Please select only ONE of the following search options
Keyword(s)
   
Subject
Term
91 terms found.
Term Description

Absolute water scarcity

Rareté absolue de l’eau

Escasez absoluta de agua

Definition:
An insufficiency of supply to satisfy total demand after all feasible options to enhance supply and manage demand have been implemented. This situation leads to widespread restrictions on water use. A threshold of 500 m3/person per year is often used as a proxy to indicate absolute water scarcity (Falkenmark, 1989). It is held here to apply in terms of water quantity alone,although in many cases water quality may also impose scarcity if it is not fit for consumption.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population, Water use
 

Access and control

Accès et contrôle

Acceso y control

Definition:
Productive, reproductive and community roles require the use of resources. In general, women and men have different levels of both access (the opportunity to make use of something) to the resources needed for their work, and control (the ability to define its use and impose that definition on others) over those resources.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Economics, policy, institutions, Geography, land, soil, population
 
Source(s):
UNDP. 2007. Gender Mainstreaming, A key driver of development in environment and energy. Training Manual by Ines Havet, Franka Braun and Birgit Gocht
 

Actual evapotranspiration

Évapotranspiration effective

Evapotranspiración real

Definition:
The crop actual evapotranspiration (ETa) represents the actual rate of water uptake by the plant, which is determined by the level of available water in the soil and combines simultaneously both evaporative losses from the soil surface and transpiration from the plant surface. Under non-irrigated conditions is assumed to be equal to the potential crop evapotranspiration (ETc), in those periods of the year when precipitation exceeds potential evapotranspiration or when there is enough water stored in the soil to allow maximum evapotranspiration and thus to fulfill the crop water requirement. In drier periods of the year, when the available soil moisture is reduced below a certain level, lack of water reduces actual evapotranspiration to an extent depending on the available soil moisture. For open water or wetland, actual evapotranspiration can exceed precipitation. It is also sometimes referred to as the water balance under natural conditions (non-irrigated conditions).

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Agricultural water withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources

Prélèvement d'eau pour l'agriculture en % des ressources en eau renouvelables totales

Extracción de agua agrícola como % de recursos hídricos renovables totales

Definition:
Water withdrawn for irrigation in a given year, expressed in percent of the total renewable water resources (TRWR). This parameter is an indication of the pressure on the renewable water resources caused by irrigation.
Note: While freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources refers to withdrawal of primary and secondary surface water and groundwater, agricultural water withdrawal also includes non-conventional sources of water (such as direct use of wastewater and agricultural drainage water, desalinated water). That's why in some countries agricultural water withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources can be higher than freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources.

Unit:
%

Calculation Criteria:
[Agricultural water withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources] = 100*[Agricultural water withdrawal]/[Total renewable water resources]

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Irrigation, agricultural water management, Water use
 
 View data for this variable [4273] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Aquifer

Aquifère

Acuífero

Definition:
An aquifer is defined as a geological formation where all the void spaces are filled with water (saturated). The formation must be permeable enough to yield economic quantities of water.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 
Source(s):
FAO, AGL, 1997, Management of Agricultural Drainage Water Quality, Water Report 13
 

Aquifer, confined

Aquifère captif

Acuífero confinado

Definition:
A confined aquifer is bounded above and below by an aquitard. The groundwater pressure is usually higher than the atmospheric pressure and if a well is drilled into the aquifer, the water level may rise above the top of the aquifer.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Aquifer, leaky

Aquifère semicaptif

Acuífero semiconfinado

Definition:
A leaky aquifer, also known as a semi-confined aquifer, is an aquifer whose upper and lower boundaries have low hydraulic conductivities, but do allow a significant amount of water to escape the aquifer.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Aquifer, unconfined

Aquifère à nappe libre

Acuífero no confinado

Definition:
An unconfined aquifer, also known as a water table aquifer, is bounded below by an aquitard and has no overlying confining layer. Its upper boundary is the water level, which rises and falls freely. Water in a well penetrating an unconfined aquifer is at atmospheric pressure and does not rise above the water table.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Aquitard

Aquitard, couche semiperméable capacitive

Acuitardo

Definition:
An aquitard is a geological unit that is relatively impermeable over a short time-frame. The unit may be permeable enough to transmit water in significant quantities when viewed over large areas and long periods, but the hydraulic conductivity of an aquifer is low enough to typically act as a "floor" for the groundwater table.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Available water

Eau disponible

Agua disponible

Definition:
That part of water resources that is available for use. The concept is ambiguous, and depends on whether it refers to water available for immediate use or freshwater resources available for future development. In either case, access to the water would have a cost.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population, Water use
 
