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Total water withdrawal is estimated at 3.298 km3/year (2003), of which agriculture (irrigation and livestock) accounts for 99.5 percent (Table 3 and Figure 1). In the rural areas municipal water supply is derived from surface dams, boreholes, shallow wells and springs, often distributed by donkey carts to households. During the dry season groundwater is the main supply for municipal and livestock use and is only supplemented by surface water when and where it is available.
Agricultural water abstractions are mainly limited to partially controlled irrigation schemes in the river basins. Of the abstractions for agriculture, livestock accounts for around 0.03 km3/year. Under the present conditions, surface water withdrawal amounts to around 96 percent and groundwater withdrawal to 4 percent of the total water withdrawal. In the dry season, as the water resources become scarce, competition between the resources is high and groundwater supplies are often severely stressed.