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International water issues
The Corentyne river is the border between Guyana and Surname over its entire length. It has its source deep in the south near the border with Brazil. It seems to be wholly claimed by Suriname, hence there is limited usage unless licenses are granted, especially for fishing. The Cuyuni river in the west has its origin somewhere on the border between the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and Brazil. It is not a continuous border river as it changes course as it flows northwards and turns eastwards into Guyana and flows into the Essequibo river near the coast. The Takatu river defines Guyana’s southwestern border with Brazil and empties into the Rio Branco in Brazil. No major dams or other withdrawals are made by border countries and, except for navigation, these are free flowing rivers.
The Amazon Cooperation Treaty (TCA) was signed in 1978 by Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela and entered into force for Brazil in 1980. The basic scope of the TCA is to promote the harmonious development of the Amazon, in order to allow an equitable distribution of the benefits, to improve the quality of living of its peoples and to achieve the full incorporation of their Amazon territories to the respective domestic economies. In 1995, the countries members of the TCA created the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) to strengthen the implementation of the Treaty.