Source(s):
AQUASTAT. 2008. Adapted from FAO glossary (http://www.fao.org/glossary/)
 

Base flow

Débit de base

Caudal base

Definition:
The theoretical flow in rivers and lakes that results from long-term average precipitation events

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Blue water

Eau bleue

Agua azul

Definition:
The water in the lakes, rivers and aquifers. Blue water occurs in two different forms: surface runoff in surface water bodies and renewable groundwater runoff in the aquifers

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2005, Key Water Resources Statistics in AQUASTAT, By Jean Margat, Karen Frenken, Jean-Marc Faurès (ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/PaperVienna2005.pdf)
 

Chronic water scarcity

Rareté chronique de l’eau

Escasez crónica de agua

Definition:
The level at which all freshwater resources available for use are being used. Beyond this level, water supply for use can only be made available through the use of non-conventional water resources such as agricultural drainage water, treated wastewater or desalinated water, or by managing demand. A range between 500 and 1 000 m3/person per year has often been used as a proxy to indicate chronic water scarcity (Falkenmark, 1989).

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population, Water use
 

Cistern, Venetian Cistern (or sand-filled reservoir)

Citerne, citerne vénitienne (ou réservoir rempli de sable)

Cisterna, cisterna veneciana (o depósito con arena)

Definition:
A tank or an underground reservoir used to collect water in the form of runoff from a rock-lined catchment or other suitable, nonporous surface. Cisterns are often used to store rainwater from rooftops.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population, Irrigation, agricultural water management
 

Climate

Climat

Clima

Definition:
Fluctuating aggregate of atmospheric conditions characterized by the state and the developments of the weather in a given area.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO/UNEP, 1999, Terminology for Integrated Resources Planning and Management, Compiled and edited by Keya Choudoury and Louisa J.M.Jansen, AGLL, FAO
 

Dam

Barrage

Presa

Definition:
A barrier constructed across a valley for impounding water or creating a reservoir. Dams are characterized by their purposes and construction materials used.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 
Source(s):
UNESCO/WMO,1992, International Glossary of Hydrology, 2d edition
 

Dam capacity per capita

Capacité des barrages par habitant

Capacidad de presas por cápita

Definition:
Total dam storage capacity per capita

Unit:
m3/inhab

Calculation Criteria:
[Dam capacity per capita] = 1000000*[Total dam capacity]/[Total population]

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population, Water use
 
 View data for this variable [4471] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Dam silting

Envasement des barrages

Sedimentación en la presa

Definition:
Refers to the accumulation of sediments inside a dam, that leads to a reduction of its useful capacity.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Dependency ratio

Indice de dépendance

Tasa de dependencia

Definition:
Indicator expressing the percent of total renewable water resources originating outside the country. This indicator may theoretically vary between 0% and 100%. A country with a dependency ratio equal to 0% does not receive any water from neighbouring countries. A country with a dependency ratio equal to 100% receives all its renewable water from upstream countries, without producing any of its own. This indicator does not consider the possible allocation of water to downstream countries. An example of the calculation rules is available in this sheet: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/wrs/readPdf.html?f=AFG-WRS_eng.pdf.

Unit:
%

Calculation Criteria:
[Dependency ratio] = 100*([Surface water: accounted inflow&lang=en">Surface water: accounted inflow]+[Groundwater: accounted inflow&lang=en">Groundwater: accounted inflow])/([Surface water: accounted inflow&lang=en">Surface water: accounted inflow]+[Groundwater: accounted inflow&lang=en">Groundwater: accounted inflow]+[Total internal renewable water resources (IRWR)])

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4192] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Desalination

Dessalement

Desalinización

Definition:
The process of removing salt and other impurities from oceanic or brackish water. Distillation can be used to obtain very small volumes of water, but resource-intensive techniques such as reverse osmosis, electrodialisis, or other membrane technologies must be employed for larger throughputs

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Effective precipitation

Pluie efficace

Precipitación efectiva

Definition:
Useful or utilizable precipitation. Precipitation is not necessarily useful or desirable at the time, rate or amount in which it is received. Some of it may be unavoidably wasted while some may even be destructive. The useful portion of precipitation is stored and supplied to the user; the unwanted part needs to be conveyed or removed speedily, but varies depending on users. From an agricultural production perspective, the effective precipitation is that portion of total annual precipitation which is useful directly and/or indirectly for crop production at the site where it falls, but without pumping. It therefore includes water intercepted by living or dry vegetation, that is lost by evaporation from the soil surface, the precipitation lost by evapotranspiration during growth, that fraction which contributes to leaching, percolation or facilitates other cultural operations either before or after sowing without any harm to yield and quality of the principal crops. Consequently ineffective rainfall is that portion which is lost by surface runoff, unnecessary deep percolation losses, the moisture remaining in the soil after the harvest of the crop and which is not useful for next season's crop.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2000, Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, By: R. Allen, L. Pereira, D. Raes, M. Smith, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56
 

