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Human settlements are consuming an ever-increasing share of water in Botswana. Of the 113 million m3 of water consumed in 1992, irrigation and livestock accounted for 47 percent, municipalities 34 percent and industries 20 percent. In 2000, water withdrawals increased to 194 million m3, including 80 million m3 for irrigation, forestry, livestock and wildlife (41 percent), 79 million m3 for urban use, villages, settlements and small industry (41 percent) and 35 million m3 for mining and energy (18 percent) (Table 3 and Figure 1). By the year 2020, total water demands are expected to reach 336 million m3 annually and the municipal sector and small industry are expected to account for 52 percent of total consumption.
Groundwater supplies two-thirds of the water consumption. Rural areas depend on groundwater resources. Water from dams, rivers and other surface water sites currently contributes about one-third to national water consumption. Four large dams supply some of the urban areas with water. A pipeline of 360 km, from the dams of Letsibogo to the water plant of Mmamshia, is under construction with the aim of supplying water to the capital city of Gaborone. A pilot project using wastewater for irrigation is being developed in Glen Valley close to Gaborone.