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Environment and health
Despite many rivers in Mozambique being under intense pressure from various uses, particularly the transboundary rivers, many others are in almost pristine state (WB, 2010). Pollution of water from agriculture is not significant, because most production is by smallholders, who use little fertilizer and other artificial inputs. Pollution exists however from discharge of untreated wastewater from domestic sewage and industrial activities (SIDA, 2011).
Erosion and resulting sedimentation, due to conversion of forests into cultivated lands, as well as artisanal mining also impact on the river basins' flows.
Saline soils do occur in some areas in the country as a result of poor water management or the use of saline water for irrigation, such as parts of the ChokwÚ irrigation scheme. However, there are also areas where saline soils occur naturally in Mozambique. This situation is common in the dry zone in the southern part of the country, in the Gaza province in the area of Pafuri, where annual rainfall is below 400 mm.