Effluent

Effluent

Efluente

Definition:
Wastewater (sewage or other liquid waste, esp. toxic waste) that flows into a body of water such as a river or lake

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population
 

Evaporation

Évaporation

Evaporación

Definition:
Evaporation is the process whereby liquid water is converted to water vapour (vaporization) and removed from the evaporating surface (vapour removal). Water evaporates from a variety of surfaces, such as lakes, rivers, pavements, soils and wet vegetation.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2000, Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, By: R. Allen, L. Pereira, D. Raes, M. Smith, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56
 

Evapotranspiration

Évapotranspiration

Evapotranspiración

Definition:
This term represents the combination of evaporative losses from the soil surface and transpiration from the plant surface. These two phenomenona occur simultaneously and there is no easy way of distinguishing between them.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Irrigation, agricultural water management, Water use
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2000, Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, By: R. Allen, L. Pereira, D. Raes, M. Smith, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56
 

Exploitable: irregular renewable surface water

Ressources exploitables: eaux superficielles renouvelables irrégulières

Aprovechable: aguas superficiales renovables no permanentes

Definition:
Irregular surface water resources are equivalent to the variable component of water resources (e.g. floods). It includes the seasonal and inter-annual variations, i.e. seasonal flow or flow during wet years. It is the flow that needs to be regulated.

Unit:
km3/year or 109 m3/year

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2005, Key Water Resources Statistics in AQUASTAT, By Jean Margat, Karen Frenken, Jean-Marc Faurès (ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/PaperVienna2005.pdf)
 
 View data for this variable [4194] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Exploitable: regular renewable groundwater

Ressources exploitables: eaux souterraines renouvelables régulières

Aprovechable: aguas subterráneas renovables permanentes

Definition:
Average groundwater flow that is available with an occurrence of 90 percent of the time, and economically/environmentally viable to extract.

Unit:
km3/year or 109 m3/year

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2005, Key Water Resources Statistics in AQUASTAT, By Jean Margat, Karen Frenken, Jean-Marc Faurès (ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/PaperVienna2005.pdf)
 
 View data for this variable [4195] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Exploitable: regular renewable surface water

Ressources exploitables: eaux superficielles renouvelables régulières

Aprovechable: aguas superficiales renovables permanentes

Definition:
Annual average quantity of surface water that is available with an occurrence of 90 percent of the time. In practice, it is equivalent to the low water flow of a river. It is the resource that is offered for withdrawal or diversion with a regular flow.

Unit:
km3/year or 109 m3/year

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2005, Key Water Resources Statistics in AQUASTAT, By Jean Margat, Karen Frenken, Jean-Marc Faurès (ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/PaperVienna2005.pdf)
 
 View data for this variable [4193] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Exploitable: total renewable surface water

Ressources exploitables: eaux superficielles renouvelables totales

Recursos aprovechables: aguas superficiales renovables totales


Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Exploitable: total renewable surface water] = [Exploitable: regular renewable surface water]+[Exploitable: irregular renewable surface water]

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4509] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Flow

Écoulement

Caudal

Definition:
The act, rate and manner of flowing; amount of liquid that flows in a given time.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
ICID, 2002, Multilingual Technical Dictionary on Irrigation and Drainage (CD rom & published dictionary)
 

Fossil Groundwater

Eaux souterraines fossiles

Aguas subterráneas fósiles

Definition:
Deep aquifers with a very low rate of renewal (less than 1% per year) so considered to be non-renewable or "fossil". It is expressed in volume (or stock).

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Freshwater

Eau douce

Agua dulce

Definition:
Water occurring on the earth’s surface in glaciers, lakes and rivers (i.e. surface water), and underground in aquifers (i.e. groundwater). Its key factor is a low concentration of dissolved salts. The term excludes rainwater, water stored in the soil (soil moisture), untreated wastewater, seawater and brackish water.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Glacier

Glacier

Glaciar

Definition:
A mass of land ice which flows downhill under gravity (through internal deformation and/or sliding at the base) and is constrained by internal stress and friction at the base and sides. A glacier is maintained by accumulation of snow at high altitudes, balanced by melting at low altitudes or discharge into the sea.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
Bates, B.C., Z.W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu and J.P. Palutikof, Eds. 2008. Climate change and water. Technical Paper VI of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, 210 pp.
 

