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Environment and health
The quality of the groundwater is generally fairly good and relatively constant throughout the year. However, in the northern and northwestern coastal areas excessive concentrations of iron and nitrates, from agrochemicals and fertilizers, have been reported. Furthermore, as a result of the uncontrolled abstraction of groundwater for domestic and agricultural uses, brackish water intrusion has occurred in the coastal areas.
It has been shown that large water development projects have increased the malariogenic potential of areas through increased vector propagation, aggregation of labour and resettlement from non-malarious areas of people with no immunity.
High incidences of water-related illness indicate that there are serious water quality problems.