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United Republic of Tanzania

Water use

Total water withdrawal in mainland Tanzania was estimated for the year 2002 to be 5 142 million m│. Agriculture was the largest water withdrawal sector with almost 90 percent of total, and in particular irrigation (86 percent), while the municipal sector used 10 percent and industry less than 1 percent (Table 7).

Without more recent data, the 2002 National water Policy and the 2009 Water Resources Management Act consider that irrigation withdraws about 85 percent of the total water withdrawals.

Total drinking water production in 2010 for Dar es Salaam comes to around 300 000 m│/day, i.e. almost 110 million m│/year, although approximately half of this is lost through leakages. The demand, including from industries in Dar es Salaam, is almost 146 million m│/year. Most of this water originates from the Ruvu river, as well as from some boreholes (UNDP, 2011).

In 2010, groundwater withdrawal is estimated to be around 462 million m│, mostly for domestic purposes (60 percent), but also for livestock, fishing, etc. (28 percent), irrigation (10 percent) and industries (2 percent). Groundwater is only used for irrigation purposes in sugarcane, fruits such as grapes, vegetable and flower farming. Use of groundwater for industries mostly takes place in urban areas, especially Dar es Salaam where 80 percent of the industries are located (IWMI, 2010).


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