Groundwater

Eau souterraine

Agua subterránea

Definition:
Water stored underground in aquifers, that is water in soil in the saturated zone beneath the water table, where the soil voids are filled with the water.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Groundwater balance

Bilan des eaux souterraines

Equilibrio de las aguas subterráneas

Definition:
A systematic review of inflow, outflow and storage as applied to the computation of groundwater changes. It is based on the concept that all inputs of water in a defined space and time are equal to the sum of all outputs of water, and the changes of water storage, in the same space and time.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO/IPTRID/ICID/ODA, 2000, Irrigation Guidelines, Land and Water Digital Media Series 12, & FAO, 2000, Handbook on Pressurized Irrigation Techniques
 

Groundwater produced internally

Eaux souterraines produites à l'intérieur du pays

Agua subterránea producida al interno del país

Definition:
Long-term annual average groundwater recharge, generated from precipitation within the boundaries of the country. Renewable groundwater resources of the country are computed either by estimating annual infiltration rate (in arid countries) or by computing river base flow (in humid countries).

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
ICID, 2002, Multilingual Technical Dictionary on Irrigation and Drainage (CD rom & published dictionary)
 
 View data for this variable [4154] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Groundwater recharge

Alimentation d'une nappe souterraine, réalimentation de nappe

Recarga de las aguas subterráneas

Definition:
Replenishment of groundwater supply in the zone of saturation, or addition of water to the groundwater storage by natural processes or artificial methods for subsequent withdrawal for beneficial use or to check saltwater intrusion in coastal areas.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO/IPTRID/ICID/ODA, 2000, Irrigation Guidelines, Land and Water Digital Media Series 12, & FAO, 2000, Handbook on Pressurized Irrigation Techniques
 

Groundwater table

Surface libre d'une nappe, niveau (de la nappe) phréatique

Capa freática

Definition:
Area where subterranean water fills all the void spaces between soil particles

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Groundwater: accounted inflow

Eaux souterraines: flux entrant comptabilisé

Agua subterránea: entradas contabilizadas

Definition:
Long-term average annual quantity of groundwater annually entering the country, taking into consideration eventual treaties.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4452] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Groundwater: entering the country (total)

Eaux souterraines: flux entrant dans le pays (total)

Agua subterránea: que entra al país (total)

Definition:
Average annual quantity of groundwater entering the country.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4177] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Impoundment

Retenue

Agua embalsada

Definition:
A body of water confined by a dam, dike, floodgate or other barrier.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
ICID, 2002, Multilingual Technical Dictionary on Irrigation and Drainage (CD rom & published dictionary)
 

Interannual variability (WRI)

Variabilité interannuelle (WRI)

Variabilidad interanual (WRI)

Definition:
A normalized indicator of the variation in water supply between years. Interannual variability is calculated as the standard deviation of annual total blue water divided by the mean of total blue water from 1950 to 2010. The indicator was created by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and ranges from 0-5, where 0 is lowest and 5 is highest. Values represent the "All-sector" indicator, and have been rounded to the nearest tenth by AQUASTAT. In WRI's analysis, 'water supply' refers to 'total blue water', which approximates naturalized river discharge (water that is consumed upstream is not removed). This was a one-time exercise and will be updated by WRI when new data is made available.

Unit:
-

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Metadata:
For more information, please see the original WRI analysis.

 View data for this variable [4541] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Low flow

Débit d'étiage

Caudal bajo

Definition:
Lowest level of water reached in a river or a lake

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
UNESCO/WMO,1992, International Glossary of Hydrology, 2d edition
 

National Rainfall Index (NRI)

Indice national des précipitation (NRI)

Índice nacional de precipitacion (NRI)

Definition:
An indicator, developed by FAO, which represents the quality of the crop growing season. The NRI yearly results take into consideration the precipitation that year, the average precipitation over the period 1986-2000, the seasonality of the main crop-growing season (distinguishing between northern and southern hemispheres), and what areas of the country are wetter. The median of each five year period is provided. Note: due to methodological differences, this variable is not comparable to average precipitation. For more information, please see http://www.fao.org/nr/climpag/.

