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Republic of Moldova
Water management, policies and legislation related to water use in agriculture
The most important institution involved in water resources development and management is the Ministry of Environment (MoE), which is responsible for the development of the legal and regulatory framework in the field of environmental protection, rational use of natural resources, including management of waste, water resources, water supply and sewerage system. Some of the functions of MoE are implemented by specialized bodies reporting to it: State Hydrometeorological Service (SHS), Agency for Geology and Mineral Resources (AGMR), State Ecological Inspectorate (SEI) and 'Apele Moldovei', which is the administrative authority responsible for implementing the state policy in the field of water resources management, hydrological, water supply and sanitation.
Other institutions related to water resources are:
- Ministry of Health
- Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry
- Ministry of Regional Development and Construction
- National Energy Regulatory Agency (NARE)
The Government aims to rehabilitate deteriorated infrastructure at priority irrigation schemes where irrigation has been found to be economically viable, and where farmers are committed to developing Water User Associations (WUAs) and utilizing irrigation facilities (World Bank, 2008).
The Second Rural Investment and Services Project (RISP II) aims to provide long-term support to accelerate agricultural recovery and growth. In 2007, after a catastrophic drought, a new Drought Adaptation Component was added that focused on providing targeted investments for small-scale on-farm irrigation rehabilitation and the provision of technical assistance to farmers. The project financed 26 irrigation sub-projects totaling a rehabilitated on-farm irrigated area of 3 000 ha (World Bank, 2013).
A New Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) Strategy for 2014-2028 aims to address key challenges faced by the sector, including its governance framework and information support. The strategy's main goal is to ensure access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation.
Policies and legislation
The national policy for water resources aims to prevent the degradation of water resources at all levels, taking into consideration social and economic changes, national plans and current trends in regions and river basins. The main objective of national water policies is to carry out sustainable management of water resources (Tafi, 2005).
The most important laws related to water resources in the Republic of Moldova are (Tronza, 2014):
- The Water Law (2011) and eighteen sub-law regulations
- The Drinking Water Law (1999)
- The Public Water Supply and Sanitation Service Law (2013)
- The Public Communal Services Law (2002)
- The State Control over Public Health Law (2009)