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In 2003, the total water withdrawal was estimated at 40.1 km3/year, of which 74 percent for irrigation, 15 percent for municipal purposes and 11 percent for industrial purposes (Table 4, Figure 1 and Figure 2). In 2000, the total water withdrawal was 42 km3. Of this total 10.5 km3 was groundwater withdrawal of which 39 percent for irrigation, 37 percent for municipal purposes and 24 percent for industrial purposes. Demand for groundwater is rapidly increasing, especially in areas where there is a lack or an extreme shortage of surface water. Apart from private initiatives for various purposes, by the end of 1998 the DSI and the GDRS had established irrigation facilities using groundwater to irrigate 505 783 ha of land (net irrigated area 434 120 ha).
Since 1975, non-conventional sources of water such as urban wastewater and drainage water have been used as water sources for irrigation. Urban wastewater discharged to the sewage systems was about 2.77 km3 in 2006 (Öztürk, 2006) (Table 4). The treated wastewater of about 1.68 km3 is used in different ways. Its use for irrigation is limited to some dry provinces such as the central and southeastern regions of Turkey, where almost 200 000 ha are irrigated by wastewater (Gökçay, 2004) (Table 5). In some irrigation areas, such as Seyhan and Harran, drainage water is used for irrigation during dry years at the lower part of the scheme where the water delivered is insufficient for irrigation. At present, no data for the amount of drainage water used for irrigation are available.