Unit:
mm/yr

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Metadata:
Dataset: FAO-Climpag (LINK)
 View data for this variable [4472] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Natural inflow

Écoulement entrant naturel

Entrada natural de agua

Definition:
Amount of water which would flow into the country under natural conditions, i.e. without human influence. It includes external surface water inflow or groundwater.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Non-conventional of water

Eau non conventionnelle

Agua no convencional

Definition:
Water that can be available for use without increasing the load on primary renewable freshwater resources. It includes: 1) desalinated sea or brackish water; 2) direct use of (treated) wastewater; 3) direct use of agricultural drainage water.  Treatment requirements vary by country.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Non-renewable water resources

Ressources en eau non renouvelables

Recursos hídricos no renovables

Definition:
Groundwater bodies (deep aquifers) that have a negligible rate of recharge on the human time-scale and thus can be considered as non-renewable. While renewable water resources are expressed in flows, non-renewable water resources have to be expressed in quantity (stock). Runoff from glaciers where the mass balance is negative is considered non-renewable.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Overlap between surface water and groundwater

Part commune aux eaux superficielle et aux eaux souterraines

Superposición o parte común entre aguas superficiales y subterraneas

Definition:
Part of the renewable freshwater resources that is common to both surface water and groundwater. It is equal to groundwater drainage into rivers (typically, base flow of rivers) minus seepage from rivers into aquifers.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2003. Review of World Water Resources by Country, Water Report 23 (ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/wr23e.pdf)
 
 View data for this variable [4156] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Overlap: between surface water and groundwater

Part commune: aux eaux superficielle et aux eaux souterraines

Superposición o parte común: entre aguas superficiales y subterráneas


Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Overlap: between surface water and groundwater] = [Overlap between surface water and groundwater]

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4536] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Potential evapotranspiration (PET)

Évapotranspiration potentielle (PET)

Evapotranspiración potencial

Definition:
Maximum quantity of water capable of being lost, as water vapour, in a given climate, by a continuous stretch of vegetation covering the whole ground and well supplied with water. It thus includes evaporation from the soil and transpiration from the vegetation from a specific region at a given time interval.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Precipitation

Précipitation

Precipitación

Definition:
Any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Primary freshwater

Eau douce primaire

Agua dulce primaria

Definition:
Groundwater or surface water that has not been withdrawn before, as opposed to secondary freshwater. Distinction between primary and secondary freshwater is not possible in most cases, but is theoretically important to account for the return flow.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Reference crop evapotranspiration

Évapotranspiration de référence de la culture

Evapotranspiración de referencia de los cultivos

Definition:
The crop evapotranspiration under standard conditions, denoted as ETc, is the evapotranspiration from disease-free, well-fertilized crops, grown in large fields, under optimum soil water conditions, and achieving full production under the given climatic conditions.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2000, Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, By: R. Allen, L. Pereira, D. Raes, M. Smith, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56
 

Renewable resources

Ressources renouvelables

Recursos renovables

Definition:
Natural resources that, after exploitation, can return to their previous stock levels by natural processes of growth or replenishment.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2003. Review of World Water Resources by Country, Water Report 23 (ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/wr23e.pdf)
 

Reservoir

Réservoir, lac artificiel, retenue d'accumulation

Embalse

Definition:
A pond, lake or basin, either natural or artificial, for the storage, regulation and/or control of water. Small reservoirs are called tanks in India and dams in some other countries.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Return flow

Écoulement de retour

Agua de retorno

Definition:
The part of the water withdrawn from its source which is not consumed and returns to its source or to another body of surface water or groundwater. Return flow can be divided into non-recoverable flow (flow to salt sinks, uneconomic groundwater or flow of insufficient quality) and recoverable flow (Flow to rivers or infiltration into groundwater aquifers).

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

River

Cours d'eau

Río

Definition:
1) Body of water, generally flowing in a natural surface channel; 2) Water flowing in an open or closed conduit, a jet of water issuing from an orifice, or a body of flowing groundwater. Typically larger than a stream

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Seasonal variability (WRI)

Variabilité saisonnière (WRI)

Variabilidad estacional (WRI)

Definition:
A normalized indicator of the variation in water supply between months of the year. Seasonal variability is calculated as the standard deviation of monthly total blue water divided by the mean of total blue water calculated using the monthly mean. The indicator was created by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and ranges from 0-5, where 0 is lowest and 5 is highest. Values represent the "All-sector" indicator, and have been rounded to the nearest tenth by AQUASTAT. In WRI's analysis, 'water supply' refers to 'total blue water', which approximates naturalized river discharge (water that is consumed upstream is not removed). This was a one-time exercise and will be updated by WRI when new data is made available.

Unit:
-

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Metadata:
For more information, please see the original WRI analysis.

