP WP 34.

Shimizu T., and Trudel M., with case studies by Asanbaeva A., Kananian M., Naseri Gh. and Sülüsoglu M. (2006) Methodology and case studies on linkages between poverty and forestry: Afghanistan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey. FAO, LSP WP 35.

Åkerlund U., in collaboration with Knuth L., Randrup T. and Schipperijn J. (2006) Urban and peri-urban forestry and greening in west and Central Asia: Experiences, constraints and prospects. FAO, LSP WP 36.

Knuth L. (2006) Greening cities for improving urban livelihoods: Legal, policy and institutional aspects of urban and peri-urban forestry in West and Central Asia (with a case study of Armenia). FAO, LSP WP 37.

Cotula L. with contributing authors Chauveau J-P., Cissé S., Colin J-P., Lavigne P., Neves N., Quan J., and Toulmin C. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). (2006) Changes in “customary” land tenure systems in Africa. FAO, LSP WP 38.

Rose L. (2006) Children’s property and inheritance rights and their livelihoods: The context of HIV and AIDS in Southern and East Africa. FAO, LSP WP 39.

Howard P, and Smith E. (2006) Wageningen University and Research Center. Leaving two thirds out of development: Female headed households and common property resources in the highlands of Tigray, Ethiopia. FAO, LSP WP 40.

Okali C. (2006) Linking livelihoods and gender analysis for achieving gender transformative change. FAO, LSP WP 41.

Nicoletta A. et Alhassane Y. avec la collaboration de Sitou L. (2007). L’accès à l’information foncière et aux institutions décentralisées pour sécuriser les droits fanciers des ruraux pauvres: L’expérience des Commissions Foncières au Niger (with summary in English). FAO, LSP WP 43.

Goislard C. avec la collaboration de Djiré M. (2007). Accès à l’information juridique, aux institutions et procédures légales: Quelle sécurisation foncière pour les ruraux pauvres au Mali ? Etude de cas dans le sud malien (with summary in English). FAO, LSP WP 44.

Sescon J. and Salazar R. Access to Seeds and Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Their Role in Improving Rural Livelihoods in Lao PDR. FAO, LSP WP 45.


Briefing Notes

Baumann, P. (2002) Poverty and access to natural resources: insights from a sustainable livelihood perspective. LSP Briefing Notes, Access to natural resources, number 1.

Baumann, P. (2002) Can the sustainable livelihoods approach improve the design and implementation of projects to enhance access to natural resources for the poor? LSP Briefing Notes, Access to natural resources, number 2.

Seshia, S. (2003) Seed trails and sustainable livelihoods: understanding access to seeds and plant genetic resources. LSP Briefing Notes, Access to natural resources, number 3.

Ellis, F. and Allison, E. Linking livelihood diversification to natural resources in a poverty reduction context. LSP Briefing Notes, Access to natural resources, number 4.

Mitchell, R. and Hanstad, T. Small homegarden plots and sustainable livelihoods for the poor. LSP Briefing Notes, Access to natural resources, number 5.

 

Legal Empowerment of the Poor Working Papers:

McAuslan, P. (2006) Improving tenure security for the poor in Africa: framework paper for the legal empowerment workshop in sub-Saharan Africa. FAO, LEP WP 1.

Sarpong, G. (2006) Improving tenure security for the poor: Ghana country case study. FAO, LEP WP 2.

Odhiambo, M. (2006) Improving tenure security for the poor: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda country case studies. FAO, LEP WP 3.

Djire, M. (2006) Improving tenure security for the poor: Mali country case study. FAO, LEP WP 4.

Norfolk, S. and Tanner, C. (2006) Improving tenure security for the poor: Mozambique country case study. FAO, LEP WP 5.

Fuller, B. (2006) Improving tenure security for the poor: Namibia country case study. FAO, LEP WP 6.

Musahara, H. (2006) Improving tenure security for the poor: Rwanda country case study. FAO, LEP WP 7.

McAuslan, P. (2007) Synthesis paper: deliberations of the legal empowerment workshop in sub-Saharan Africa. FAO, LEP WP 8.