 View data for this variable [4542] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Secondary (fresh)water

Eau (douce) secondaire

Agua (dulce) secundaria

Definition:
Groundwater or surface water that was previously withdrawn and returned to rivers and aquifers. It refers to discharged wastewater (treated or not) and agricultural drainage water withdrawn for agriculture but not consumed and returned to the system. It can be reused and thus is considered to be a secondary source of water. Distinction between primary and secondary freshwater is not possible in most cases, but is theoretically important to account for the return flow.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Sediment accumulation

Accumulation de sédiments

Acumulación de sedimentos

Definition:
(Sedimentation) Deposits of minerals and fine soil particles collected by fast-flowing water (erosion and abrasion) that settle in areas of low turbulence in rivers and lakes.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population, Water use
 

Stream

Ruisseau

Corriente de agua

Definition:
1) Body of water, generally flowing in a natural surface channel; 2) Water flowing in an open or closed conduit, a jet of water issuing from an orifice, or a body of flowing groundwater. Typically smaller than a river

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
UNESCO/WMO,1992, International Glossary of Hydrology, 2d edition
 

Stream flow

Écoulement fluvial

Caudal de la corriente de agua

Definition:
The volumetric flowrate (expressed in units of volume over time) passing by a particular river cross-section at a particular instant. General term for water flowing in a stream or river channel

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Supply management of water resources

Gestion des ressources en eau

Gestión del suministro de los recursos hídricos

Definition:
The programmes adopted to achieve effective supply management of water resources. This includes adequate planning of surface water, groundwater and non-conventional water sources.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Surface water

Eau de surface

Agua superficial

Definition:
Water found on the earth’s surface, that is naturally open to the atmosphere, either in streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, wetlands or oceans.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Surface water produced internally

Eaux superficielles produites à l'intérieur du pays

Agua superficial producida al interno del país

Definition:
Long-term average annual volume of surface water generated by direct runoff from endogenous precipitation (surface runoff) and groundwater contributions.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4155] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Surface water: accounted flow of border rivers

Eaux superficielles: flux comptabilisé des cours d'eau frontaliers

Agua superficial: caudal contabilizado de ríos fronterizos

Definition:
As a general rule, 50 percent of border river flow is assigned to each of the bordering countries. Same rules apply as described under the definition of surface water inflow submitted to/secured through treaties: where a treaty exists between the adjacent countries of a river system, the rules applied are those defined in that treaty.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4168] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Surface water: accounted inflow

Eaux superficielles: flux entrant comptabilisé

Agua superficial: entradas contabilizadas

Definition:
The sum of the average quantities of surface water annually entering the country not submitted to treaties and secured through treaties. An example of the calculation rules is available in this sheet: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/wrs/readPdf.html?f=AFG-WRS_eng.pdf.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Surface water: accounted inflow] = [Surface water: inflow not submitted to treaties]+[Surface water: inflow secured through treaties]+[Surface water: accounted flow of border rivers]

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4164] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Surface water: entering the country (total)

Eaux superficielles: flux entrant dans le pays (total)

Agua superficial: que entra al país (total)

Definition:
Long-term average quantity of water annually entering the country through transboundary flow (rivers, canals, pipes). An example is available in this sheet: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/wrs/readPdf.html?f=AFG-WRS_eng.pdf.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4159] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Surface water: inflow not submitted to treaties

Eaux superficielles: flux entrant, non soumis à des traités

Agua superficial: entradas no sometidas a acuerdos

Definition:
Long-term average quantity of water annually entering the country through transboundary flow (rivers, canals, pipes). This figure concerns only the flows which are not submitted to formal agreements or treaties. An example of the calculation rules is available in this sheet: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/wrs/readPdf.html?f=AFG-WRS_eng.pdf.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4160] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Surface water: inflow secured through treaties

Eaux superficielles: flux entrant, garanti par des traités

Agua superficial: entradas aseguradas mediante tratados

Definition:
Long-term average quantity of water annually entering the country through transboundary flow (rivers, canals, pipes) which is secured through formal agreements or treaties. An example of the calculation rules is available in this sheet: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/wrs/readPdf.html?f=AFG-WRS_eng.pdf.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4162] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Surface water: inflow submitted to treaties

Eaux superficielles: flux entrant, soumis à des traités

Agua superficial: entradas sometidas a acuerdos

Definition:
Long-term average quantity of water annually entering the country through transboundary flow (rivers, canals, pipes) which is submitted to formal agreements or treaties. An example of the calculation rules is available in this sheet: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/wrs/readPdf.html?f=AFG-WRS_eng.pdf.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4161] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Surface water: total external renewable

Eaux superficielles: flux extérieur total renouvelable

Agua superficial: total externa renovable

Definition:
This is the sum of the actual inflow not submitted to treaties, actual inflow secured through treaties, the accounted flow of border rivers and the accounted part of shared lakes, minus the outflow reserved for downstream countries through treaties.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Surface water: total external renewable] = [Surface water: inflow not submitted to treaties]+[Surface water: inflow secured through treaties]+[Surface water: accounted flow of border rivers]-[Surface water: outflow to other countries secured through treaties]

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4176] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Surface water: total flow of border rivers

Eaux superficielles: flux total des cours d'eau frontaliers

Agua superficial: caudal total de ríos fronterizos

Definition:
Long-term average annual total natural flow of rivers and canals that form the border between countries.

Unit:
10^9 m3/year

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4165] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Tidal Current

Courant de marée

Corriente de las mareas

Definition:
Coastal horizontal movement of the sea caused alternatively by the rising tide and the falling tide (ebb). Rivers that are hydraulically connected to the ocean may become saline and may even reverse their flow depending on the tide.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
AQUASTAT. 2008. Adapted from FAO glossary (http://www.fao.org/glossary/)
 

Total exploitable water resources

Ressources en eau exploitables totales

Recursos hídricos aprovechables totales

Definition:
Exploitable water resources (also called manageable water resources or water development potential) are considered to be available for development, taking into consideration factors such as: the economic and environmental feasibility of storing floodwater behind dams, extracting groundwater, the physical possibility of storing water that naturally flows out to the sea, and minimum flow requirements (navigation, environmental services, aquatic life, etc). Methods to assess exploitable water resources vary from country to country.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Total exploitable water resources] = [Exploitable: total renewable surface water]+[Exploitable: regular renewable groundwater]

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4196] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Total internal renewable water resources (IRWR)

Ressources en eau renouvelables intérieures totales

Recursos hídricos internos renovables totales

Definition:
Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR): Long-term average annual flow of rivers and recharge of aquifers generated from endogenous precipitation. Double counting of surface water and groundwater resources is avoided by deducting the overlap from the sum of the surface water and groundwater resources.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Total internal renewable water resources (IRWR)] = [Groundwater produced internally]+[Surface water produced internally]-[Overlap between surface water and groundwater]

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2003. Review of World Water Resources by Country, Water Report 23 (ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/wr23e.pdf)
 
 View data for this variable [4157] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Total internal renewable water resources per capita

Ressources en eau renouvelables intérieures par habitant

Recursos hídricos internos renovables totales per cápita

Definition:
Total annual internal renewable water resources per inhabitant.

Unit:
m3/inhab/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Total internal renewable water resources per capita] = [Total internal renewable water resources (IRWR)]*1000000/[Total population]

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population
 
 View data for this variable [4158] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Total renewable groundwater

Ressources en eau souterraine renouvelables totales

Agua subterránea renovable total

Definition:
This is the sum of the internal renewable groundwater resources and the total external renewable groundwater resources. An example of the calculation rules is available in this sheet: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/wrs/readPdf.html?f=AFG-WRS_eng.pdf.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Total renewable groundwater] = [Groundwater produced internally]+[Groundwater: accounted inflow]

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4187] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Total renewable surface water

Ressources en eau superficielle renouvelables totales

Agua superficial renovable total

Definition:
This is the sum of the internal renewable surface water resources and the total external renewable surface water resources. An example of the calculation rules is available in this sheet: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/wrs/readPdf.html?f=AFG-WRS_eng.pdf.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Total renewable surface water] = [Surface water: total external renewable]+[Surface water produced internally]

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4185] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Total renewable water resources

Ressources en eau renouvelables totales

Recursos hídricos renovables totales

Definition:
Total Renewable Water Resources (TRWR): The sum of internal renewable water resources (IRWR) and external renewable water resources (ERWR). It corresponds to the maximum theoretical yearly amount of water available for a country at a given moment.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Total renewable water resources] = [Total renewable surface water]+[Total renewable groundwater]-[Overlap between surface water and groundwater]

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4188] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Total renewable water resources per capita

Ressources en eau renouvelables totales par habitant

Recursos hídricos renovables totales per cápita

Definition:
Total annual actual renewable water resources per inhabitant

Unit:
m3/inhab/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Total renewable water resources per capita] = [Total renewable water resources]*1000000/[Total population]

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population
 
 View data for this variable [4190] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Transpiration

Transpiration

Transpiración

Definition:
Transpiration consists of the vaporization of liquid water contained in plant tissues and the vapour removal to the atmosphere. Nearly all water taken up is lost by transpiration and only a tiny fraction is used within the plant.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Irrigation, agricultural water management, Water use
 
Source(s):
FAO, 2000, Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, By: R. Allen, L. Pereira, D. Raes, M. Smith, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56
 

Unaccounted for water

Eau non comptabilisée

Aguas no contabilizadas

Definition:
Discrepancy between water flows leaving the works and the total sum of all water received by the consumers; although mainly leakages, it include significant metering errors and unknown/illegal diversions. This concept is more commonly used for the drinking water sector.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 
Source(s):
Stephen Merett, 1997, Introduction into the Economics of Water Resources, an International Perspective, UCL Press
 

Water balance

Bilan hydrologique, bilan hydrique

Balance hídrico

Definition:
Balance of inflow and outflow of water per unit area or unit volume and unit time taking into account net changes of storage.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 
Source(s):
FAO/UNEP, 1999, Terminology for Integrated Resources Planning and Management, Compiled and edited by Keya Choudoury and Louisa J.M.Jansen, AGLL, FAO
 

Water balance under natural (or non-irrigated) conditions

Bilan hydrique dans des conditions naturelles (ou non irriguées)

Balance hídrico bajo condiciones normales (o sin riego)

Definition:
The maximum theoretical yearly amount of water actually available for a given area without irrigation. It can also be defined as the sum of the annual endogenous precipitation and the balance of external renewable water resources minus evapotranspiration.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Water use
 

Water resources assessment

Évaluation des ressources en eau

Evaluación de los recursos hídricos

Definition:
Assessment of, with the help of observed data or other known procedures of calculation, an overall picture of the extent (in time and space) and dependability of water supplies (surface and ground) and the character of water of a river basin, region or country on which an evaluation of the opportunities for its control and utilization is to be based.

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
Source(s):
FAO/IPTRID/ICID/ODA, 2000, Irrigation Guidelines, Land and Water Digital Media Series 12, & FAO, 2000, Handbook on Pressurized Irrigation Techniques
 

Water resources, actual

Ressources en eau réelles

Recursos hídricos reales

Definition:
Water resources observed in reality, accounting for human influence. Note: Does not necessarily include effects of climate change. This distinction was abandoned by AQUASTAT as of March 2015.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Water resources, natural

Ressources en eau naturelles

Recursos hídricos naturales

Definition:
Theoretical value that represents water resources expected under natural conditions, i.e. without human influence. Note: Does not necessarily include effects of climate change. This distinction was abandoned by AQUASTAT as of March 2015.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 

Water resources: total external renewable

Ressources en eau renouvelables extérieures totales

Recursos hídricos: totales renovables externos

Definition:
External Renewable Water Resources: That part of the country's long-term average annual renewable water resources that are not generated in the country. It includes inflows from upstream countries (groundwater and surface water), and part of the water of border lakes and/or rivers. ERWR take into account the quantity of flow reserved by upstream (incoming flow) and/or downstream (outflow) countries through formal or informal agreements or treaties. Therefore, it may vary with time. In extreme cases, it may be negative when the flow reserved to downstream countries is more than the incoming flow. The rules applied for computing ERWR are given in this template as an example: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/wrs/readPdf.html?f=SEN-WRS_eng.pdf.

Unit:
10^9 m3/yr

Calculation Criteria:
[Water resources: total external renewable] = [Surface water: total external renewable]+[Groundwater: accounted inflow]

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources
 
 View data for this variable [4182] in the AQUASTAT Main Database

 

Water scarcity

Rareté de l’eau

Escasez de agua

Definition:
An imbalance between supply and demand of freshwater in a specified domain (country, region, catchment, river basin, etc.) as a result of a high rate of demand compared with available supply, under prevailing institutional arrangements (including price) and infrastructural conditions. Its symptoms are: unsatisfied demand, tensions between users, competition for water, over-extraction of groundwater and insufficient flows to the natural environment. Artificial or constructed water scarcity refers to the situation resulting from over-development of hydraulic infrastructure relative to available supply, leading to a situation of increasing water shortage.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population, Water use
 

Water shortage

Pénurie d’eau

Desabastecimiento de agua

Definition:
A shortage of water supply of an acceptable quality; low levels of water supply, at a given place and a given time, relative to design supply levels. The shortage may arise from climatic factors, or other causes of insufficient water resources, a lack of, or poorly maintained, infrastructure; or a range of other hydrological or hydro-geological factors.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population, Water use
 

Water stress

Stress hydrique

Estrés hídrico

Definition:
The symptoms of water scarcity or shortage, e.g. widespread, frequent and serious restrictions on use, growing conflict between users and competition for water, declining standards of reliability and service, harvest failures and food insecurity.

Related Term:

Subject(s):
Climate, water resources, Geography, land, soil, population, Water use
 
91 terms found.